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David M. Shaw [26]David Martin Shaw [8]
  1.  36
    Artificial intelligence and the doctor–patient relationship expanding the paradigm of shared decision making.Giorgia Lorenzini, Laura Arbelaez Ossa, David Martin Shaw & Bernice Simone Elger - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (5):424-429.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) based clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are becoming ever more widespread in healthcare and could play an important role in diagnostic and treatment processes. For this reason, AI‐based CDSS has an impact on the doctor–patient relationship, shaping their decisions with its suggestions. We may be on the verge of a paradigm shift, where the doctor–patient relationship is no longer a dual relationship, but a triad. This paper analyses the role of AI‐based CDSS for shared decision‐making to better (...)
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  2. The role of the family in deceased organ procurement: A guide for Clinitians and Policymakers.Janet Delgado, Alberto Molina-Pérez, David M. Shaw & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2019 - Transplantation 103 (5):e112-e118.
    Families play an essential role in deceased organ procurement. As the person cannot directly communicate his or her wishes regarding donation, the family is often the only source of information regarding consent or refusal. We provide a systematic description and analysis of the different roles the family can play, and actions the family can take, in the organ procurement process across different jurisdictions and consent systems. First, families can inform or update healthcare professionals about a person’s donation wishes. Second, families (...)
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  3.  34
    Machine learning applications in healthcare and the role of informed consent: Ethical and practical considerations.Giorgia Lorenzini, David Martin Shaw, Laura Arbelaez Ossa & Bernice Simone Elger - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092210944.
    Informed consent is at the core of the clinical relationship. With the introduction of machine learning in healthcare, the role of informed consent is challenged. This paper addresses the issue of whether patients must be informed about medical ML applications and asked for consent. It aims to expose the discrepancy between ethical and practical considerations, while arguing that this polarization is a false dichotomy: in reality, ethics is applied to specific contexts and situations. Bridging this gap and considering the whole (...)
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  4.  22
    Risk, Responsibility, Rudeness, and Rules: The Loneliness of the Social Distance Warrior.David M. Shaw - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (4):589-594.
    We have a responsibility to obey COVID-19 rules, in order to minimize risk. Yet it is still seen as rude to challenge people who do not respect those rules, when in fact the opposite is true; it is rude to increase risk to others. In this paper I analyse the relationship between risk, responsibility, and rudeness by analysing the evolution of the main governmental slogans and rules and explore the complex relationship between simplicity, safety, and perceived fairness of these rules, (...)
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  5.  87
    CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology.Raheleh Heidari, David Martin Shaw & Bernice Simone Elger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):351-363.
    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have been the subject of in-depth debate; however, a lack of transparent regulatory guidelines, outdated governance codes, inefficient time-consuming clinical trial pathways and frequent misunderstanding of the scientific potential of cutting-edge technologies have created substantial obstacles to translational research in this area. While a precautionary principle (...)
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  6.  55
    The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.David M. Shaw - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):424-431.
    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate (...)
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  7. Justice and the Fetus: Rawls, Children, and Abortion.David M. Shaw - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):93-101.
    In a footnote to the first edition of Political Liberalism, John Rawls introduced an example of how public reason could deal with controversial issues. He intended this example to show that his system of political liberalism could deal with such problems by considering only political values, without the introduction of comprehensive moral doctrines. Unfortunately, Rawls chose “the troubled question of abortion” as the issue that would illustrate this. In the case of abortion, Rawls argued, “the equality of women as equal (...)
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  8.  48
    Protecting prisoners’ autonomy with advance directives: ethical dilemmas and policy issues.Roberto Andorno, David M. Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):33-39.
    Over the last decade, several European countries and the Council of Europe itself have strongly supported the use of advance directives as a means of protecting patients’ autonomy, and adopted specific norms to regulate this matter. However, it remains unclear under which conditions those regulations should apply to people who are placed in correctional settings. The issue is becoming more significant due to the increasing numbers of inmates of old age or at risk of suffering from mental disorders, all of (...)
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  9.  31
    A Virtuous Death: Organ Donation and Eudaimonia.David M. Shaw - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (3):319-321.
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  10.  42
    The side effects of deemed consent: changing defaults in organ donation.David M. Shaw - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):435-439.
    In this Current Controversy article, I describe and analyse the imminent move to a system of deemed consent for deceased organ donation in England and similar planned changes in Scotland, in light of evidence from Wales, where the system changed in 2015. Although the media has tended to focus on the potential benefits and ethical issues relating to the main change from an opt-in default to an opt-out one, other defaults will also change, while some will remain the same. Interaction (...)
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  11.  46
    Prioritising Healthcare Workers for Ebola Treatment: Treating Those at Greatest Risk to Confer Greatest Benefit.Priya Satalkar, Bernice E. Elger & David M. Shaw - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):59-67.
    The Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has highlighted issues related to weak health systems, the politics of drug and vaccine development and the need for transparent and ethical criteria for use of scarce local and global resources during public health emergency. In this paper we explore two key themes. First, we argue that independent of any use of experimental drugs or vaccine interventions, simultaneous implementation of proven public health principles, community engagement and culturally sensitive communication are critical as these measures (...)
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  12.  41
    Defining Nano, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine: Why Should It Matter?Priya Satalkar, Bernice Simone Elger & David M. Shaw - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1255-1276.
    Nanotechnology, which involves manipulation of matter on a ‘nano’ scale, is considered to be a key enabling technology. Medical applications of nanotechnology are expected to significantly improve disease diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and subsequently reduce health care costs. However, there is no consensus on the definition of nanotechnology or nanomedicine, and this stems from the underlying debate on defining ‘nano’. This paper aims to present the diversity in the definition of nanomedicine and its impact on the translation of basic science (...)
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  13.  73
    Neuroenhancers, addiction and research ethics.David Martin Shaw - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):605-608.
    In their recent paper in this journal, Heinz and colleagues accuse proponents of cognitive enhancement of making two unjustified assumptions. The first of these is the assumption that neuroenhancing drugs will be safe; the second is that research into cognitive enhancement does not pose particular ethical problems. Heinz and colleagues argue that both these assumptions are false. Here, I argue that these assumptions are in fact correct, and that Heinz and colleagues themselves make several assumptions that undermine their argument. Neuroenhancement (...)
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  14.  3
    The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.David M. Shaw - 2016 - Bioethics 31 (6):424-431.
    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post‐mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate (...)
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  15.  11
    Parents as secondary patients: Towards a more family-centred approach to care.Johanna Https://Orcidorg Eichinger, Bernice Elger, Tian Yi Jiao, Insa Koné & David Martin Shaw - forthcoming - .
    The definition of ‘patient’ is commonly taken for granted and considered as obvious, but the term is rather underconceptualised in the literature. In this paper, it will be argued that the criterion of suffering can be considered a sufficient criterion for a parent to be considered a secondary patient when their seriously ill child is receiving medical care (i.e. not necessarily the parents themselves) – these parents are sufferers in virtue of the suffering of others. The nature of parental and (...)
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  16.  37
    Conducting Ethics Research in Prison: Why, Who, and What?David M. Shaw, Tenzin Wangmo & Bernice S. Elger - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (3):275-278.
    Why devote an issue of an ethics journal to prison medicine? Why conduct ethics research in prisons in the first place? In this editorial, we explain why prison ethics research is vitally important and illustrate our argument by introducing and briefly discussing the fascinating papers in this special issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.Ethics is often regarded as a theoretical discipline. This is in large part due to ethics’ origin as a type of moral philosophy, which is frequently associated (...)
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  17.  11
    The Ranking Argument – Challenging Favourable Comparative Rhetoric about Animal Welfare Law.Christian Rodriguez Perez, Nico Dario Müller, Kirsten Persson & David M. Shaw - 2023 - Leoh - Journal of Animal Law, Ethics and One Health 1.
    This article captures and critiques a recurring and prominent political argument against animal welfare improvements in Switzerland which we term the “ranking argument”. This states that Swiss animal welfare law ranks among the strictest in the world, therefore no improvements are called for. This argument was advanced three times by Swiss government authorities in 2022 alone, but also in a case dating back to 1984, to advise the electorate on popular initiatives aiming at animal welfare improvements. We argue that, while (...)
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  18.  75
    Transatlantic Issues: Report from Scotland.David M. Shaw - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (3):310-320.
    Several bioethical topics received a great deal of news coverage here in Scotland in 2009. Three important issues with transatlantic connections are the swine flu outbreak, which was handled very differently in Scotland, England and America; the US debate over healthcare reform, which drew the British NHS into the controversy; and the release to Libya of the Lockerbie bomber, which at first glance might not seem particularly bioethical, but which actually hinged on the very public discussion of the prisoner’s medical (...)
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  19.  26
    Parents as secondary patients: Towards a more family-centred approach to care.Johanna Eichinger, Bernice Elger, Tian Yi Jiao, Insa Koné & David Martin Shaw - 2023 - Clinical Ethics 18 (4):368-374.
    The definition of ‘patient’ is commonly taken for granted and considered as obvious, but the term is rather underconceptualised in the literature. In this paper, it will be argued that the criterion of suffering can be considered a sufficient criterion for a parent to be considered a secondary patient when their seriously ill child is receiving medical care (i.e. not necessarily the parents themselves) – these parents are sufferers in virtue of the suffering of others. The nature of parental and (...)
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  20.  23
    Saving Lives with Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: Organ Donation After Assisted Dying.David M. Shaw - 2015 - In Michael Cholbi & Jukka Varelius (eds.), New Directions in the Ethics of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Cham: Springer Verlag. pp. 137-144.
    In this chapter I consider the narrow and wider benefits of permitting assisted dying in the specific context of organ donation and transplantation. In addition to the commonly used arguments, there are two other neglected reasons for permitting assisted suicide and/or euthanasia: assisted dying enables those who do not wish to remain alive to prolong the lives of those who do, and also allows many more people to fulfill their wish to donate organs after death. In the first part of (...)
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  21.  55
    Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research.David Martin Shaw - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (4):218–223.
    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have (...)
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  22.  16
    Ethical Aspects of the Glasgow Effect.David M. Shaw - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (1):11-14.
    IntroductionThis editorial introduces this special issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry on global health by presenting an analysis of the ethical implications of the Glasgow effect, the curious phenomenon whereby inhabitants of Scotland’s largest city have substantially higher mortality rates than their counterparts in similar British cities, despite adjustment for factors such as socioeconomic status, obesity, smoking, drinking, and drug use. The Glasgow effect represents a health inequality that cannot currently be addressed, as its causes are as yet unidentified. (...)
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  23.  28
    Intergenerational Global Heath.David M. Shaw & Leigh E. Rich - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (1):1-4.
    This special issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry focuses on global health and associated bioethical concerns. As a concept, global health broadens the focus from national public health situations to the international sphere and concerns itself with the health of all humans, but particularly those in developing countries who suffer from severe health inequalities. However, there is one sense in which global health is lacking: Its primary focus is on those currently alive and, in some cases, their offspring. But (...)
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  24.  3
    AI Through Ethical Lenses: A Discourse Analysis of Guidelines for AI in Healthcare.Laura Arbelaez Ossa, Stephen R. Milford, Michael Rost, Anja K. Leist, David M. Shaw & Bernice S. Elger - 2024 - Science and Engineering Ethics 30 (3):1-21.
    While the technologies that enable Artificial Intelligence (AI) continue to advance rapidly, there are increasing promises regarding AI’s beneficial outputs and concerns about the challenges of human–computer interaction in healthcare. To address these concerns, institutions have increasingly resorted to publishing AI guidelines for healthcare, aiming to align AI with ethical practices. However, guidelines as a form of written language can be analyzed to recognize the reciprocal links between its textual communication and underlying societal ideas. From this perspective, we conducted a (...)
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  25.  17
    It takes a pirate to know one: ethical hackers for healthcare cybersecurity.Bernice Simone Elger, David Martin Shaw & Giorgia Lorenzini - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-8.
    Healthcare cybersecurity is increasingly targeted by malicious hackers. This sector has many vulnerabilities and health data is very sensitive and valuable. Consequently, any damage caused by malicious intrusions is particularly alarming. The consequences of these attacks can be enormous and endanger patient care. Amongst the already-implemented cybersecurity measures and the ones that need to be further improved, this paper aims to demonstrate how penetration tests can greatly benefit healthcare cybersecurity. It is already proven that this approach has enforced cybersecurity in (...)
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  26.  28
    The Vulnerability of the Individual Benefit Argument.Domnita O. Badarau, Rebecca L. Nast & David M. Shaw - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (12):17-18.
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  27.  27
    Art, Visibility, and Ebola: “What Are the Consequences of a Digitally-Created Society in the Psyche of the Global Community?”.Leigh E. Rich, Michael A. Ashby & David M. Shaw - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):405-411.
    [V]isibility is central to the shaping of political, medical, and socioeconomic decisions. Who will be treated—how and where—are the central questions whose answers are often entwined with issues of visibility … [and] the effects that media visibility has on the perception of particular bodies .In a documentary entitled Paris: The Luminous Years , writer Janet Flanner describes the intense friendship of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Both were inspired by Paul Cézanne and his retrospective at the 1907 Salon d’Automne—which, according (...)
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  28.  20
    Advance Car-Crash Planning: Shared Decision Making between Humans and Autonomous Vehicles.David M. Shaw & Christophe O. Schneble - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-9.
    In this article we summarise some previously described proposals for ethical governance of autonomous vehicles, critique them, and offer an alternative solution. Rather than programming cars to react to crash situations in the same way as humans, having humans program pre-set responses for a wide range of different potential scenarios, or applying particular ethical theories, we suggest that decisions should be made jointly between humans and cars. Given that humans lack the requisite processing capacity, and computers lack the necessary ethical (...)
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  29.  94
    An Extra Reason to Roll the Dice: Balancing Harm, Benefit and Autonomy in 'Futile' Cases.David M. Shaw - 2010 - Clinical Ethics 5 (4):219.
    Oncologists frequently have to break bad news to patients. Although they are not normally the ones who tell patients that they have cancer, they are the ones who have to tell patients that treatment is not working, and they are almost always the ones who have to tell them that they are going to die and that nothing more can be done to cure them. Perhaps the most difficult cases are those where further treatment is almost certainly futile, but there (...)
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  30.  17
    Gatekeepers of Reward: a Pilot Study on the Ethics of Editing and Competing Evaluations of Value.David M. Shaw & Bart Penders - 2018 - Journal of Academic Ethics 16 (3):211-223.
    The reward infrastructure in science centres on publication, in which journal editors play a key role. Reward distribution hinges on value assessments performed by editors, who draw from plural value systems to judge manuscripts. This conceptual paper examines the numerous biases and other factors that affect editorial decisions. Hybrid and often conflicting value systems contribute to an infrastructure in which editors manage reward through editorial review, commissioned commentaries and reviews and weighing of peer review judgments. Taken together, these systems and (...)
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  31.  7
    Positive HIV Test Results from Deceased Organ Donors: Should We Disclose to Next of Kin?David M. Shaw & Anne L. Dalle Ave - 2018 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 29 (3):191-195.
    In the context of deceased organ donation, donors are routinely tested for HIV, to check for suitability for organ donation. This article examines whether a donor’s HIV status should be disclosed to the donor’s next of kin.On the one hand, confidentiality requires that sensitive information not be disclosed, and a duty to respect confidentiality may persist after death. On the other hand, breaching confidentiality may benefit third parties at risk of having been infected by the organ donor, as it may (...)
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  32. Philosophy in Defense of Common Sense.David M. Shaw - 2013 - Cohoes, NY, USA: Ford Oxaal.
    Matters of Certainty and Conviction. In the section on certainty, Shaw puts forth a proof of the external world, and considers topics such as change, difference, time, consciousness, substance and quality.
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  33.  14
    The Cost of Coronavirus Obligations: Respecting the Letter and Spirit of Lockdown Regulations.David M. Shaw - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):255-261.
    We all now know that the novel coronavirus is anything but a common cold. The pandemic has created many new obligations for all of us, several of which come with serious costs to our quality of life. But in some cases, the guidance and the law are open to a degree of interpretation, leaving us to decide what is the ethical course of action. Because of the high cost of some of the obligations, a conflict of interest can arise between (...)
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  34.  12
    Allonymous science: the politics of placing and shifting credit in public-private nutrition research.David M. R. Townend, David M. Shaw, Peter Lutz & Bart Penders - 2020 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 16 (1):1-16.
    Ideally, guidelines reflect an accepted position with respect to matters of concern, ranging from clinical practices to researcher behaviour. Upon close reading, authorship guidelines reserve authorship attribution to individuals fully or almost fully embedded in particular studies, including design or execution as well as significant involvement in the writing process. These requirements prescribe an organisation of scientific work in which this embedding is specifically enabled. Drawing from interviews with nutrition scientists at universities and in the food industry, we demonstrate that (...)
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