Results for 'Danny Fox Roni Katzir'

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  1. On the characterization of alternatives.Danny Fox Roni Katzir - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (1):87-107.
    The computation of both Scalar Implicatures (SI) and Association with Focus (AF) is characterized with reference to sets of alternatives. However, it has generally been assumed that the relevant alternatives are determined in different ways for the two processes. Specifically, it has been assumed that the alternatives for SI – scalar alternatives – are computed by a special procedure specifically designed for implicatures, whereas the alternatives for AF – focus alternatives – are determined by the general theory of association with (...)
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  2. On the characterization of alternatives.Danny Fox & Roni Katzir - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (1):87-107.
    We present an argument for revising the theory of alternatives for Scalar Implicatures and for Association with Focus. We argue that in both cases the alternatives are determined in the same way, as a contextual restriction of the focus value of the sentence, which, in turn, is defined in structure-sensitive terms. We provide evidence that contextual restriction is subject to a constraint that prevents it from discriminating between alternatives when they stand in a particular logical relationship with the assertion or (...)
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  3.  74
    Danny fox, economy and semantic interpretation, linguistic inquiry monographs 35. MIT press.Rajesh Bhatt - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (2):233-259.
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  4. Structurally-defined alternatives.Roni Katzir - 2007 - Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (6):669-690.
    Scalar implicatures depend on alternatives in order to avoid the symmetry problem. I argue for a structure-sensitive characterization of these alternatives: the alternatives for a structure are all those structures that are at most as complex as the original one. There have been claims in the literature that complexity is irrelevant for implicatures and that the relevant condition is the semantic notion of monotonicity. I provide new data that pose a challenge to the use of monotonicity and that support the (...)
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  5.  36
    Constraints on the lexicalization of logical operators.Roni Katzir & Raj Singh - 2013 - Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (1):1-29.
    We revisit a typological puzzle due to Horn (Doctoral Dissertation, UCLA, 1972) regarding the lexicalization of logical operators: in instantiations of the traditional square of opposition across categories and languages, the O corner, corresponding to ‘nand’ (= not and), ‘nevery’ (= not every), etc., is never lexicalized. We discuss Horn’s proposal, which involves the interaction of two economy conditions, one that relies on scalar implicatures and one that relies on markedness. We observe that in order to express markedness and to (...)
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  6.  36
    A note on contrast.Roni Katzir - 2013 - Natural Language Semantics 21 (4):333-343.
    The semantics of association with focus and the pragmatic conditions governing the appropriateness of focus in discourse are usually taken to depend on focus alternatives. According to a common view, these alternatives are generated by a permissive process. This permissive view has been challenged by Michael Wagner, who has noted that certain alternatives are systematically excluded from consideration. Wagner describes a more restrictive view, on which only contrastive alternatives are relevant for association with focus and for the appropriateness of focus (...)
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  7. The Grammatical View of Scalar Implicatures and the Relationship between Semantics and Pragmatics.Gennaro Chierchia & Danny Fox - unknown
    Recently there has been a lively revival of interest in implicatures, particularly scalar implicatures. Building on the resulting literature, our main goal in the present paper is to establish an empirical generalization, namely that SIs can occur systematically and freely in arbitrarily embedded positions. We are not so much concerned with the question whether drawing implicatures is a costly option (in terms of semantic processing, or of some other markedness measure). Nor are we specifically concerned with how implicatures come about (...)
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  8.  35
    Economy and embedded exhaustification.Danny Fox & Benjamin Spector - 2018 - Natural Language Semantics 26 (1):1-50.
    Building on previous works which argued that scalar implicatures can be computed in embedded positions, this paper proposes a constraint on exhaustification which restricts the conditions under which an exhaustivity operator can be licensed. We show that this economy condition allows us to derive a number of generalizations, such as, in particular, the ‘Implicature Focus Generalization’: scalar implicatures can be embedded under a downward-entailing operator only if the scalar term bears pitch accent. Our economy condition also derives specific predictions regarding (...)
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  9. The universal density of measurement.Danny Fox & Martin Hackl - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):537 - 586.
    The notion of measurement plays a central role in human cognition. We measure people’s height, the weight of physical objects, the length of stretches of time, or the size of various collections of individuals. Measurements of height, weight, and the like are commonly thought of as mappings between objects and dense scales, while measurements of collections of individuals, as implemented for instance in counting, are assumed to involve discrete scales. It is also commonly assumed that natural language makes use of (...)
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  10. Scalar implicature as a grammatical phenomenon.Gennaro Chierchia, Danny Fox & Benjamin Spector - 2012 - In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 3--2297.
  11.  8
    Economy and Semantic Interpretation.Danny Fox - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (2):233-259.
  12.  36
    Economy and scope.Danny Fox - 1995 - Natural Language Semantics 3 (3):283-341.
    This paper argues in favor of two claims: (a) that Scope Shifting Operations (Quantifier Raising and Quantifier Lowering) are restricted by economy considerations, and (b) that the relevant economy considerations compare syntactic derivations that end up interpretively identical. These ideas are shown to solve several puzzles having to do with the interaction of scope with VP ellipsis, coordination, and the interpretation of bare plurals. Further, the paper suggests a way of dealing with the otherwise puzzling clause-boundedness of Quantifier Raising.
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  13.  48
    Scalar implicatures of embedded disjunction.Luka Crnič, Emmanuel Chemla & Danny Fox - 2015 - Natural Language Semantics 23 (4):271-305.
    Sentences with disjunction in the scope of a universal quantifier, Every A is P or Q, tend to give rise to distributive inferences that each of the disjuncts holds of at least one individual in the domain of the quantifier, Some A is P & Some A is Q. These inferences are standardly derived as an entailment of the meaning of the sentence together with the scalar implicature that it is not the case that either disjunct holds of every individual (...)
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  14.  5
    Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.Ansgar D. Endress & Roni Katzir - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  15. Free choice and the theory of scalar implicatures* MIT,.Danny Fox -
    This paper will be concerned with the conjunctive interpretation of a family of disjunctive constructions. The relevant conjunctive interpretation, sometimes referred to as a “free choice effect,” (FC) is attested when a disjunctive sentence is embedded under an existential modal operator. I will provide evidence that the relevant generalization extends (with some caveats) to all constructions in which a disjunctive sentence appears under the scope of an existential quantifier, as well as to seemingly unrelated constructions in which conjunction appears under (...)
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  16.  32
    Too Many Alternatives: density, symmetry and other predicaments.Danny Fox - unknown
    In a recent paper, Martin Hackl and I identified a variety of circumstances where scalar implicatures, questions, definite descriptions, and sentences with the focus particle only are absent or unacceptable (Fox and Hackl 2006, henceforth F&H). We argued that the relevant effect is one of maximization failure (MF): an application of a maximization operator to a set that cannot have the required maximal member. We derived MF from our hypothesis that the set of degrees relevant for the semantics of degree (...)
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  17.  46
    Extraposition and Scope: A case for overt QR.Danny Fox - unknown
    This paper argues that “covert” operations like Quantifier Raising (QR) can precede “overt” operations. Specifically we argue that there are overt operations that must take the output of QR as their input. If this argument is successful there are two interesting consequences for the theory of grammar. First, there cannot be a “covert” (i.e. post-spellout) component of the grammar. That is, what distinguishes operations that affect phonology from those that do not cannot be an arbitrary point in the derivation (“spellout”) (...)
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  18.  63
    On Logical Form.Danny Fox - 2003 - In Randall Hendrick (ed.), Minimalist Syntax. Blackwell. pp. 82-123.
    A Logical Form (LF) is a syntactic structure that is interpreted by the semantic component. For a particular structure to be a possible LF it has to be possible for syntax to generate it and for semantics to interpret it. The study of LF must therefore take into account both assumptions about syntax and about semantics, and since there is much disagreement in both areas, disagreements on LF have been plentiful. This makes the task of writing a survey article in (...)
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  19.  1
    Equatives and Maximality.Luka Crnič & Danny Fox - 2019 - In Daniel Altshuler & Jessica Rett (eds.), The Semantics of Plurals, Focus, Degrees, and Times: Essays in Honor of Roger Schwarzschild. Springer Verlag. pp. 163-184.
    There is one salient difference between equative constructions like John drove as fast as Mary did in English and Slovenian: while the former do not allow a downward-entailing operator to occur in the standard clause and c-command the degree argument that is abstracted over, the latter do. This holds, however, only if the equative occurs without a multiplicative degree modifier. We show how these facts can be captured on relatively simple assumptions about the make-up of equative constructions. Building on the (...)
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  20.  4
    Principles of presupposition in development.Athulya Aravind, Danny Fox & Martin Hackl - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-42.
    This paper brings a developmental perspective to the discussion of a longstanding issue surrounding the proper characterization of presuppositions. On an influential view (Stalnaker in Synthese 22(1–2):272–289, 1970; Stalnaker, in Milton, Unger (eds) Semantics and philosophy, New York University Press, New York, 1974; Karttunen in Theor Linguist 1:181–194, 1974), formal presuppositions reflect admittance conditions: an utterance of a sentence which presupposes _p_ is admitted by a conversational context _c_ only if _p_ is common ground in _c_. The theory distinguishes two (...)
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  21.  36
    Children interpret disjunction as conjunction: Consequences for theories of implicature and child development.Raj Singh, Ken Wexler, Andrea Astle-Rahim, Deepthi Kamawar & Danny Fox - 2016 - Natural Language Semantics 24 (4):305-352.
    We present evidence that preschool children oftentimes understand disjunctive sentences as if they were conjunctive. The result holds for matrix disjunctions as well as disjunctions embedded under every. At the same time, there is evidence in the literature that children understand or as inclusive disjunction in downward-entailing contexts. We propose to explain this seemingly conflicting pattern of results by assuming that the child knows the inclusive disjunction semantics of or, and that the conjunctive inference is a scalar implicature. We make (...)
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  22.  41
    Focus, parallelism and accommodation.Danny Fox - unknown
    It is well-known that constructions involving ellipsis share many properties with constructions that involve phonological reduction. The similarity between ECs and PRCs is semantic: the interpretation of both is constrained by the interpretation of an antecedent. Rooth and Tancredi have pointed out that this similarity follows from an independently needed theory of focus.
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  23.  11
    Free choice, simplification, and Innocent Inclusion.Moshe E. Bar-Lev & Danny Fox - 2020 - Natural Language Semantics 28 (3):175-223.
    We propose a modification of the exhaustivity operator from Fox Presupposition and implicature in compositional semantics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 71–120, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230210752_4) that on top of negating all the Innocently Excludable alternatives affirms all the ‘Innocently Includable’ ones. The main result of supplementing the notion of Innocent Exclusion with that of Innocent Inclusion is that it allows the exhaustivity operator to identify cells in the partition induced by the set of alternatives whenever possible. We argue for this property of (...)
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  24.  23
    Successive Cyclic Movement and Island Repair: The Difference Between Sluicing and VP.Danny Fox - unknown
    It is well known that in Sluicing constructions wh-dependencies can cross certain projections that are otherwise barriers to movement (Ross (1969), Chomsky (1972)). This fact would follow under the assumption that the relevant barriers are somehow deactivated when phonologically deleted ('island repair'). The problem, however, is that another form of phonological deletion (VP Ellipsis, VPE) seems to be impossible in certain contexts where Sluicing allows for island repair (Chung et al. (1995), Merchant (1999)).
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  25.  73
    Implicature calculation, pragmatics or syntax, or both?Danny Fox - unknown
    The neo-Gricean account: the source of these scalar implicatures is a reasoning process (undertaken by the hearer), which culminates in an inference about the belief state of the speaker.
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  26.  41
    Implicature calculation, only, and lumping: Another look at the puzzle of disjunction.Danny Fox - unknown
    Principles of communication allow the listener to infer (upon hearing (1) that unless the speaker believed that (1alt) were false, the speaker would have uttered (1alt).
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  27.  40
    Condition a and scope reconstruction.Danny Fox - unknown
    It is well known that in certain environments the scope of a moved quantifier phrase can be determined at either its pre-movement position (“scope reconstruction”) or its postmovement position (“surface scope”). Thus the familiar ambiguity of (1) results from two choices for the scope of the moved QP. Under scope reconstruction, the scope of the moved existential QP is the sister of the pre-movement position (i.e. the sister of t, [to win the lottery]), while under surface scope it is the (...)
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  28.  63
    Cyclic linearization of syntactic structure.Danny Fox - manuscript
    This paper proposes an architecture for the mapping between syntax and phonology — in particular, that aspect of phonology that determines ordering. In Fox and Pesetsky (in prep.), we will argue that this architecture, when combined with a general theory of syntactic domains ("phases"), provides a new understanding of a variety of phenomena that have received diverse accounts in the literature. This shorter paper focuses on two processes, both drawn from Scandinavian: the familiar process of Object Shift and the less (...)
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  29.  66
    Illusive Scope of Universal Quantifiers.Danny Fox & Uli Sauerland - 1997 - In Jill Beckman (ed.), Proceedings of NELS 26. GLSA, UMass Amhert.
    It is widely believed that existential quantifiers can bring about the semantic effects of a scope which is wider than their actual syntactic scope (See Fodor & Sag (1982), Cresti (1995), Kratzer (1995), Reinhart (1995) and Winter (1995), among many others.) On the other hand, it is assumed that the syntactic scope of universal quantifiers can be determined unequivocally by the semantics. This paper shows that this second assumption is wrong; universal quantifiers can also bring about scope illusions, though in (...)
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  30. Cyclic Linearization and the Typology of Movement.Danny Fox - unknown
    • Why does wh-movement proceed through the left edge of CP? • Logic of a common answer: Things would go wrong otherwise.
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  31.  31
    The interpretation of quantificational structures: Evidence for the copy theory of traces.Danny Fox - unknown
    Claims: A. Shared assumption (1) needs to be modified. The argument of a restrictive quantifier phrase, QP, (at least when there is Inverse Scope) is a partial function defined only for individuals that satisfy the restrictor: (3'a) a. λP.[[book]] ⊆ P b.
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  32.  27
    Cyclic Linearization and its interaction with other aspects of grammar: a reply.Danny Fox - unknown
    Our proposal is concerned with the relation between an aspect of phonology (linearization) and syntax.1 In the picture that we had in mind, the syntax is autonomous — "it does what it does" — but sometimes the result maps to an unusable phonological representation. In this sense, linearization acts logically as a filter on derivations. We know of no evidence that the syntax can predict which syntactic objects will be usable by the phonology, and we know of no clear evidence (...)
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  33.  25
    The Question–Answer Requirement for scope assignment.Andrea Gualmini, Sarah Hulsey, Valentine Hacquard & Danny Fox - 2008 - Natural Language Semantics 16 (3):205-237.
    This paper focuses on children’s interpretation of sentences containing negation and a quantifier (e.g., The detective didn’t find some guys). Recent studies suggest that, although children are capable of accessing inverse scope interpretations of such sentences, they resort to surface scope to a larger extent than adults. To account for children’s behavioral pattern, we propose a new factor at play in Truth Value Judgment tasks: the Question–Answer Requirement (QAR). According to the QAR, children (and adults) must interpret the target sentence (...)
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  34. Structurally Defined Alternatives and Lexicalizations of XOR.Eric Swanson - 2010 - Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (1):31-36.
    In his recent paper on the symmetry problem Roni Katzir argues that the only relevant factor for the calculation of any Quantity implicature is syntactic structure. I first refute Katzir’s thesis with three examples that show that structural complexity is irrelevant to the calculation of some Quantity implicatures. I then argue that it is inadvisable to assume—as Katzir and others do—that exactly one factor is relevant to the calculation of any Quantity implicature.
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  35.  36
    The symmetry problem: current theories and prospects.Richard Breheny, Nathan Klinedinst, Jacopo Romoli & Yasutada Sudo - 2018 - Natural Language Semantics 26 (2):85-110.
    The structural approach to alternatives :669–690, 2007; Fox and Katzir in Nat Lang Semant 19:87–107, 2011; Katzir in Semantics, pragmatics and the case of scalar implicatures, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 40–71, 2014) is the most developed attempt in the literature at solving the symmetry problem of scalar implicatures. Problematic data with indirect and particularised scalar implicatures have however been raised :249–270, 2015). To address these problems, Trinh and Haida proposed to augment the theory with the Atomicity Constraint. Here (...)
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  36.  4
    The symmetry problem: current theories and prospects.Richard Breheny, Nathan Klinedinst, Jacopo Romoli & Yasutada Sudo - 2018 - Natural Language Semantics 26 (2):85-110.
    The structural approach to alternatives :669–690, 2007; Fox and Katzir in Nat Lang Semant 19:87–107, 2011; Katzir in Semantics, pragmatics and the case of scalar implicatures, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 40–71, 2014) is the most developed attempt in the literature at solving the symmetry problem of scalar implicatures. Problematic data with indirect and particularised scalar implicatures have however been raised :249–270, 2015). To address these problems, Trinh and Haida proposed to augment the theory with the Atomicity Constraint. Here (...)
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  37. Stage Notes and/as/or Track Changes: Introductory remarks and magical thinking on printing: An election and a provocation.Isaac Linder - 2012 - Continent 2 (4):244-247.
    In this issue we include contributions from the individuals presiding at the panel All in a Jurnal's Work: A BABEL Wayzgoose, convened at the second Biennial Meeting of the BABEL Working Group. Sadly, the contributions of Daniel Remein, chief rogue at the Organism for Poetic Research as well as editor at Whiskey & Fox , were not able to appear in this version of the proceedings. From the program : 2ND BIENNUAL MEETING OF THE BABEL WORKING GROUP CONFERENCE “CRUISING IN (...)
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  38.  26
    Danny Wade, Courtney Vaughn, & Wesley Long 37.Danny Wade - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  39. Evelyn Fox Keller Science and Gender.Bill D. Moyers, Evelyn Fox Keller, Leslie Clark, N. Y.) Wnet York & Ill) Wttw Chicago - 1994 - Films for the Humanities.
     
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  40. Endnotes for Fox/Ward, from page 6.M. Fox & D. Ward - 1992 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 10 (4):11-11.
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  41. Warwick Fox, A Theory of General Ethics.Michael Allen Fox - 2007 - Environmental Values 16 (4):529.
     
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  42.  27
    Marvin Fox 1922-1996.June T. Fox - 1997 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 70 (5):154 -.
  43.  24
    The fiduciary constitution of human rights: Evan fox-decent and Evan J. criddle.Evan Fox-Decent - 2009 - Legal Theory 15 (4):301-336.
    We argue that human rights are best conceived as norms arising from a fiduciary relationship that exists between states and the citizens and noncitizens subject to their power. These norms draw on a Kantian conception of moral personhood, protecting agents from instrumentalization and domination. They do not, however, exist in the abstract as timeless natural rights. Instead, they are correlates of the state's fiduciary duty to provide equal security under the rule of law, a duty that flows from the state's (...)
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  44.  11
    Shaul Katzir. The Beginnings of Piezoelectricity: A Study in Mundane Physics. xiii + 246 pp., illus., app., bibl., index. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006. $175. [REVIEW]Chen-Pang Yeang - 2011 - Isis 102 (1):207-208.
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  45.  14
    When do Firms Invest in Corporate Social Responsibility? A Real Option Framework.Danny Cassimon, Peter-Jan Engelen & Luc Van Liedekerke - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (1):15-29.
    In this paper, the process for firms to decide whether or not to invest in corporate social responsibility is treated from a real option perspective. We extend the Husted framework with an important extra parameter that allows us to understand the timing of CSR investment and explain why some companies drag their feet over CSR investments. Our model explicitly allows for the impact of the opportunity cost of delaying the CSR investment decision, providing firms with tools to determine the optimal (...)
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  46.  32
    Agonistic democracy and constitutionalism in the age of populism.Danny Michelsen - 2022 - European Journal of Political Theory 21 (1).
    The article examines the compatibility of agonistic democracy and populism as well as their relationship to the idea of constitutionalism. The first part shows that Chantal Mouffe’s recent attempts to reconcile her normative approach of an agonistic pluralism with a populist style of politics are not fully convincing. Although there are undeniable commonalities between an agonistic and a populist understanding of politics – the appreciation of conflict, the rejection of moralistic and juridical modes of conflict resolution etc. – the populist (...)
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  47.  4
    Locke and the Scriblerians: Identity and Consciousness in Early Eighteenth-century Britain.Christopher Fox - 1988
    Through a wide-ranging study of primary sources, Christopher Fox identifies and details a decisive moment in the history of the concept of the self. A key figure here is John Locke; the crucial document, his chapter on "Identity and Diversity" added to the second edition of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1694). Locke's new concept of "identity of consciousness" was hotly debated for the next half century in philosophical, theological, and literary circles, and Fox makes a significant contribution in drawing (...)
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  48.  5
    “Help! I Need Somebody”: Music as a Global Resource for Obtaining Wellbeing Goals in Times of Crisis.Roni Granot, Daniel H. Spitz, Boaz R. Cherki, Psyche Loui, Renee Timmers, Rebecca S. Schaefer, Jonna K. Vuoskoski, Ruth-Nayibe Cárdenas-Soler, João F. Soares-Quadros, Shen Li, Carlotta Lega, Stefania La Rocca, Isabel Cecilia Martínez, Matías Tanco, María Marchiano, Pastora Martínez-Castilla, Gabriela Pérez-Acosta, José Darío Martínez-Ezquerro, Isabel M. Gutiérrez-Blasco, Lily Jiménez-Dabdoub, Marijn Coers, John Melvin Treider, David M. Greenberg & Salomon Israel - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Music can reduce stress and anxiety, enhance positive mood, and facilitate social bonding. However, little is known about the role of music and related personal or cultural variables in maintaining wellbeing during times of stress and social isolation as imposed by the COVID-19 crisis. In an online questionnaire, administered in 11 countries, participants rated the relevance of wellbeing goals during the pandemic, and the effectiveness of different activities in obtaining these goals. Music was found to be the most effective activity (...)
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  49.  1
    Windows of Integration Hypothesis Revisited.Rony Hirschhorn, Ofer Kahane, Inbal Gur-Arie, Nathan Faivre & Liad Mudrik - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    In the ongoing research of the functions of consciousness, special emphasis has been put on integration of information: the ability to combine different signals into a coherent, unified one. Several theories of consciousness hold that this ability depends on – or at least goes hand in hand with – conscious processing. Yet some empirical findings have suggested otherwise, claiming that integration of information could take place even without awareness. Trying to reconcile this apparent contradiction, the “windows of integration” hypothesis claims (...)
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  50.  24
    Mba ceos, short-term management and performance.Danny Miller & Xiaowei Xu - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (2):285-300.
    There is ample discussion of MBA self-serving values in the corporate social responsibility literature, and yet empirical studies regarding the corporate manifestations and consequences of those values are scant. In a comprehensive study of major US public corporations, we find that MBA CEOs are more apt than their non-MBA counterparts to engage in short-term strategic expedients such as positive earnings management and suppression of R&D, which in turn are followed by compromised firm market valuations.
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