Results for 'David E. Over'

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  1.  29
    The Probability of Conditionals: The Psychological Evidence.Jonathan St B. Evans David E. Over - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):340-358.
    : The two main psychological theories of the ordinary conditional were designed to account for inferences made from assumptions, but few premises in everyday life can be simply assumed true. Useful premises usually have a probability that is less than certainty. But what is the probability of the ordinary conditional and how is it determined? We argue that people use a two stage Ramsey test that we specify to make probability judgements about indicative conditionals in natural language, and we describe (...)
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  2.  21
    The rationality of evolutionary psychology.David E. Over - 2002 - In José Luis Bermúdez & Alan Millar (eds.), Reason and Nature: Essays in the Theory of Rationality. New York: Clarendon Press. pp. 187--207.
  3. Human Reasoning.David E. Over & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2024 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element is on new developments in the psychology of reasoning that raise or address philosophical questions. In traditional studies in the psychology of reasoning, the focus was on inference from arbitrary assumptions and not at all from beliefs, and classical binary logic was presupposed as the only standard for human reasoning. But recently a new Bayesian paradigm has emerged in the discipline. This views ordinary human reasoning as mostly inferring probabilistic conclusions from degrees of beliefs, or from hypothetical premises (...)
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  4. Betting on conditionals.Jean Baratgin, David E. Over & Guy Politzer - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (3):172-197.
    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B , and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B . The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional— true , false , or void for indicative conditionals and win , lose (...)
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  5.  81
    New paradigm psychology of reasoning.David E. Over - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):431-438.
  6. Uncertainty and the de Finetti tables.Jean Baratgin, David E. Over & Guy Politzer - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):308-328.
    The new paradigm in the psychology of reasoning adopts a Bayesian, or prob- abilistic, model for studying human reasoning. Contrary to the traditional binary approach based on truth functional logic, with its binary values of truth and falsity, a third value that represents uncertainty can be introduced in the new paradigm. A variety of three-valued truth table systems are available in the formal literature, including one proposed by de Finetti. We examine the descriptive adequacy of these systems for natural language (...)
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  7. The probability of conditionals: The psychological evidence.David E. Over & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):340–358.
    The two main psychological theories of the ordinary conditional were designed to account for inferences made from assumptions, but few premises in everyday life can be simply assumed true. Useful premises usually have a probability that is less than certainty. But what is the probability of the ordinary conditional and how is it determined? We argue that people use a two stage Ramsey test that we specify to make probability judgements about indicative conditionals in natural language, and we describe experiments (...)
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  8. From massive modularity to metarepresentation: The evolution of higher cognition.David E. Over - 2003 - In Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press. pp. 121--144.
  9.  48
    Uncertain premises and Jeffrey's rule.David E. Over & Constantinos Hadjichristidis - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):97-98.
    Oaksford & Chater (O&C) begin in the halfway Bayesian house of assuming that minor premises in conditional inferences are certain. We demonstrate that this assumption is a serious limitation. They additionally suggest that appealing to Jeffrey's rule could make their approach more general. We present evidence that this rule is not limited enough to account for actual probability judgements.
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  10.  34
    Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate.David E. Over (ed.) - 2003 - Psychology Press.
    In this collection, leading experts evaluate the status of this controversial field, providing a critical analysis of its main hypotheses These hypotheses have ...
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  11.  20
    Contingency, causation, and adaptive inference.David E. Over & David W. Green - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (3):682-684.
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  12.  8
    The new paradigm and massive modalization: Commentary on Knauff and Gazzo Castañeda (2023).David E. Over - 2023 - Thinking and Reasoning 29 (3):389-395.
    Knauff and Gazzo Castañeda argue as much in support of revised mental model theory (RMMT) as they argue against talk of a new paradigm caused by the probabilistic approach in the psychology of reasoning. They claim that RMMT is not essentially different from classical mental model theory (CMMT) and not essentially different from the probabilistic approach. There are many serious questions to ask about RMMT. But RMMT is a massive modalization of aspects of the extensional CMMT, and it follows the (...)
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  13.  41
    Ecological issues: A reply to Todd, Fiddick, & Krauss.David E. Over - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):385 – 388.
  14.  28
    The logic of natural sampling.David E. Over - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):277-277.
    Barbey & Sloman (B&S) relegate the logical rule of the excluded middle to a footnote. But this logical rule is necessary for natural sampling. Making the rule explicit in a logical tree can make a problem easier to solve. Examples are given of uses of the rule that are non-constructive and not reducible to a domain-specific module.
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  15.  11
    A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals.David E. Over - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):357-363.
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  16. Rationality in reasoning: The problem of deductive competence.Jonathan Evans & David E. Over - unknown - Current Psychology of Cognition 16 (1-2):3-38.
     
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  17.  26
    A philosophical guide to conditionals. By Jonathan Bennett. Clarendon press: Oxford, 2003. Pp. XII + 387.David E. Over - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):357–363.
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  18.  27
    Deduction from Uncertain Premises.Rosemary J. Stevenson & David E. Over - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (3):613-643.
    We investigate how the perceived uncertainty of a conditional affects a person's choice of conclusion. We use a novel procedure to introduce uncertainty by manipulating the conditional probability of the consequent given the antecedent. In Experiment 1, we show first that subjects reduce their choice of valid conclusions when a conditional is followed by an additional premise that makes the major premise uncertain. In this we replicate Byrne. These subjects choose, instead, a qualified conclusion expressing uncertainty. If subjects are given (...)
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  19.  59
    Reasoning and rationality.K. Manktelow & David E. Over - 1987 - Mind and Language 2 (3):199-219.
  20.  64
    New paradigm psychology of reasoning: An introduction to the special issue edited by Elqayam, Bonnefon, and Over.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):249-265.
  21.  54
    Reasoning from uncertain premises: Effects of expertise and conversational context.Rosemary J. Stevenson & David E. Over - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (4):367 – 390.
    Four experiments investigated uncertainty about a premise in a deductive argument as a function of the expertise of the speaker and of the conversational context. The procedure mimicked everyday reasoning in that participants were not told that the premises were to be treated as certain. The results showed that the perceived likelihood of a conclusion was greater when the major or the minor premise was uttered by an expert rather than a novice (Experiment 1). The results also showed that uncertainty (...)
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  22. Deontic reasoning.Ken I. Manktelow & David E. Over - 1995 - Perspectives on Thinking and Reasoning: Essays in Honour of Peter Wason.
    The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: PB - Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd Hove,, UK.
     
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  23.  61
    Probability and choice in the selection task.David W. Green, David E. Over & Robin A. Pyne - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (3):209-235.
    Two experiments using a realistic version of the selection task examined the relationship between participants' probability estimates of finding a counter example and their selections. Experiment 1 used everyday categories in the context of a scenario to determine whether or not the number of instances in a category affected the estimated probability of a counter-example. Experiment 2 modified the scenario in order to alter participants' estimates of finding a specific counter-example. Unlike Kirby 1994a, but consistent with his proposals, both studies (...)
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  24.  35
    Editorial: From Is to Ought: The Place of Normative Models in the Study of Human Thought.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  25.  32
    Reaching a decision: A reply to Oaksford.David W. Green & David E. Over - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (2):187-192.
    In his commentary, Oaksford makes two main claims: (1) that the externalisation method used by Green, Over, and Pyne (1997) enforces the correlation observed between probability estimates and selection, and (2) that these estimates support the prediction of a downward revision of P(p) when P(p) > P(q). In this reply, we rebut claim 1 by describing the instructions more comprehensively, and claim 2 by reiterating the importance of making certain theoretical distinctions which Oaksford does not make. Our interest is (...)
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  26.  63
    The Psychology of Uncertainty and Three-Valued Truth Tables.Jean Baratgin, Guy Politzer, David E. Over & Tatsuji Takahashi - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:394374.
    Psychological research on people’s understanding of natural language connectives has traditionally used truth table tasks, in which participants evaluate the truth or falsity of a compound sentence given the truth or falsity of its components in the framework of propositional logic. One perplexing result concerned the indicative conditional if A then C which was often evaluated as true when A and C are true, false when A is true and C is false but irrelevant“ (devoid of value) when A is (...)
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  27.  34
    Bayesian reasoning with ifs and ands and ors.Nicole Cruz, Jean Baratgin, Mike Oaksford & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  28.  40
    Corrigendum: Bayesian reasoning with ifs and ands and ors.Nicole Cruz, Jean Baratgin, Mike Oaksford & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  29.  41
    Review of Edward Stein: Without Good Reason: The Rationality Debate in Philosophy and Cognitive Science_; Jonathan St. B. T. Evans and David E. Over: _Rationality and Reasoning[REVIEW]Jonathan St B. T. Evans, David E. Over & Peter Carruthers - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):189-193.
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  30.  38
    Codes and culture at the courier-journal: Complexity in ethical decision making.David E. Boeyink - 1998 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):165 – 182.
    This study examines the way ethical decisions are made in controversial cases at The Courier-Journal in Louisville, Kentucky, to see if codes of ethics can be efective at a newspaper known for its commitment to ethics. The study concludes that a code is efective in that environment especially on conflict-of-interest questions. A critical factor in the code's efectiveness is an ethical culture in which editors support ethical standards vigorously and foster a process that encourages newsroom debate over controversial cases.
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  31.  64
    Technology: Liberation or Enslavement?David E. Cooper - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 38:7-18.
    The week, twenty-five years ago, of the Apollo spacecraft's return visit to the moon was described by Richard Nixon as the greatest since the Creation. Across the Atlantic, a French Academician judged the same event to matter less than the discovery of a lost etching by Daumier. Attitudes to technological achievement, then, differ. And they always have. Chuang-Tzu, over 2,000 years ago, relates an exchange between a Confucian passer-by and a Taoist gardener watering vegetables with a bucket drawn from (...)
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  32.  39
    Technology: Liberation or Enslavement?David E. Cooper - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 38:7-18.
    The week, twenty-five years ago, of the Apollo spacecraft's return visit to the moon was described by Richard Nixon as the greatest since the Creation. Across the Atlantic, a French Academician judged the same event to matter less than the discovery of a lost etching by Daumier. Attitudes to technological achievement, then, differ. And they always have. Chuang-Tzu, over 2,000 years ago, relates an exchange between a Confucian passer-by and a Taoist gardener watering vegetables with a bucket drawn from (...)
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  33.  47
    Simulating a Skilled Typist: A Study of Skilled Cognitive‐Motor Performance.David E. Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman - 1982 - Cognitive Science 6 (1):1-36.
    We review the major phenomena of skilled typing and propose a model for the control of the hands and fingers during typing. The model is based upon an Activation‐Trigger‐Schema system in which a hierarchical structure of schemata directs the selection of the letters to be typed and, then, controls the hand and finger movements by a cooperative, relaxation algorithm. The interactions of the patterns of activation and inhibition among the schemata determine the temporal ordering for launching the keystrokes. To account (...)
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  34.  29
    Probabilities of conditionals and previsions of iterated conditionals.Giuseppe Sanfilippo, Angelo Gilio, David E. Over & Niki Pfeifer - 2020 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 121.
    We analyze selected iterated conditionals in the framework of conditional random quantities. We point out that it is instructive to examine Lewis's triviality result, which shows the conditions a conditional must satisfy for its probability to be the conditional probability. In our approach, however, we avoid triviality because the import-export principle is invalid. We then analyze an example of reasoning under partial knowledge where, given a conditional if A then Cas information, the probability of A should intuitively increase. We explain (...)
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  35.  55
    Uncertain deduction and conditional reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Valerie A. Thompson & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  36.  15
    The Probability of Iterated Conditionals.Janneke van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):788-803.
    Iterated conditionals of the form If p, then if q, r are an important topic in philosophical logic. In recent years, psychologists have gained much knowledge about how people understand simple conditionals, but there are virtually no published psychological studies of iterated conditionals. This paper presents experimental evidence from a study comparing the iterated form, If p, then if q, r with the “imported,” noniterated form, If p and q, then r, using a probability evaluation task and a truth‐table task, (...)
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  37.  49
    Historical Dictionary of Schopenhauer's Philosophy.David E. Cartwright - 2004 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Schopenhauer's Philosophy contains a chronology, an introduction, an appendix, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on all of Schopenhauer’s books, significant philosophical ideas and concepts.
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  38.  39
    Why philosophy? Why now? Engineering responds to the crisis of a creative era.David E. Goldberg - unknown
    For the inaugural Workshop on Philosophy & Engineering (WPE-2007), this abstract asks why engineers are turning now to philosophy. Upon reflection, philosophy and engineering are very different occupations, and engineering has rarely turned to philosophy in the long history of the systematic design and production of complex artifacts. After briefly examining events since World War 2, the extended abstract carries over Kuhn's explanation of the rise of philosophy of science during the intellectual tumult of relativity and quantum physics in (...)
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  39.  89
    The Probability of Iterated Conditionals.Janneke Wijnbergen‐Huitink, Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):788-803.
    Iterated conditionals of the form If p, then if q, r are an important topic in philosophical logic. In recent years, psychologists have gained much knowledge about how people understand simple conditionals, but there are virtually no published psychological studies of iterated conditionals. This paper presents experimental evidence from a study comparing the iterated form, If p, then if q, r with the “imported,” noniterated form, If p and q, then r, using a probability evaluation task and a truth-table task, (...)
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  40.  49
    Understanding Conditionals in the East: A Replication Study of Politzer et al. With Easterners.Hiroko Nakamura, Jing Shao, Jean Baratgin, David E. Over, Tatsuji Takahashi & Hiroshi Yama - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  41.  60
    Categorical induction from uncertain premises: Jeffrey's doesn't completely rule.Constantinos Hadjichristidis, Steven A. Sloman & David E. Over - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (4):405-431.
    Studies of categorical induction typically examine how belief in a premise (e.g., Falcons have an ulnar artery) projects on to a conclusion (e.g., Robins have an ulnar artery). We study induction in cases in which the premise is uncertain (e.g., There is an 80% chance that falcons have an ulnar artery). Jeffrey's rule is a normative model for updating beliefs in the face of uncertain evidence. In three studies we tested the descriptive validity of Jeffrey's rule and a related probability (...)
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  42.  69
    Reasoning to and from belief: Deduction and induction are still distinct.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):267-283.
  43.  22
    Rationality in the selection task: Epistemic utility versus uncertainty reduction.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (2):356-363.
    M. Oaksford and N. Chater presented a Bayesian analysis of the Wason selection task in which they proposed that people choose cards in order to maximize expected information gain as measured by reduction in uncertainty in the Shannon-Weaver information theory sense. It is argued that the EIG measure is both psychologically implausible and normatively inadequate as a measure of epistemic utility. The article is also concerned with the descriptive account of findings in the selection task literature offered by Oaksford and (...)
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  44.  92
    A Minimal Characterization of Indeterminacy.David E. Taylor - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    The current literature on indeterminacy centers around two projects. One concerns the logic of indeterminacy; the other concerns its nature or source. The aim of this paper is to introduce, motivate and go some way toward addressing a new, third project: that of providing what I call a minimal characterization of indeterminacy. An MC, to a first approximation, is a relatively pre-theoretical characterization of indeterminacy that is neutral between the various substantive theories of the nature and logic of indeterminacy. An (...)
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  45.  23
    Suppositions, extensionality, and conditionals: A critique of the mental model theory of Johnson-Laird and Byrne (2002).Jonathan St B. T. Evans, David E. Over & Simon J. Handley - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):1040-1052.
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  46.  83
    Mentoring and Research Misconduct: An Analysis of Research Mentoring in Closed ORI Cases.David E. Wright, Sandra L. Titus & Jered B. Cornelison - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):323-336.
    We are reporting on how involved the mentor was in promoting responsible research in cases of research misconduct. We reviewed the USPHS misconduct files of the Office of Research Integrity. These files are created by Institutions who prosecute a case of possible research misconduct; ORI has oversight review of these investigations. We explored the role of the mentor in the cases of trainee research misconduct on three specific behaviors that we believe mentors should perform with their trainee: (1) review source (...)
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  47.  27
    Frequency versus probability formats in statistical word problems.Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Simon J. Handley, Nick Perham, David E. Over & Valerie A. Thompson - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):197-213.
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  48.  12
    ‘Removing the Barriers’: Mary Midgley on Concern for Animals.David E. Cooper - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 87:249-262.
    This paper focuses on Mary Midgley's influential discussions, over more than thirty years, of the relationship between human beings and animals, in particular on her concern to ‘remove the barriers’ that stand in the way of proper understanding and treatment of animals. These barriers, she demonstrates, have been erected by animal science, epistemology and mainstream moral philosophy alike. In each case, she argues, our attitudes to animals are warped by approaches that are at once excessively abstract, over-theoretical and (...)
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  49. Boethius and the Enchiriadis Theory: The Metaphysics of Consonance and the Concept of Organum.David E. Cohen - 1993 - Dissertation, Brandeis University
    The ninth-century treatises Musica and Scolica Enchiriadis are the first musical writings in the West to present a theory of organum, a mode of plainchant performance that is the earliest known form of Western medieval polyphony. The fundamental principle of this theory is that the intervallic relationship between the simultaneous melodic lines be one of "consonance" . Nevertheless, intervals arise between the voice-parts that are not symphoniae; the theory responds to this, not by explicitly invoking the concept of dissonance, but (...)
     
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  50.  22
    When can we say ‘if’?Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Helen Neilens, Simon J. Handley & David E. Over - 2008 - Cognition 108 (1):100-116.
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