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Dominik Perler
Humboldt-University, Berlin
  1.  4
    Eine Person sein. Philosophische Debatten im Spätmittelalter.Dominik Perler - 2020 - Frankfurt a.M.: Klostermann.
    Was ist eine menschliche Person? Durch welche besonderen Eigenschaften zeichnet sie sich aus? Und wodurch unterscheidet sie sich von einem blossen Lebewesen? Mittelalterliche Autoren widmeten sich mit viel Scharfsinn diesen Fragen, indem sie sich auf drei Dimensionen einer Person konzentrierten. Sie setzten bei der metaphysischen Dimension an, indem sie eine Person als eine individuelle Substanz mit einer rationalen Natur bestimmten. Dies fuhrte sie dazu, diese Substanz genauer zu untersuchen: ihre wesentlichen Bestandteile, ihre Einheit und ihre Identitat uber die Zeit hinweg. (...)
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  2.  31
    Suárez on the Unity of Material Substances.Dominik Perler - 2020 - Vivarium 58 (3):143-167.
    Many late medieval Aristotelians assumed that a natural substance has several substantial forms in addition to matter as really distinct parts. This assumption gave rise to a unity problem: why is a substance more than a conglomeration of all these parts? This paper discusses Francisco Suárez’s answer. It first shows that he rejected the idea that there is a plurality of forms, emphasizing instead that each substance has a single form and hence a single structuring principle. It then examines his (...)
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  3. Suárez on Intellectual Cognition and Occasional Causation.Dominik Perler - 2020 - In Dominik Perler & Sebastian Bender (eds.), Causation and Cognition in Early Modern Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 18-38.
    Like many philosophers in the scholastic tradition, Suárez claims that we cannot cognize anything unless we use a cognitive device, a so-called intelligible species. But how can we produce such a device? And what kind of cognition does it make possible? This chapter examines these questions, paying particular attention to Suárez’s rejection of traditional theories that explained the production of intelligible species by referring to efficient causation. On his view, there can only be a relation of occasional causation: the existence (...)
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  4.  1
    Theorien der Intentionalität im Mittelalter.Dominik Perler - 2002 - Frankfurt a.M.: Klostermann.
    Die Intentionalitätsproblematik steht nicht nur im Mittelpunkt der heutigen philosophischen und kognitionstheoretischen Debatten. Sie wurde bereits im Mittelalter scharfsinnig diskutiert, ja die scholastischen Autoren prägten als Erste die Fachausdrücke "Intentionalität" und "intentionale Existenz" und entwarfen verschiedene Modelle, um das Rätsel der kognitiven Bezugnahme zu lösen. Dieses Buch stellt fünf einflußreiche Intentionalitätsmodelle vor, die im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert entstanden sind. Dabei werden so unterschiedliche Autoren wie Thomas von Aquin, Petrus Johannes Olivi, Dietrich von Freiberg, Johannes Duns Scotus, Petrus Aureoli, Hervaeus (...)
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  5. Ancient and Medieval Theories of Intentionality.Dominik Perler (ed.) - 2001 - Leiden: Brill.
    This volume analyses ancient and medieval theories of intentionality in various contexts: perception, imagination, and intellectual thinking.
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  6.  38
    Robert Pasnau: Theories of Cognition in the Later Middle Ages. [REVIEW]Dominik Perler - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (1):143-146.
    Historians of philosophy often credit Descartes, Locke, and other seventeenth-century authors with having introduced one of the most vexing problems into epistemology: the problem of mental representations. For these authors claimed that our knowledge of the external world is always mediated by mental representations, so that we have immediate access only to these representations, the ideas in our mind. As is well known, this “veil-of-ideas epistemology” gave rise to a number of skeptical questions. How can we be certain that our (...)
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  7. Spinoza on Skepticism.Dominik Perler - 2017 - In Michael Della Rocca (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Spinoza. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 220-239.
    Spinoza never discusses the scenario of radical skepticism as it was introduced by Descartes. Why not? This paper argues that he chooses a preventive strategy: instead of taking the skeptical challenge as it is and trying to refute it, he questions the challenge itself and gives a diagnosis of its origin. It is a combination of semantic atomism, dualism and anti-naturalism that gives rise to radical doubts. Spinoza attacks these basic assumptions, opting instead for semantic holism, anti-dualism and naturalism. This (...)
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  8.  9
    Occasionalismus. Theorien der Kausalität im arabisch-islamischen und im europäischen Denken.Dominik Perler & Ulrich Rudolph - 2000 - Göttingen, Deutschland: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    Thomas von Aquin reagierte im 13. Jahrhundert als erster europäischer Theologe auf den Occasionalismus, der sich im arabisch-islamischen Denken vom 8. bis zum 12. Jahrhundert entwickelte, und begann damit die bis in das 17. Jahrhundert fortdauernde Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Thema. Die Autoren stellen in chronologischer Reihenfolge die gesamte arabisch-islamische und europäische Diskussion vor.
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  9.  21
    Zweifel und Gewissheit: Skeptische Debatten im Mittelalter (Philosophische Abhandlungen, Bd. 92).Dominik Perler - 2006 - Frankfurt a.M.: Klostermann.
    Zweifel und Gewissheit: Skeptische Debatten im Mittelalter (Philosophische Abhandlungen, Bd. 92).
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  10.  1
    Faculties in Medieval Philosophy.Dominik Perler - 2015 - In The Faculties: A History. Oxford University Press. pp. 97-139.
    What kind of entities are faculties? How are they related to the soul and to the entire living being? How can they be classified? And in what sense are they responsible for a large variety of activities? This chapter examines these questions, which were extensively discussed by scholastic authors, and focuses on the metaphysical models established by William of Auvergne, Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, and Francisco Suárez. It argues that there was no unified scholastic doctrine. While some authors (e.g. (...)
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  11.  41
    Suárez on Consciousness.Dominik Perler - 2014 - Vivarium 52 (3-4):261-286.
    It seems quite natural that we have cognitive access not only to things around us, but also to our own acts of perceiving and thinking. How is this access possible? How is it related to the access we have to external things? And how certain is it? This paper discusses these questions by focusing on Francisco Suárez’s theory, which gives an account of various forms of access to oneself and thereby presents an elaborate theory of consciousness. It argues that Suárez (...)
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  12.  3
    The Alienation Effect in the Historiography of Philosophy.Dominik Perler - 2018 - In Marcel van Ackeren (ed.), Philosophy and the Historical Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 140-154.
    It has often been said that we should enter into a dialogue with thinkers of the past because they discussed they same problems we still have today and presented sophisticated solutions to them. I argue that this “dialogue model” ignores the specific context in which many problems were created and defined. A closer look at various contexts enables us to see that philosophical problems are not as natural as they might seem. When we contextualize them, we experience a healthy alienation (...)
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  13. Self-Knowledge in Scholasticism.Dominik Perler - 2017 - In Ursula Renz (ed.), Self-Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 114-130.
    All medieval philosophers in the Aristotelian tradition agreed that the human intellect is not only able to know other things, but also itself. But how should that be possible? Which cognitive mechanisms are required for self-knowledge? This chapter examines three models that attempted to answer this fundamental question: (i) Thomas Aquinas referred to higher-order acts that make first-order acts and eventually also the intellect itself cognitively present, (ii) Matthew of Aquasparta appealed to introspection, (iii) Dietrich of Freiberg claimed that no (...)
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  14.  95
    Was There a Pyrrhonian Crisis in Early Modern Philosophy? A Critical Notice of Richard H. Popkin.Dominik Perler - 2004 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 86 (2):209-220.
    The journal publishes exceptional articles in all areas of Western philosophy from antiquity up to contemporary philosophy. The Archiv articles are distinguished by precise argumentation and lucid prose.
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  15. Feelings Transformed. Philosophical Theories of the Emotions, 1270-1670.Dominik Perler - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    A comprehensive study of medieval and modern debates surrounding the nature of emotions, this book presents not just a single theory or tradition, but examines Aristotelian, dualist, monist, and even skeptical approaches to emotions. It discusses various cognitive therapies that help us to change or even overcome some emotions.
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  16. What Am I Thinking About? John Duns Scotus and Peter Aureol on Intentional Objects.Dominik Perler - 1994 - Vivarium 32 (1):72-89.
    What am I thinking about? John Duns Scotus and Peter Aureol on intentional objects.
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  17.  30
    Seeing and Judging: Ockham and Wodeham on Sensory Cognition.Dominik Perler - 2008 - In Petra Kärkkäinen & Simo Knuuttila (eds.), Theories of Perception in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 151-169.
    The aim of the series Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind is to foster historical research into the nature of thinking and the workings of the mind. The volumes address topics of intellectual history that would nowadays fall into different disciplines like philosophy of mind, philosophical psychology, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, etc. The monographs and collections of articles in the series are historically reliable as well as congenial to the contemporary reader. They provide original insights into central contemporary (...)
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  18.  42
    Ockham on Emotions in the Divided Soul.Dominik Perler & Klaus Corcilius - 2014 - In Klaus Corcilius & Dominik Perler (eds.), Partitioning the Soul. Debates from Plato to Leibniz. Berlin & New York: W. de Gruyter. pp. 179-198.
    Does the soul have parts? What kind of parts? And how do all the parts make together a whole? Many ancient, medieval and early modern philosophers discussed these questions, thus providing a mereological analysis of the soul. The eleven chapters reconstruct and critically examine radically different theories. They make clear that the question of how a single soul can have an internal complexity was a crucial issue for many classical thinkers.
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  19. Duns Scotus on Signification.Dominik Perler - 1993 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 3:97-120.
  20.  15
    Gibt es Individuen? Überlegungen zu Spinozas Monismus.Dominik Perler - 2015 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 63 (3):497-517.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie Jahrgang: 63 Heft: 3.
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  21. Emotions and Rational Control: Two Medieval Perspectives.Dominik Perler - 2017 - In Alix Cohen & Robert Stern (eds.), Thinking about the Emotions: A Philosophical History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 60-82.
    All medieval philosophers agreed that emotions ought to be controlled by reason, but they gave different accounts of the control that is possible. Aquinas took emotions to be sensory states that are under immediate rational control because both sensory and rational states are produced by a single soul. By contrast, Ockham distinguished two souls and two types of emotions, namely sensory ones that inevitably arise, and rational ones that can be changed by the will. This chapter examines the mechanisms of (...)
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  22.  30
    Why is the Sheep Afraid of the Wolf? Medieval Debates on Animal Passions.Dominik Perler - 2012 - In Martin Pickavé & Lisa Shapiro (eds.), Emotion and Cognitive Life in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 547-565.
    Abstract of the book This volume has three aims. First, historians of philosophy have typically focused on the discussions of the moral relevance of emotions, and with the exception of scholars of ancient philosophy, neglected the place of emotions in cognitive life. This collection of articles refocuses the discussion of emotion in the medieval and early modern periods to their role in cognition. Second, though many have aimed to clarify relationship between the later thinkers and their predecessors with regard to (...)
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  23. Satztheorien. Texte zur Sprachphilosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie im 14. Jahrhundert.Dominik Perler - 1990 - Darmstadt, Deutschland: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
    Satztheorien. Texte zur Sprachphilosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie im 14. Jahrhundert.
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  24.  9
    Ockham über die Seele und ihre Teile.Dominik Perler - 2010 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 77 (2):329-366.
    Ockham affirms that a human being consists of three really distinct forms that exist in matter, thus defending a «pluralist» position in the debate about the soul. However, he takes a «unitarist» position with regard to the rational soul, claiming that intellect and will are not really distinct. Why does he not admit a plurality of forms in the rational soul as well? And why does he think that the rational soul as a whole is really distinct from the sensory (...)
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  25. Essentialism and Direct Realism: Some Late Medieval Perspectives.Dominik Perler - 2000 - Topoi 19 (2):111-122.
    Perler, D. Essentialism and Direct Realism: Some Late Medieval Perspectives. Topoi 19, 111–122 (2000).
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  26.  5
    The Faculties: A History.Dominik Perler (ed.) - 2015 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    It seems quite natural to explain the activities of human and non-human animals by referring to their special faculties. Thus, we say that dogs can smell things in their environment because they have perceptual faculties, or that human beings can think because they have rational faculties. But what are faculties? In what sense are they responsible for a wide range of activities? How can they be individuated? How are they interrelated? And why are different types of faculties assigned to different (...)
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  27. Repräsentation bei Descartes.Dominik Perler - 1996 - Philosophische Abhandlungen 68 (Frankfurt am Main):530-533.
    Descartes' Ideentheorie ist in der neueren Forschung immer wieder als Ausgangspunkt des neuzeitlichen "way of ideas" dargestellt worden, der in einen verhängnisvollen Repräsentationalismus mündet. Denn Cartesische Ideen scheinen so etwas wie mentale Objekte in einer "inneren Arena" zu sein. Da wir nur zu diesen mentalen Objekten einen unmittelbaren Zugang haben, können wir höchstens auf die Existenz äußerer Objekte schließen, wir können sie aber nie unmittelbar erkennen. Stets sind wir in unserer inneren Arena gefangen. Gegen diese weit verbreitete Auffassung argumentiert diese (...)
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  28.  26
    Could God Deceive Us? Skeptical Hypotheses in Late Medieval Epistemology.Dominik Perler - 2010 - In Henrik Lagerlund (ed.), Rethinking the History of Skepticism: The Missing Medieval Background. Leiden, Niederlande: Brill. pp. 171-192.
    Could God Deceive Us? Skeptical Hypotheses in Late Medieval Epistemology.
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  29.  9
    Duns Scotus's Philosophy of Language.Dominik Perler - 2003 - In Thomas Williams (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus. Cambridge, Vereinigtes Königreich: Cambridge University Press. pp. 161-192.
  30.  18
    Was ist eine Person? Überlegungen zu Leibniz.Dominik Perler - 2016 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 64 (3):329-351.
    Leibniz holds that we cannot give an account of the synchronic and diachronic identity of a person without appealing to a substance. This paper analyses his reasons for this anti-Lockean thesis. It first looks at his theory of substance, paying particular attention to his commitment to the Principle of Sufficient Reason: the existence of a well-ordered series of mental states cannot be sufficiently explained without reference to a substance. The paper then examines the distinction Leibniz draws between the substance as (...)
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  31.  1
    Selbstbezug und Selbstwissen. Texte zu einer mittelalterlichen Debatte.Dominik Perler & Sonja Schierbaum (eds.) - 2014 - Frankfurt a.M.: Klostermann.
    Das Problem des Selbstwissens wird nicht erst in der gegenwartigen Philosophie des Geistes kontrovers diskutiert. Bereits im Spatmittelalter gab es eine intensive Debatte daruber, ob und wie der menschliche Geist Wissen von sich selbst und seinen eigenen Akten und Zustanden haben kann. Der vorliegende Band macht erstmals zentrale Texte in einer zweisprachigen Ausgabe zuganglich. Einfuhrungen zu den jeweiligen Autoren und ihren Texten bieten Interpretationshilfen und ermoglichen sowohl einen historischen als auch einen systematischen Zugang zu der scholastischen Debatte. Die Bandbreite der (...)
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  32.  1
    Peter Aureol Vs. Hervaeus Natalis on Intentionality. A Text Edition with Introductory Remarks.Dominik Perler - 1994 - Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 61:227-262.
    In his Tractatus de secundi intentionibus Hervaeus Natalis claims that an intention, taken in the strict sense, is not a mental entity but a thing qua cognized thing having « objective existence ». Peter Aureol agrees with this thesis, but he denies that one needs to introduce, in addition to this « concrete intention », an « abstract intention ». This article gives a preliminary edition of Aureol’s critique, along with a brief analysis of the controversial issues in the Aureol-Hervaeus (...)
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  33.  27
    Sind die Gegenstände farbig? Zum Problem der Sinneseigenschaften bei Descartes.Dominik Perler - 1998 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 80 (2):182-210.
    Sind die Gegenstände farbig? Zum Problem der Sinneseigenschaften bei Descartes.
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  34.  45
    Spinoza über Tiere.Dominik Perler - 2014 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 96 (2):232-261.
    According to Spinoza, there is no categorical distinction between human and non-human animals: they all belong to the same nature and all consist of bodies with corresponding ideas. This thesis gives rise to two problems. How is it possible to distinguish different types of animals, in particular non-rational and rational ones, if all of them have the same metaphysical structure? And why does Spinoza nevertheless claim that human beings have a privileged status that gives them the right to use non-rational (...)
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  35.  32
    Can We Know Substances? Suárez on a Sceptical Puzzle.Dominik Perler - 2022 - Theoria 88 (1):244-269.
    It has often been said that the knowability of substances became a problem in the early modern period, when anti-Aristotelians doubted that we could know anything more than the sensory qualities that are present to us. This article argues that the late scholastic Aristotelian Francisco Suárez was already aware of this sceptical problem. On his view, substances are really (and not just modally) distinct from the perceivable qualities, and therefore cannot be known through sense perception. The article first examines the (...)
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  36.  6
    Tobias Hoffmann: Free Will and the Rebel Angels in Medieval Philosophy. [REVIEW]Dominik Perler - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (2):340-341.
    Human beings quite often choose bad actions because of cognitive deficits: they fail to understand what they ought to do. But what about angels? They are, by definition, perfect in their cognition. How can they choose bad actions or even commit sins? At first sight, this problem seems to be of mere theological significance, for it is only in the context of Christian theology that angels are supposed to exist. However, a closer look reveals that the problem runs deeper, as (...)
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  37.  23
    José Bermúdez: Thinking Without Words. [REVIEW]Dominik Perler - 2005 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 59 (2):306-310.
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  38.  55
    Late Medieval Ontologies of Facts.Dominik Perler - 1994 - The Monist 77 (2):149-169.
    When we are asked what the term ‘Socrates’ signifies, we answer spontaneously, I suppose: “the man Socrates.” And when we are asked what the term ‘white’ signifies, we tend to answer: “the color white” or “whiteness.” Although our second answer may be less spontaneous than the first, either because we may have some difficulty in explaining what a color is, ontologically speaking, or because we may be reluctant to commit ourselves to such a controversial thing as whiteness, we may nevertheless (...)
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  39.  99
    Leen Spruit, Species Intelligibilis: From Perception to Knowledge. [REVIEW]Dominik Perler - 1996 - Vivarium 34 (2):280-283.
  40. Petrus Thomae: Tractatus Brevis de Modis Distinctionum. [REVIEW]Dominik Perler - 2011 - Vivarium 49 (4):368-370.
    Petrus Thomae: Tractatus brevis de modis distinctionum.
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  41.  17
    Ideen. Repräsentationalismus in der Frühen Neuzeit.Dominik Perler & Johannes Haag - 2010 - Berlin & New York: W. De Gruyter.
    The notion of idea is a key concept in early modern philosophy. From Descartes seminal works at the beginning of the 17th century to the work of Thomas Reid in the closing years of the 18th century, discussion in theoretical philosophy is dominated by the debate about the core concept of idea. This two-volume textbook introduces eleven key authors from this period. The first volume presents the central texts in modern translation, often new translations based on the source texts. The (...)
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  42. Spinozas Antiskeptizismus.Dominik Perler - 2007 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 61 (1):1-26.
    Spinozas These „Wer eine wahre Idee hat, weiß zugleich, dass er eine wahre Idee hat“ hat zahlreiche Interpreten dazu bewogen, ihm eine ernsthafte Auseinandersetzung mit dem Skeptizismus abzusprechen. Es scheint, als würde er die zentrale Frage, welche unabhängige Garantie wir für die Wahrheit einer Idee haben, einfach ignorieren. Gegen diese Auffassung wird argumentiert, dass sich Spinoza durchaus der skeptischen Herausforderung stellt, und zwar indem er eine theoretische Diagnose formuliert: Der Skeptiker nimmt irrtümlicherweise an, Ideen seien isolierte, von körperlichen Zuständen getrennte (...)
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  43. Emotions and Cognitions. Fourteenth-Century Discussions on the Passions of the Soul.Dominik Perler - 2005 - Vivarium 43 (2):250-274.
    Medieval philosophers clearly recognized that emotions are not simply "raw feelings" but complex mental states that include cognitive components. They analyzed these components both on the sensory and on the intellectual level, paying particular attention to the different types of cognition that are involved. This paper focuses on William Ockham and Adam Wodeham, two fourteenth-century authors who presented a detailed account of "sensory passions" and "volitional passions". It intends to show that these two philosophers provided both a structural and a (...)
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  44.  1
    Ockham About the Soul and its Parts.Dominik Perler - 2010 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 77 (2):313-350.
    Ockham affirms that a human being consists of three really distinct forms that exist in matter, thus defending a «pluralist» position in the debate about the soul. However, he takes a «unitarist» position with regard to the rational soul, claiming that intellect and will are not really distinct. Why does he not admit a plurality of forms in the rational soul as well? And why does he think that the rational soul as a whole is really distinct from the sensory (...)
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  45.  1
    Inside and Outside the Mind: Cartesian Representations Reconsidered.Dominik Perler - 2004 - In Ralph Schumacher (ed.), Perception and Reality: From Descartes to the Present. Paderborn, Deutschland: Mentis. pp. 69--87.
    This book is about the nature of sensory perception. Contributions focus on five questions, i.e.: (1) What distinguishes sensory perception from other cognitive states? Is it true, for instance, that perceptual content, in contrast to the phenomenal content of sensations like pain, always depends on the perceiver´s conceptual resources? (2) How do we have to explain the intentionality of perceptual states? (3) What is the nature of perceptual content? (4) In which sense do the objects of sensory perception depend on (...)
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  46.  14
    Ockham on Memory and Double Intentionality.Dominik Perler - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):133-142.
    Ockham developed two theories to explain the intentionality of memory: one theory that takes previously perceived things to be the objects of memory, and another that takes one’s own earlier acts of perceiving to be the objects of memory. This paper examines both theories, paying particular attention to the reasons that motivated Ockham to give up the first theory in favor of the second. It argues that the second theory is to be understood as a theory of double intentionality. At (...)
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  47.  22
    Disembodied Cognition and Assimilation: Thirteenth-Century Debates on an Epistemological Puzzle.Dominik Perler - 2019 - Vivarium 57 (3-4):317-340.
    Medieval Aristotelians assumed that we cannot assimilate forms unless our soul abstracts them from sensory images. But what about the disembodied soul that has no senses and hence no sensory images? How can it assimilate forms? This article discusses this problem, focusing on two thirteenth-century models. It first looks at Thomas Aquinas’ model, which invokes divine intervention: the separated soul receives forms directly from God. The article examines the problems this explanatory model poses and then turns to a second model, (...)
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  48.  23
    C. Reinhard Hülsen, Zur Semantik anaphorischer Pronomina. Untersuchungen scholastischer & moderner Theorien. [REVIEW]Dominik Perler - 1995 - Vivarium 33 (2):254-257.
    Vivarium (VIV) is an international journal dedicated to the history of philosophy and intellectual life from the early Middle Ages to the early modern era. It is widely recognized as an unrivalled resource for the history of logic, semantics, epistemology, and metaphysics. It welcomes articles on medieval, Renaissance and early-modern thinkers, their ideas, arguments, and writings, as well as the institutional and intellectual life of this period. -/- Editions of texts as brief appendices to the main articles may be added. (...)
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  49.  4
    Is Our Happiness Up to Us? Elisabeth of Bohemia on the Limits of Internalism.Dominik Perler - 2021 - In Sabrina Ebbersmeyer & Sarah Hutton (eds.), Elisabeth of Bohemia (1618-1680): A Philosopher in Her Historical Context. New York: Springer Verlag. pp. 177-192.
    This paper examines Elisabeth of Bohemia’s critique of Descartes’ internalist conception of happiness. According to this conception, we can all become happy because we can all make full use of our rational faculties and constantly follow our best judgments. Happiness is nothing but an “internal satisfaction” that arises when we act in accordance with these judgments. Elisabeth challenges this conception by pointing out that it is far too optimistic and that it neglects what is external to our own mind. Quite (...)
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  50.  68
    Begriffliche und psychologische Ordnung bei Spinoza.Dominik Perler - 2008 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 90 (2):188-215.
    Spinoza's metaphysical thesis that there is only one substance in the universe but a plurality of modes, each of them falling under an attribute, raises a crucial question. How are modes of thinking, i.e. ideas, related to modes of extension? This paper intends to show that there are at least two answers, depending on an understanding of the equivocal term ‘idea’. If ideas are taken to be mental acts, they are identical with modes of extension. If, however, they are understood (...)
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