A central question of this chapter is how we can relate the unique ethos of Japan to the ways that influences of international bioethics, civil rights and legal reforms have shifted medical research in Japan from the legacy of the structured paternalism and impunity that allowed abuses to be committed by medical researchers in the World War II era, including in Unit 731 and in medical schools in Japan, to contemporary research agendas and policies. Throughout the twentieth century, Japan has (...) been a centre of research and innovation. The pro-technology attitudes still exist in current Japan, with the evolution of bioethics. Although we can trace the origins of bioethics in Japan back through millennia, with the Ainu indigenous practices and relationships to nature, the sophisticated hierarchical relationships expressed in the seventh century A.D. book the Kojiki, the conversion of forest to rice paddies, emergence of an integrated religious system including Shintoism and Buddhism, and the sophisticated class system supported by linguistics and social relationships, this chapter would argue that one of the most influential influence for this question is the Samurai tradition. This tradition values both autonomy and informed choice, while also allowing the legacy of tolerance of the elite classes to make decisions that may sacrifice some persons for the greater good. While principles of solidarity and social justice are a solid basis for universal health insurance they also allow sacrifices when necessary. Informed consent is now widely accepted, and bioethics is part of a transition which is transforming Japanese society from a paternalistic society to an individualistic one. Among the issues that will be used to illustrate the situation, are the functioning of research ethics committees, large gene bank and epidemiological projects, organ transplantation, truth telling, euthanasia and the public health measures such as mask wearing in the current COIVD-19 pandemic. (shrink)
This chapter examines some of the ethical issues associated with the persistent use of animals in the fashion and cosmetic industries. There are some cultural differences in the construction of what is considered a human need and what is luxury or simply a desire. Fashion and cosmetics are examples of self-determination, and people may also express their membership of a particular gender, indigenous or ethnicity through their fashion. There is discussion of opposition to the killing of animals for fur clothing, (...) and consideration of both the fur trapping industry and factory farm production. Particular issues are also raised through the killing of endangered animals and environmental pollution from tanning industry. There are also animals used for research aimed at increasing the productivity and efficiency of animals to produce fibre and safe ingredients for the cosmetic industry. The desire to dress attractively, and fashionably, is universal and applauded in most cultures, but our use of animals also shapes our moral community, and may also lead to legal reform. (shrink)
This collection of papers is the fifth in a series of books from RUSHSAP, UNESCO Bangkok offering Asia and Pacific perspectives on ethics - each focusing on specific themes. The contents come from submitted papers to the UNESCO Bangkok Bioethics conferences held in 2005 and they are assembled thematically. They also include discourse from the conference, as intercultural communication is part of the essence of deliberation on bioethics.
This collection of papers were originally presented during conferences on ethics in science and technology that UNESCO’s Regional Unit for Social and Human Sciences (RUSHSAP) has been convening since 2005. Since intercultural communication and information-sharing are essential components of these deliberations, the books also provide theme-related discourse from the conferences.
A compilation of 16 papers selected from two UNESCO Bangkok Bioethics Roundtables, with research and policy dialogues from different countries in the region. It includes papers on informed consent, ethics committees, communication, organ transplants, traditional medicines and sex selection.
A number of controversial topics related to bioethics and biotechnology 17 papers that deal with various aspects of release and development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), stem cells and cloning, privacy and bio-banking.
Every civilization has its own worldview that determines its approaches towards subjects such as human beings, nature and God. Most modern humans have tried to control all nature as property. Nature, therefore, was considered as the booty, which should have been used entirely. Now, the modern perspective has revealed problems including emerging and dangerous diseases, resistant bacteria, and extinction of many animals, global warming, climate change; air, sound and light pollution, and so on. The problem is that human beings cannot (...) continue these attitudes as a viable survival strategy. In this paper, using conceptual analysis, we try to explain the epistemic gap regarding the positions of humankind and nature which happened after modernism and then present the image which Ibn ‘Arabī, a traditional sage and philosopher depicted for the integrated world. He developed a comprehensive perspective of the world, considering it as a manifestation of an Existence. He considered humans as the God’s vice-regent who must manage the earth and keep the creatures as God's representative. (shrink)
In our pursuit of a good life, both individuals and societies, need to educate themselves on the pursuit of love of life in all domains, self-love, love of others, loving good and love of life. In this paper I reflect on my own journey through growing up in Christchurch, and experiences around the world, that are the basis for that conclusion. In our efforts to pursuit bioethics education we can enhance peaceful and harmonius coexistence in our world, through nurturing good (...) decisions that we should all make. (shrink)
FAO has a unique and essential rolein addressing the ethical problems facinghumanity and in making these problems intoopportunities for practical resolution. A broadrange of ethical issues in agriculture,fisheries, and forestry were identified byanalysis of the literature and by interviewswith FAO staff. Issues include sharing accessto and preserving natural resources,introduction of new technology, conservatismover the use of genetic engineering, ethics inanimal agriculture, access to information, foodsecurity, sustainable rural development,ensuring participation of all people indecision making and in receiving benefits ofagriculture, reducing corruption, (...) andinvolvement of private and public sectors indecision making. Rather than viewing theseissues as problems, they should be viewed asopportunities for debate, learning aboutothers' views, and resolution. The UnitedNations has an important role to play in howdecisions are made in the global ethical debatein food and agriculture. The ethical role ofFAO is to promote global food security,balanced conservation, management andutilization of natural resources, andsustainable rural development. FAO should fullyand publicly assume its ethicalresponsibilities, gathering and sharinginformation on ethics in its areas of mandate,acting as an interactive forum, and providingexpert guidance on policy options and choicesbased on practical ethical analysis. (shrink)