Results for 'Danny Shapiro'

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  1.  37
    Does Ronald Dworkin Take Rights Seriously?Danny Shapiro - 1982 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):417 - 434.
    One of the aims of Ronald Dworkin's recent book, Taking Rights Seriously, is to provide a theory of natural rights. His theory is novel and interesting in two respects. First, Dworkin argues that the commonly held belief that liberty and equality are fundamentally opposed to one another is false. Rights to various liberties are themselves derived from a form of a right to equality — what Dworkin calls the right to equal concern and respect. Second, Dworkin thinks that the notion (...)
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  2.  1
    Empirical Evidence and the Multiple Realization of Mental Kinds.Danny Booth - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    This thesis explores the use of the concept 'realization' in the philosophy of mind. The primary focus is on the role realization plays in assessing or opposing identity theory. The history of the use of the concept of realization in the philosophy of mind is reviewed, and from that a set of desiderata to be used for assessing accounts of realization is extracted. The desiderata are applied to a sample account of realization proposed by Sydney Shoemaker. Next the application of (...)
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  3.  26
    Danny Wade, Courtney Vaughn, & Wesley Long 37.Danny Wade - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  4.  53
    How Real Is the Reality in Documentary Film? Jill Godmilow, in Conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro.Ann-Louise Shapiro - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (4):80-101.
    Documentary film, in the words of Bill Nichols, is one of the "discourses of sobriety" that include science, economics, politics, and history-discourses that claim to describe the "real," to tell the truth. Yet documentary film, in more obvious ways than does history, straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge. And the visual languages with which it operates have quite different effects than does the written text. In the following interview conducted during the winter of (...)
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  5.  57
    Recent Work in Philosophy of Mathematics: Review of P. Maddy, Naturalism in Mathematics; S. Shapiro, Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology; M. Resnik, Mathematics as a Science of Patterns.Jamie Tappenden, Penelope Maddy, Stewart Shapiro & Michael Resnik - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy 98 (9):488.
  6. On the Characterization of Alternatives.Danny Fox Roni Katzir - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (1):87-107.
    The computation of both Scalar Implicatures (SI) and Association with Focus (AF) is characterized with reference to sets of alternatives. However, it has generally been assumed that the relevant alternatives are determined in different ways for the two processes. Specifically, it has been assumed that the alternatives for SI – scalar alternatives – are computed by a special procedure specifically designed for implicatures, whereas the alternatives for AF – focus alternatives – are determined by the general theory of association with (...)
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  7. Stewart Shapiro. Context, Conversation, and so-Called 'Higher-Order Vagueness'.Stewart Shapiro & Patrick Greenough - 2005 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):147–165.
    After a brief account of the problem of higher-order vagueness, and its seeming intractability, I explore what comes of the issue on a linguistic, contextualist account of vagueness. On the view in question, predicates like ‘borderline red’ and ‘determinately red’ are, or at least can be, vague, but they are different in kind from ‘red’. In particular, ‘borderline red’ and ‘determinately red’ are not colours. These predicates have linguistic components, and invoke notions like ‘competent user of the language’. On my (...)
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  8. In Defense of Hard Paternalism.Danny Scoccia - 2008 - Law and Philosophy 27 (4):351 - 381.
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  9.  23
    Mba Ceos, Short-Term Management and Performance.Danny Miller & Xiaowei Xu - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (2):285-300.
    There is ample discussion of MBA self-serving values in the corporate social responsibility literature, and yet empirical studies regarding the corporate manifestations and consequences of those values are scant. In a comprehensive study of major US public corporations, we find that MBA CEOs are more apt than their non-MBA counterparts to engage in short-term strategic expedients such as positive earnings management and suppression of R&D, which in turn are followed by compromised firm market valuations.
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  10. Validity and Truth-Preservation.Lionel Shapiro & Julien Murzi - 2015 - In T. Achourioti, K. Fujimoto, H. Galinon & J. Martínez-Fernández (eds.), Unifying the Philosophy of Truth. Springer Verlag. pp. 431-459.
    The revisionary approach to semantic paradox is commonly thought to have a somewhat uncomfortable corollary, viz. that, on pain of triviality, we cannot affirm that all valid arguments preserve truth (Beall2007, Beall2009, Field2008, Field2009). We show that the standard arguments for this conclusion all break down once (i) the structural rule of contraction is restricted and (ii) how the premises can be aggregated---so that they can be said to jointly entail a given conclusion---is appropriately understood. In addition, we briefly rehearse (...)
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  11. The Grammatical View of Scalar Implicatures and the Relationship Between Semantics and Pragmatics.Gennaro Chierchia & Danny Fox - unknown
    Recently there has been a lively revival of interest in implicatures, particularly scalar implicatures. Building on the resulting literature, our main goal in the present paper is to establish an empirical generalization, namely that SIs can occur systematically and freely in arbitrarily embedded positions. We are not so much concerned with the question whether drawing implicatures is a costly option (in terms of semantic processing, or of some other markedness measure). Nor are we specifically concerned with how implicatures come about (...)
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  12.  12
    When Do Firms Invest in Corporate Social Responsibility? A Real Option Framework.Danny Cassimon, Peter-Jan Engelen & Luc Van Liedekerke - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (1):15-29.
    In this paper, the process for firms to decide whether or not to invest in corporate social responsibility is treated from a real option perspective. We extend the Husted framework with an important extra parameter that allows us to understand the timing of CSR investment and explain why some companies drag their feet over CSR investments. Our model explicitly allows for the impact of the opportunity cost of delaying the CSR investment decision, providing firms with tools to determine the optimal (...)
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  13.  70
    The Multiple Realization Book.Thomas W. Polger & Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Since Hilary Putnam offered multiple realization as an empirical hypothesis in the 1960s, philosophical consensus has turned against the idea that mental processes are identifiable with brain processes, and multiple realization has become the keystone of the 'antireductive consensus' across philosophy of science. Thomas W. Polger and Lawrence A. Shapiro offer the first book-length investigation of multiple realization, which serves as a starting point to a series of philosophically sophisticated and empirically informed arguments that cast doubt on the generality (...)
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  14.  29
    Agonistic Democracy and Constitutionalism in the Age of Populism.Danny Michelsen - 2019 - European Journal of Political Theory 21 (1).
    The article examines the compatibility of agonistic democracy and populism as well as their relationship to the idea of constitutionalism. The first part shows that Chantal Mouffe’s recent attempts to reconcile her normative approach of an agonistic pluralism with a populist style of politics are not fully convincing. Although there are undeniable commonalities between an agonistic and a populist understanding of politics – the appreciation of conflict, the rejection of moralistic and juridical modes of conflict resolution etc. – the populist (...)
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  15.  34
    The Multiple Realization Book.Danny Booth - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 31 (3):431-445.
  16.  17
    I—Stewart Shapiro.Stewart Shapiro - 2005 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 79 (1):147-165.
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  17.  30
    On Hart's Way Out: Scott J. Shapiro.Scott J. Shapiro - 1998 - Legal Theory 4 (4):469-507.
    It is hard to think of a more banal statement one could make about the law than to say that it necessarily claims legal authority to govern conduct. What, after all, is a legal institution if not an entity that purports to have the legal power to create rules, confer rights, and impose obligations? Whether legal institutions necessarily claim the moral authority to exercise their legal powers is another question entirely. Some legal theorists have thought that they do—others have not (...)
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  18. Scalar Implicature as a Grammatical Phenomenon.Gennaro Chierchia, Danny Fox & Benjamin Spector - 2012 - In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 3--2297.
  19. New V, ZF and Abstraction.Stewart Shapiro & Alan Weir - 1999 - Philosophia Mathematica 7 (3):293-321.
    We examine George Boolos's proposed abstraction principle for extensions based on the limitation-of-size conception, New V, from several perspectives. Crispin Wright once suggested that New V could serve as part of a neo-logicist development of real analysis. We show that it fails both of the conservativeness criteria for abstraction principles that Wright proposes. Thus, we support Boolos against Wright. We also show that, when combined with the axioms for Boolos's iterative notion of set, New V yields a system equivalent to (...)
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  20.  15
    When Danny Said No! Refusal of Treatment by a Patient of Questionable Competence.Josehp Moon & Glenn Graber - 1985 - Journal of Medical Humanities 6 (1):12-27.
    The patient we call Danny was a mildly mentally retarded male in his mid-thirties who adamantly refused kidney dialysis when it was offered as the only therapeutic option for his progressive kidney failure. It was uncertain how fully Danny understood the implications of his refusal. To complicate the case still further, several “advocates” emerged to speak on Danny's behalf — each with a somewhat different interpretation of the situation and different sets of value presuppositions and ethical principles (...)
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  21.  84
    Paternalism and Respect for Autonomy.Danny Scoccia - 1990 - Ethics 100 (2):318-334.
  22. HIV Prevention Research and Global Inequality: Steps Towards Improved Standards of Care.K. Shapiro - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (1):39-47.
    Next SectionIntensification of poverty and degradation of health infrastructure over recent decades in countries most affected by HIV/AIDS present formidable challenges to clinical research. This paper addresses the overall standard of health care (SOC) that should be provided to research participants in developing countries, rather than the narrow definition of SOC that has characterised the international debate on standards of health care. It argues that contributing to sustainable improvements in health by progressively ratcheting the standard of care upwards for research (...)
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  23. LP, K3, and FDE as Substructural Logics.Lionel Shapiro - 2017 - In Pavel Arazim & Tomáš Lavička (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2016. London: College Publications.
    Building on recent work, I present sequent systems for the non-classical logics LP, K3, and FDE with two main virtues. First, derivations closely resemble those in standard Gentzen-style systems. Second, the systems can be obtained by reformulating a classical system using nonstandard sequent structure and simply removing certain structural rules (relatives of exchange and contraction). I clarify two senses in which these logics count as “substructural.”.
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  24.  10
    The Limits of Abstraction.Stewart Shapiro - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (214):166-174.
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  25.  77
    Set Theory and Its Philosophy: A Critical Introduction.Stewart Shapiro - 2005 - Mind 114 (455):764-767.
  26. Free Choice and the Theory of Scalar Implicatures* MIT,.Danny Fox - manuscript
    This paper will be concerned with the conjunctive interpretation of a family of disjunctive constructions. The relevant conjunctive interpretation, sometimes referred to as a “free choice effect,” (FC) is attested when a disjunctive sentence is embedded under an existential modal operator. I will provide evidence that the relevant generalization extends (with some caveats) to all constructions in which a disjunctive sentence appears under the scope of an existential quantifier, as well as to seemingly unrelated constructions in which conjunction appears under (...)
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  27.  44
    The State of Human-Animal Studies.Kenneth Shapiro & Margo DeMello - 2010 - Society and Animals 18 (3):307-318.
    The growth of human-animal studies over the past twenty years can be seen in the explosion of new books, journals, conferences, organizations, college programs, listserves, and courses, both in the United States and throughout Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. We look as well at trends in the field, including the increasing popularity of animal-assisted therapy programs, the rise of new fields like transspecies psychology and critical animal studies, and the importance of animal welfare science. We also discuss the problems (...)
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  28. Can Liberals Support a Ban on Violent Pornography?Danny Scoccia - 1996 - Ethics 106 (4):776-799.
  29.  33
    Economy and Embedded Exhaustification.Danny Fox & Benjamin Spector - 2018 - Natural Language Semantics 26 (1):1-50.
    Building on previous works which argued that scalar implicatures can be computed in embedded positions, this paper proposes a constraint on exhaustification which restricts the conditions under which an exhaustivity operator can be licensed. We show that this economy condition allows us to derive a number of generalizations, such as, in particular, the ‘Implicature Focus Generalization’: scalar implicatures can be embedded under a downward-entailing operator only if the scalar term bears pitch accent. Our economy condition also derives specific predictions regarding (...)
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  30.  28
    Paternalisms and Nudges.Danny Scoccia - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-24.
  31. On the Characterization of Alternatives.Danny Fox & Roni Katzir - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (1):87-107.
    We present an argument for revising the theory of alternatives for Scalar Implicatures and for Association with Focus. We argue that in both cases the alternatives are determined in the same way, as a contextual restriction of the focus value of the sentence, which, in turn, is defined in structure-sensitive terms. We provide evidence that contextual restriction is subject to a constraint that prevents it from discriminating between alternatives when they stand in a particular logical relationship with the assertion or (...)
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  32. How Real Is the Reality in Documentary Film? Jill Godmilow, in Conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro.Ann-Louise Shapiro - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (4):80–101.
    Documentary film, in the words of Bill Nichols, is one of the "discourses of sobriety" that include science, economics, politics, and history-discourses that claim to describe the "real," to tell the truth. Yet documentary film, in more obvious ways than does history, straddles the categories of fact and fiction, art and document, entertainment and knowledge. And the visual languages with which it operates have quite different effects than does the written text. In the following interview conducted during the winter of (...)
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  33.  2
    Reading Legitimation Crisis in Tehran: Iran and the Future of Liberalism.Danny Postel - 2006 - Prickly Paradigm Press.
    The Iran depicted in the headlines is a rogue state ruled by ever-more-defiant Islamic fundamentalists. Yet inside the borders, an unheralded transformation of a wholly different political bent is occurring. A “liberal renaissance,” as one Iranian thinker terms it, is emerging in Iran, and in this pamphlet, Danny Postel charts the contours of the intellectual upheaval. _Reading "Legitimation Crisis" in Tehran_ examines the conflicted positions of the Left toward Iran since 1979, and, in particular, critically reconsiders Foucault’s connection to (...)
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  34.  46
    When Danny Said No! Refusal of Treatment by a Patient of Questionable Competence.Joseph B. Moon & Glenn C. Graber - 1985 - Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 6 (1):12-27.
    The patient we call Danny was a mildly mentally retarded male in his mid-thirties who adamantly refused kidney dialysis when it was offered as the only therapeutic option for his progressive kidney failure. It was uncertain how fully Danny understood the implications of his refusal. To complicate the case still further, several “advocates” emerged to speak on Danny's behalf — each with a somewhat different interpretation of the situation and different sets of value presuppositions and ethical principles (...)
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  35. The Universal Density of Measurement.Danny Fox & Martin Hackl - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):537 - 586.
    The notion of measurement plays a central role in human cognition. We measure people’s height, the weight of physical objects, the length of stretches of time, or the size of various collections of individuals. Measurements of height, weight, and the like are commonly thought of as mappings between objects and dense scales, while measurements of collections of individuals, as implemented for instance in counting, are assumed to involve discrete scales. It is also commonly assumed that natural language makes use of (...)
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  36.  19
    Stewart Shapiro (Ed.), The Limits of Higher-Order Logic and the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem.Jan Woleński - 1998 - Erkenntnis 49 (3):393-396.
  37.  56
    Is the Appeal of the Doctrine of Double Effect Illusory?Danny Marrero - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (2):349-359.
    Scanlon (2008) has argued that his theory of permissibility (STP) has more explanatory power than the Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE). I believe this claim is wrong. Borrowing Michael Walzer’s method of inquiry, I will evaluate the explanatory virtue of these accounts by their understanding of actual moral intuitions originated in historical cases. Practically, I will evaluate these accounts as they explain cases of hostage crises. The main question in this context is: is it permissible that nation-states act with military (...)
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  38.  35
    Walking a Mile in Their Patients' Shoes: Empathy and Othering in Medical Students' Education. [REVIEW]Johanna Shapiro - 2008 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3:10.
    One of the major tasks of medical educators is to help maintain and increase trainee empathy for patients. Yet research suggests that during the course of medical training, empathy in medical students and residents decreases. Various exercises and more comprehensive paradigms have been introduced to promote empathy and other humanistic values, but with inadequate success. This paper argues that the potential for medical education to promote empathy is not easy for two reasons: a) Medical students and residents have complex and (...)
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  39. Genome Informatics: The Role of DNA in Cellular Computations.James A. Shapiro - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (3):288-301.
    Cells are cognitive entities possessing great computational power. DNA serves as a multivalent information storage medium for these computations at various time scales. Information is stored in sequences, epigenetic modifications, and rapidly changing nucleoprotein complexes. Because DNA must operate through complexes formed with other molecules in the cell, genome functions are inherently interactive and involve two-way communication with various cellular compartments. Both coding sequences and repetitive sequences contribute to the hierarchical systemic organization of the genome. By virtue of nucleoprotein complexes, (...)
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  40. Actual and Potential Infinity.Øystein Linnebo & Stewart Shapiro - 2019 - Noûs 53 (1):160-191.
    The notion of potential infinity dominated in mathematical thinking about infinity from Aristotle until Cantor. The coherence and philosophical importance of the notion are defended. Particular attention is paid to the question of whether potential infinity is compatible with classical logic or requires a weaker logic, perhaps intuitionistic.
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  41. Paternalism.Danny Scoccia - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
     
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  42. Descartes’s P Assions of the Soul.Lisa Shapiro - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (3):268-278.
    While Descartes’s Passions of the Soul has been taken to hold a place in the history to human physiology, until recently philosophers have neglected the work. In this research summary, I set Descartes’s last published work in context and then sketch out its philosophical significance. From it, we gain further insight into Descartes’s solution to the Mind--Body Problem -- that is, to the problem of the ontological status of the mind--body union in a human being, to the nature of body--mind (...)
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  43. Nature From Within: Gustav Theodor Fechner and His Psychophysical Worldview.Lawrence A. Shapiro - 2005 - Mind 114 (455):739-743.
  44.  30
    Acceptable Notation.Stewart Shapiro - 1982 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 23 (1):14-20.
  45.  84
    Ian Shapiro, The State of Democratic Theory:The State of Democratic Theory.Thom Brooks - 2006 - Ethics 116 (2):442-444.
  46.  13
    Uterus Transplantation: A Step Too Far.Michael E. Shapiro & Frances Rieth Ward - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (7):36-37.
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  47.  40
    Understanding the Infinite.Stewart Shapiro - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (2):256.
    Understanding the Infinite is a loosely connected series of essays on the nature of the infinite in mathematics. The chapters contain much detail, most of which is interesting, but the reader is not given many clues concerning what concepts and ideas are relevant for later developments in the book. There are, however, many technical cross-references, so the reader can expect to spend much time flipping backward and forward.
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  48.  10
    Art and the Absolute: A Study In Hegel’s Aesthetics.Gary Shapiro - 1986 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 46 (1):86-88.
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  49.  22
    Racers, Pacers, Gender and Records: On the Meaning of Sport Competition and Competitors.Danny Rosenberg & Pam Sailors - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (2):172-190.
    This paper examines footraces that are paced and unpaced, and runners who are pre-arranged, designated pacers and those who are not. Although pacesetting is commonplace in footraces today, the practice challenges our conception of sport competition, the nature of competitors and the meaning of records. For example, Bale calls paced races as ‘staged experiments’ to set world records and argues that pacers were crucial in the running career of Roger Bannister. In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federation banned women’s (...)
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  50.  28
    Lying Through Their Teeth: The Fierce Aesthetic of Garrison Keillor and Oscar Wilde.Danny C. Campbell - 2007 - Teaching Ethics 7 (2):25-38.
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