Results for 'David Jon Spurrett'

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  1.  55
    Lyotard and the Postmodern Misunderstanding of Physics.David Jon Spurrett - 1999 - Theoria 46 (93):29-52.
    This paper is a critical, and fairly detailed, engagement with Lyotard's account of 'postmodern' science as it is found in his _The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge_.
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  2.  12
    Lyotard and the Postmodern Misunderstanding of Physics.David Jon Spurrett - 1999 - Theoria 46:29-52.
    This paper is a critical, and fairly detailed, engagement with Lyotard's account of 'postmodern' science as it is found in his _The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge_.
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  3.  87
    Physicalism as an Empirical Hypothesis.David Spurrett - 2017 - Synthese 194 (9):3347-3360.
    Bas van Fraassen claims that materialism involves false consciousness. The thesis that matter is all that there is, he says, fails to rule out any kinds of theories. The false consciousness consists in taking materialism to be cognitive rather than an existential stance, or attitude, of deference to the current content of science in matters of ontology, and a favourable attitude to completeness claims about the content of science at a time. The main argument Van Fraassen provides for saying that (...)
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  4. Hostile Scaffolding.Ryan Timms & David Spurrett - manuscript
    Discussion of cognitive scaffolding is dominated by attention to ways that external structure can support cognitive activity or augment an agent’s cognitive capacities. We call instances where the interests of the user are served benign and argue for the possibility of hostile scaffolding. This is scaffolding which depends on the same capacities of an agent to rely on external structure, but that undermines or exploits that agent while serving the interests of another. We offer one defence of hostile scaffolding by (...)
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  5.  39
    The Descent of Preferences.David Spurrett - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (2):485-510.
    More attention has been devoted to providing evolutionary accounts of the development of beliefs, or belief-like states, than for desires or preferences. Here I articulate and defend an evolutionary rationale for the development of psychologically real preference states. Preferences token or represent the expected values available actions given discriminated states of world and agent. The argument is an application of the ‘environmental complexity thesis’ found in Godfrey-Smith and Sterelny, although my conclusions differ from Sterelny’s. I argue that tokening expected utilities (...)
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  6. In Defence of Scientism.Don Ross, James Ladyman & David Spurrett - 2007 - In James Ladyman (ed.), Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford University Press.
  7.  63
    Evolving Resolve.Walter Veit & David Spurrett - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    The broad spectrum revolution brought greater dependence on skill and knowledge, and more demanding, often social, choices. We adopt Sterelny's account of how cooperative foraging paid the costs associated with longer dependency, and transformed the problem of skill learning. Scaffolded learning can facilitate cognitive control including suppression, whereas scaffolded exchange and trade, including inter-temporal exchange, can help develop resolve.
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  8. Philosophers Should Be Interested in ‘Common Currency’ Claims in the Cognitive and Behavioural Sciences.David Spurrett - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):211-221.
    A recurring claim in a number of behavioural, cognitive and neuro-scientific literatures is that there is, or must be, a unidimensional ‘common currency’ in which the values of different available options are represented. There is striking variety in the quantities or properties that have been proposed as determinants of the ordering in motivational strength. Among those seriously suggested are pain and pleasure, biological fitness, reward and reinforcement, and utility among economists, who have regimented the notion of utility in a variety (...)
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  9. Cartwright on Laws and Composition.David Spurrett - 2000 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (3):253 – 268.
    Cartwright attempts to argue from an analysis of the composition of forces, and more generally the composition of laws, to the conclusion that laws must be regarded as false. A response to Cartwright is developed which contends that properly understood composition poses no threat to the truth of laws, even though agreeing with Cartwright that laws do not satisfy the "facticity" requirement. My analysis draws especially on the work of Creary, Bhaskar, Mill, and points towards a general rejection of Cartwright's (...)
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  10.  34
    Complexity and Post-Modernism: Understanding Complex Systems.P. Cilliers & David Spurrett - 1999 - South African Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):258-274.
    This is a review article of Paul Cillier's 1999 book _Complexity and Postmodernism_. The review article is generally encouraging and constructive, although isolates a number of areas in need of clarification or development in Cillier's work. The volume of the _South African Journal of Philosophy_ in which the review article appeared also printed a response by Cilliers.
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  11. Does Intragenomic Conflict Predict Intrapersonal Conflict?David Spurrett - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (3):313-333.
    Parts of the genome of a single individual can have conflicting interests, depending on which parent they were inherited from. One mechanism by which these conflicts are expressed in some taxa, including mammals, is genomic imprinting, which modulates the level of expression of some genes depending on their parent of origin. Imprinted gene expression is known to affect body size, brain size, and the relative development of various tissues in mammals. A high fraction of imprinted gene expression occurs in the (...)
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  12.  24
    A Companion to Rawls.Jon Mandle & David A. Reidy (eds.) - 2013 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Wide ranging and up to date, this is the single most comprehensive treatment of the most influential political philosopher of the 20th century, John Rawls. An unprecedented survey that reflects the surge of Rawls scholarship since his death, and the lively debates that have emerged from his work Features an outstanding list of contributors, including senior as well as “next generation” Rawls scholars Provides careful, textually informed exegesis and well-developed critical commentary across all areas of his work, including non-Rawlsian perspectives (...)
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  13.  25
    The Extended Infant: Utterance Activity and Distributed Cognition.David Spurrett & Stephen Cowley - 2010 - In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press.
    This chapter applies the parity principle in discussing “active externalism,” which claims that the mind need not be confined within either the brain or body. Consequently, how one brain or body interacts with other brains and bodies must be explored, together with the problems that may arise out of this interaction. This chapter is not concerned with beliefs and desires as mental states but whether they play a role in controlling behavior. It argues the notion that any course of action (...)
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  14.  20
    The Effects of Person–Organization Ethical Fit on Employee Attraction and Retention: Towards a Testable Explanatory Model.David A. Coldwell, Jon Billsberry, Nathalie van Meurs & Philip J. G. Marsh - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):611-622.
    An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to indicate how individual perceptions of corporate reputation and corporate ethical values generate specific individual organizational senses of fit. The paper suggests that an ethical dimension of person-organization fit may go some way in explaining superior acquisition and retention of staff by those who are attracted to specific organizations by levels of corporate social performance consonant with their ethical expectations, or who remain with them by virtue of better personal ethical fits with (...)
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  15. The Descent of Preferences.David Spurrett - manuscript
    [A slightly revised version of this paper has been accepted by the BJPS] More attention has been devoted to providing evolutionary scenarios accounting for the development of beliefs, or belief-like states, than for desires or preferences. Here I articulate and defend an evolutionary rationale for the development of psychologically real preference states. Preferences token or represent the expected values of discriminated states, available actions, or action-state pairings. The argument is an application the ‘environmental complexity thesis’ found in Godfrey-Smith and Sterelny, (...)
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  16.  4
    The Cambridge Rawls Lexicon.Jon Mandle & David A. Reidy (eds.) - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    John Rawls is widely regarded as one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century, and his work has permanently shaped the nature and terms of moral and political philosophy, deploying a robust and specialized vocabulary that reaches beyond philosophy to political science, economics, sociology, and law. This volume is a complete and accessible guide to Rawls' vocabulary, with over 200 alphabetical encyclopaedic entries written by the world's leading Rawls scholars. From 'basic structure' to 'burdened society', from 'Sidgwick' to (...)
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  17.  69
    The Natural History of Desire.David Spurrett - 2015 - South African Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):304-313.
    Sterelny (2003) develops an idealised natural history of folk-psychological kinds. He argues that belief-like states are natural elaborations of simpler control systems, called detection systems, which map directly from environmental cue to response. Belief-like states exhibit robust tracking (sensitivity to multiple environmental states), and response breadth (occasioning a wider range of behaviours). The development of robust tracking and response-breadth depend partly on properties of the informational environment. In a transparent environment the functional relevance of states of the world is directly (...)
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  18.  33
    Hooray for Babies.David Spurrett - 2011 - South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):197-206.
    David Benatar has argued that the coming into existence of a sentient being is always a harm, and consequently that people who have children always do wrong. The most natural objection maintains that in many lives (at least) while there is some pain, there are also goods (including pleasures) that can outweigh the suffering. From Benatar’s perspective this move, while possibly useful in assessing the lives of those who actually exist, is not an effective defence of procreation. In the (...)
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  19.  5
    Examining Public Trust in Categorical Versus Comprehensive Triage Criteria.Jon Rueda, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona & David Rodriguez-Arias - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):106-109.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 106-109.
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  20.  75
    Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context.Don Ross, David Spurrett, Harold Kincaid & G. Lynn Stephens (eds.) - 2007 - Bradford.
    Recent scientific findings about human decision making would seem to threaten the traditional concept of the individual conscious will. The will is threatened from "below" by the discovery that our apparently spontaneous actions are actually controlled and initiated from below the level of our conscious awareness, and from "above" by the recognition that we adapt our actions according to social dynamics of which we are seldom aware. In Distributed Cognition and the Will, leading philosophers and behavioral scientists consider how much, (...)
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  21. Affording Affordances.David Spurrett - forthcoming - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy.
    A striking feature of the latest version of Dennett’s ‘big picture’ of the evolution of life and mind is frequent reference to ‘affordances’. An affordance is, roughly, a possibility for action for a creature in an environment. Given more than one possibility for action, a good question is: what will the creature actually do? I argue that affordances pose a problem of selection, and that a good general solution to this problem of mind-design is to implement a system of preferences.
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  22.  5
    One Social Media Company to Rule Them All: Associations Between Use of Facebook-Owned Social Media Platforms, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and the Big Five Personality Traits.Davide Marengo, Cornelia Sindermann, Jon D. Elhai & Christian Montag - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  23.  88
    What Is Addiction?Don Ross, Harold Kincaid & David Spurrett (eds.) - 2010 - The MIT Press.
    Leading addiction researchers survey the latest findings in addiction science, countering the simplistic cultural stereotypes of the addict.
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  24.  12
    Imaginary Relish and Exquisite Torture: The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire.David J. Kavanagh, Jackie Andrade & Jon May - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):446-467.
  25.  24
    Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context.David Spurrett, Don Ross, Harold Kincaid & Lynn Stephens (eds.) - 2007 - MIT Press.
    Philosophers and behavioral scientists discuss what, if anything, of the traditionalconcept of individual conscious will can survive recent scientific discoveries that humandecision-making is distributed across different brain processes and ...
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  26. What Physical Properties Are.David Spurrett - 2001 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 82 (2):201-225.
    This paper concerns the question of how to specify what is to count as physical for the purposes of debates concerning either physicalism or the completeness of physics. I argue that what is needed from an account of the physical depends primarily on the particular issue at stake, and that the demand for a general a priori specification of the physical is misplaced. A number of attempts to say what should be counted as physical are defended from recent attacks by (...)
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  27.  16
    Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources.Jon McGinnis & David C. Reisman (eds.) - 2007 - Hackett.
    This volume introduces the major classical Arabic philosophers through substantial selections from the key works (many of which appear in translation for the first time here) in each of the fields—including logic, philosophy of science, natural philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, and politics—to which they made significant contributions. -/- An extensive Introduction situating the works within their historical, cultural, and philosophical contexts offers support to students approaching the subject for the first time, as well as to instructors with little or no formal (...)
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  28.  48
    Bhaskar on Open and Closed Systems.David Spurrett - 2000 - South African Journal of Philosophy 19 (3):188-209.
    Bhaskar's articulation of his ‘transcendental realism' includes an argument for a form of causal emergence which would mean the rejection of physicalism, by means of rejecting the causal closure of the physical. His argument is based on an analysis of the conditions for closure, where closed systems manifest regular or Humean relations between events. Bhaskar argues that the project of seeking closure entails commitment to a strong reductionism, which in turn entails the impossibility of science itself, and concludes that we (...)
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  29. What to Say to a Skeptical Metaphysician: A Defense Manual for Cognitive and Behavioral Scientists.Don Ross & David Spurrett - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):603-627.
    A wave of recent work in metaphysics seeks to undermine the anti-reductionist, functionalist consensus of the past few decades in cognitive science and philosophy of mind. That consensus apparently legitimated a focus on what systems do, without necessarily and always requiring attention to the details of how systems are constituted. The new metaphysical challenge contends that many states and processes referred to by functionalist cognitive scientists are epiphenomenal. It further contends that the problem lies in functionalism itself, and that, to (...)
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  30. Notions of Cause: Russell’s Thesis Revisited.Don Ross & David Spurrett - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):45-76.
    We discuss Russell's 1913 essay arguing for the irrelevance of the idea of causation to science and its elimination from metaphysics as a precursor to contemporary philosophical naturalism. We show how Russell's application raises issues now receiving much attention in debates about the adequacy of such naturalism, in particular, problems related to the relationship between folk and scientific conceptual influences on metaphysics, and to the unification of a scientifically inspired worldview. In showing how to recover an approximation to Russell's conclusion (...)
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  31. The Completeness of Physics.David Spurrett - 1999 - Dissertation, University of Natal, Durban
    The present work is focussed on the completeness of physics, or what is here called the Completeness Thesis: the claim that the domain of the physical is causally closed. Two major questions are tackled: How best is the Completeness Thesis to be formulated? What can be said in defence of the Completeness Thesis? My principal conclusions are that the Completeness Thesis can be coherently formulated, and that the evidence in favour if it significantly outweighs that against it. In opposition to (...)
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  32. What Physical Properties Are.David Spurrett - 2001 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 82 (2):201-225.
    This paper concerns the question of how to specify what is to count as physical for the purposes of debates concerning either physicalism or the completeness of physics. I argue that what is needed from an account of the physical depends primarily on the particular issue at stake, and that the demand for a general a priori specification of the physical is misplaced. A number of attempts to say what should be counted as physical are defended from recent attacks by (...)
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  33.  42
    Foundations of Bayesianism.David Corfield & Jon Williamson (eds.) - 2001 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    The volume includes important criticisms of Bayesian reasoning and also gives an insight into some of the points of disagreement amongst advocates of the ...
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  34. The Routledge Handbook of International Resilience.David Chandler & Jon Coaffee (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    Resilience is increasingly discussed as a key concept across many fields of international policymaking from sustainable development and climate change, insecurity, conflict and terrorism to urban and rural planning, international aid provision and the prevention of and responses to natural and man-made disasters. Edited by leading academic authorities from a number of disciplines, this is the first handbook to deal with resilience as a new conceptual approach to understanding and addressing a range of interdependent global challenges. The Handbook is divided (...)
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  35.  65
    Why I Am Not an Analytic Philosopher.David Spurrett - 2008 - South African Journal of Philosophy 27 (2):153-163.
    From a certain simplistic and inaccurate, although regrettably popular, perspective philosophy, at least for the past few decades, is available only in two main flavours – analytic and continental. Some self-identified members of both camps are apt to endorse uncharitable caricatures of what the others are up to. Among the many lines of criticism that can be directed against this false dichotomy, I wish to focus on discussion of a broadly naturalistic orientation that rejects many of the commitments both of (...)
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  36.  52
    Empiricism: Reloaded: Paul Studtmann: Empiricism and the Problem of Metaphysics. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 180pp, $59.99 HB. [REVIEW]David Spurrett - 2012 - Metascience 21 (2):351-354.
    Empiricism: reloaded Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9652-7 Authors David Spurrett, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041 South Africa Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  37.  47
    Time and the Decider.David Spurrett - forthcoming - Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
    Shadmehr and Ahmed’s book is a welcome extension of optimal foraging theory and neuroeconomics, achieved by integrating both with parameters relating to effort and rate of movement. Their most persuasive and prolific data comes from saccades, where times before and after decision are reasonably determinate. Skeletal movements are less likely to exhibit such tidy temporal organisation.
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  38.  20
    DAVID H. DEVORKIN, Henry Norris Russell: Dean of American Astronomers. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2000. Pp. Xix+499. ISBN 0-691-04918-1. £30.00, $49.50. [REVIEW]Jon Agar - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (4):475-485.
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  39. Fundamental Laws and the Completeness of Physics.David Spurrett - 1999 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (3):261 – 274.
    The status of fundamental laws is an important issue when deciding between the three broad ontological options of fundamentalism (of which the thesis that physics is complete is typically a sub-type), emergentism, and disorder or promiscuous realism. Cartwright’s assault on fundamental laws which argues that such laws do not, and cannot, typically state the facts, and hence cannot be used to support belief in a fundamental ontological order, is discussed in this context. A case is made in defence of a (...)
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  40.  40
    It's Not Just the Subjects–There Are Too Many WEIRD Researchers.Michael Meadon & David Spurrett - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):104-105.
    A literature in which most data are outliers is flawed, and the target article sounds a timely alarm call for the behavioural sciences. It also suggests remedies. We mostly concur, except for arguing that the importance of the fact that the researchers themselves are mostly outliers has been underplayed. Improving matters requires non-Western researchers, as well as research subjects.
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  41.  4
    David Kaiser and W. Patrick McCray , Groovy Science: Knowledge, Innovation and American Counterculture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016. Pp. 426. ISBN 978-0-226-37291-4. £17.50/$25.00. [REVIEW]Jon Agar - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Science 50 (4):743-744.
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  42.  43
    Propaganda Architecture: Interview with Rem Koolhaas and Reinier de Graaf.David I. Cunningham & Jon Goodbun - 2009 - Radical Philosophy 154:35-47.
  43.  20
    Imagery and Strength of Craving for Eating, Drinking, and Playing Sport.Jon May, Jackie Andrade, David Kavanagh & Lucy Penfound - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (4):633-650.
    The elaborated intrusion (EI) theory of desire (Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005) attributes the motivational force of cravings to cognitive elaboration, including imagery, of apparently spontaneous thoughts that intrude into awareness. We report a questionnaire study in which respondents rated a craving for food or drink. Questionnaire items derived from EI theory formed a single factor alongside factors for anticipated reward/relief, resistance, and opportunity. In a multiple regression predicting strength of craving, the first three factors accounted for 36% of the (...)
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  44.  48
    Jack Ritchie,Understanding Naturalism(Acumen, 2008).David Spurrett - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (3):439-445.
    Philosophical Papers, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 439-445, November 2011.
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  45.  59
    Three Ways of Worrying About 'Causation'.David Spurrett & Don Ross - unknown
    Our point of departure is Russell’s (1913) argument for the ‘complete extrusion’ of the word ‘cause’ from the philosophical vocabulary. We argue that at least three different types of philosophical project concerning ‘cause’ should be carefully distinguished, and that failures to distinguish them lie at the root of some apparently recalcitrant problems. We call them the ‘cognitive’, the ‘scientific’ and the ‘metaphysical’.
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  46.  34
    Why 'Appeals to Intuitions' Might Not Be so Bad.David Spurrett - 2010 - South African Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):156-166.
    There has been lively recent debate over the value of appeals to intuitions in philosophy. Some, especially ‘experimental philosophers’, have argued that such appeals can carry little or no evidential weight, and that standard analytic philosophy is consequently methodologically bankrupt. Various defences of intuitions, and analytic philosophy, have also been offered. In this paper I review the case against intuitions, in particular the claims that intuitions vary with culture, and are built by natural selection, and argue that much of their (...)
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  47.  32
    Reductionisms and Physicalisms.David Spurrett - 2006 - South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):159-170.
    Causal exclusion arguments, especially as championed by Kim, have recently made life uncomfortable for would-be non-reductive physicalists. Non-reductive physicalism was itself, in turn, partly a response to earlier arguments against reductionism. The philosophy of science, though, distinguishes more forms of reduction than philosophy of mind generally cares to. In this paper I review four major families of reductionist thesis, and give reasons for keeping them more carefully separate than usual. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 25(2) 2006: 159-171.
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  48.  30
    Review of Burns, J. The Descent of Madness: Evolutionary Origins of Psychosis and the Social Brain. [REVIEW]David Spurrett - 2009 - South African Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):257-258.
    Review of Burns, J. The Descent of Madness: Evolutionary Origins of Psychosis and the Social Brain (London: Routledge, 2007).
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  49.  8
    Abstracting Reward.David Spurrett - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    The costs of and returns from actions are varied and individually concrete dimensions, combined in heterogeneous ways. The many needs of the body also fluctuate. Making action selection efficiently track some ultimate goal, whether fitness or another utility function, itself requires representational abstraction. Therefore, predictive brains need abstract value representations.
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  50.  49
    Information Processing and Dynamical Systems Approaches Are Complementary.David Spurrett - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):639-640.
    Shanker & King (S&K) trumpet the adoption of a “new paradigm” in communication studies, exemplified by ape language research. Though cautiously sympathetic, I maintain that their argument relies on a false dichotomy between “information” and “dynamical systems” theory, and that the resulting confusion prevents them from recognizing the main chance their line of thinking suggests.
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