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  1.  42
    Reclaiming Reality and Redefining Realism: The Challenging Case of Transgenderism.David Pilgrim - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (3):308-324.
    ABSTRACTRecently an acrimonious debate has emerged about transgenderism. Trans-activists defending the full spectrum of the latter have advocated a form of identity politics based upon individual self-definition. However, gender-critical feminists have disputed the legitimacy of these bids for self-determination, especially when considering men who are claiming to be women. These contrasting positions are examined and their political implications explored. The focus of the paper is on the intransitive aspects of sex and the transitive aspects of gender. The former, with rare (...)
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  2.  27
    The Failure of Diagnostic Psychiatry and Some Prospects of Scientific Progress Offered by Critical Realism.David Pilgrim - 2013 - Journal of Critical Realism 12 (3):336-358.
    A brief overview is provided of sociological and historical critiques of Western psychiatry before focusing on pre-empirical, non-empirical and empirical aspects of psychiatric diagnosis. These are then discussed using the analytical devices of the ontic fallacy, the epistemic fallacy and generative mechanisms. It is concluded that mental disorders do not really exist but particular presenting problems of unintelligibility, interpersonal dysfunction and common human misery, in particular social contexts, recur in modern life and thus constitute real problems for those intimately implicated (...)
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  3.  14
    Psychologists and Torture: Critical Realism as a Resource for Analysis and Training.Nimisha Patel & David Pilgrim - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (2):176-191.
    ABSTRACTThis article introduces the challenges of providing psychological assessments of people seeking asylum in the wake of their reported torture. These challenges invite professionals to consider ontology and epistemology. Critical realism is well-positioned to underlabour for the process of understanding a human rights violation, in which the complainant is both the key, and often sole, witness and claimed victim. For instance, the layered reality of critical realism allows practitioners to use retroduction to describe deeper structures and mechanisms of torture. The (...)
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  4.  30
    Critical Realism, Psychology and the Legacies of Psychoanalysis.David Pilgrim - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (5):468-482.
    The discipline of psychology has been poorly represented in critical realist texts to date. This is despite Bhaskar’s use of psychoanalytical concepts to underpin his concept of the dialectic. By comparison, other aspects of social science, such as sociology and economics, have a well-established body of critical realist texts. The original approach to psychoanalysis was analogous to the critical realist ontological-axiological chain. It moved from an ontological problem to an axiological solution. Freud’s eagerness to reframe psychoanalysis within a scientistic, objective (...)
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  5.  33
    The Biopsychosocial Model in Health Research: Its Strengths and Limitations for Critical Realists.David Pilgrim - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (2):164-180.
    The biopsychosocial model has been of considerable utility to those researching health and illness. This has been particularly the case for critical realists and those with a systemic orientation to their work. Whilst the strengths of the model are conceded in this article, its limitations are also examined. These relate to its ontological sophistication being compromised by its proneness to epistemological naivety. It is a model to explain the emergence of disease and disability, not a reflexive theory applicable to the (...)
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  6.  27
    The Transgender Controversy: A Reply to Summersell.David Pilgrim - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (5):523-528.
    ABSTRACTJason Summersell responded to my article – ‘Reclaiming reality and redefining realism: the challenging case of transgenderism’ – by suggesting that I have made an inferential error about ontology. In this paper, I refute his objection and argue that his position does not take seriously the unresolved public policy threat posed by the commercially-inflected and politicized world of trans ideology. The realpolitik of trans-activism contains legal and illegal processes that now suppress a necessary debate about a number of matters: from (...)
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  7.  5
    Can We Be Happier? Evidence and Ethics: By Richard Layard, London, Pelican, 2020, 397 Pp., £22 (Hardback), ISBN 978-0-241-42999.David Pilgrim - 2020 - Journal of Critical Realism 19 (3):304-307.
    Volume 19, Issue 3, June 2020, Page 304-307.
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  8.  17
    Medical Diagnosis: An Exemplar of Diachronic Inference?David Pilgrim - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (5):449-465.
    ABSTRACTMedical diagnosis is sometimes used by critical realists and others as an exemplar of a form of inference across time in which a current empirical observation points backwards to the conditions of its emergence and forwards to a possible future outcome or progression. Accordingly, its practice warrants critical exploration to confirm its legitimacy as a philosophical reference point. The strengths and weakness of the exemplar are appraised using case brief case studies. The limitations of medical diagnosis are discussed in the (...)
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  9.  46
    The Perils of Strong Social Constructionism: The Case of Child Sexual Abuse.David Pilgrim - 2017 - Journal of Critical Realism 16 (3).
    This article tests the adequacy of social constructionism from a critical realist standpoint by examining a single social problem in some detail: child sexual abuse. A continuum of positions in the research literature is explored, ranging from strong social constructionism and its justificatory emphasis deriving from social and historical relativism to a position that, while accepting ‘weak constructionism’, prioritizes the real abiding features of sexual violence against children and the proven harm it creates in any social context. That critical examination (...)
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  10.  5
    Review of Critical Realism, Feminism and Gender: A Reader. [REVIEW]Glory Rigueros Saavedra & David Pilgrim - forthcoming - Tandf: Journal of Critical Realism:1-10.
  11.  13
    The Wisdom of Lay Knowledge: A Reply to Loughlin and Prichard.David Pilgrim & Anne Rogers - 1998 - Health Care Analysis 6 (1):65-71.
    ConclusionWe remain perplexed why Loughlin and Pritchard chose to single out our study on lay views of mental health as a basis for attacking relativism generally within social science. We consider that political, epistemological and health policy grounds for a social scientific consideration of lay knowledge are so strong that they negate naïve objectivist critiques which appearl to the reason and thus reasonableness of professional knowledge. Reason and rationality, like reality, are not singular, clear cut and self-evident. Accordingly, it is (...)
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  12.  38
    Paper One: Immunisation and its Discontents: An Examination of Dissent From the UK Mass Childhood Immunisation Programme. [REVIEW]Anne Rogers & David Pilgrim - 1995 - Health Care Analysis 3 (2):99-107.
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  13.  18
    GnRHa (‘Puberty Blockers’) and Cross Sex Hormones for Children and Adolescents: Informed Consent, Personhood and Freedom of Expression.David Pilgrim & Kirsty Entwistle - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (3):224-237.
    Ethical concerns have been raised about routine practice in paediatric gender clinics. We discuss informed consent and the risk of iatrogenesis in the prescribing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone...
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  14.  2
    Review of Critical Realism, Feminism and Gender: A Reader: By Michiel van Ingen, Steph Grohmann and Lena Gunnarsson (Eds.), Abingdon, Oxon, and New York, Routledge, 2020. [REVIEW]Glory Rigueros Saavedra & David Pilgrim - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 21 (2):247-256.
    This is a most welcome handbook arriving at a timely moment for those interested in feminism in relation to sex/gender, progressive politics and sustainability. Critical realism has been an invalua...
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  15.  13
    Articulating Intersex: A Crisis at the Intersection of Scientific Facts and Social Ideals.David Pilgrim - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (1):77-80.
    Volume 26, Issue 1, March 2020, Page 77-80.
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  16.  11
    Grand Hotel Abyss: The Lives of the Frankfurt School.David Pilgrim - 2019 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (2):216-220.
    Volume 18, Issue 2, April 2019, Page 216-220.
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  17.  5
    Heraclitan Resonances and Romanticism: ‘The River’ in Some Twentieth Century Popular Songs.David Pilgrim - 2020 - Journal of Critical Realism 19 (2):131-145.
    A foundational axiom about flux and impermanence from Heraclitus, alluding to the river, has been an important reference point for the philosophy of critical realism. This article begins with this,...
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  18.  12
    Historical Resonances of the DSM-5 Dispute: American Exceptionalism or Eurocentrism?David Pilgrim - 2014 - History of the Human Sciences 27 (2):97-117.
    This article begins with arguments evident at the time of writing about the 5th revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The historical lineages of those arguments are international and not limited to the USA. The concern with psychiatric diagnosis both internationally and in the USA came to the fore at the end of the Second World War with the construction of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the World Health Organization’s classification (...)
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  19.  37
    Mass Childhood Immunization: Some Ethical Doubts for Primary Health Care Workers.David Pilgrim & Anne Rogers - 1995 - Nursing Ethics 2 (1):63-70.
    The mass childhood immunization programme has traditionally been viewed as a safe and effective preventative measure by health promoters, primary health care professionals and governments. This consensus has meant that immunization has rarely been viewed as ethically problematic. A number of recent changes in the context of the delivery of health care, particularly the emphasis on consumerism and the effect of the marketization of services, makes timely an examination of ethical, social and political issues. This article examines four main grounds (...)
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  20.  10
    Commentary.David Pilgrim & Michael A. Olivas - 1988 - Educational Studies 19 (1):138-139.
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  21.  11
    Rationality or Intuition?Anne Rogers & David Pilgrim - 1995 - Health Care Analysis 3 (3):270-270.
  22.  7
    Riposte: The Wisdom of Lay Knowledge: A Reply to Loughlin and Prichard.David Pilgrim & Anne Rogers - 1998 - Health Care Analysis 6 (1):65-71.
    We remain perplexed why Loughlin and Pritchard chose to single out our study on lay views of mental health as a basis for attacking relativism generally within social science. We consider that political, epistemological and health policy grounds for a social scientific consideration of lay knowledge are so strong that they negate naïve objectivist critiques which appearl to the reason and thus reasonableness of professional knowledge. Reason and rationality, like reality, are not singular, clear cut and self-evident. Accordingly, it is (...)
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  23.  1
    Preventing Mental Disorder and Promoting Mental Health: Some Implications for Understanding Wellbeing.David Pilgrim - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (5):557-573.
    In this paper, I consider the debates surrounding the prevention of mental disorder and the promotion of mental health. In so doing, I offer some provisional insights into the wider notion of wellb...
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  24.  2
    Critical Realism as a Continuing Resource for Biological Research: The Illustrative Case Study of Biting Midges and Their Symbiotic Bacteria.Jack Pilgrim & David Pilgrim - 2021 - Journal of Critical Realism 20 (1):39-55.
    This paper aims to illustrate the advantages of critical realism for biological scientists and to offer an example, for others in philosophy and the social sciences, of applied natural science in p...
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