Our understanding of the nature and processing of figurative language is central to several important issues in cognitive science, including the relationship of language and thought, how we process language, and how we comprehend abstract meaning. Over the past fifteen years, traditional approaches to these issues have been challenged by experimental psychologists, linguists, and other cognitive scientists interested in the structures of the mind and the processes that operate on them. In Figurative Language and Thought, internationally recognized experts in the (...) field of figurative language, Albert Katz, Mark Turner, Raymond W. Gibbs Jr., and Cristina Cacciari, provide a coherent and focused debate on the subject. The book's authors discuss a variety of fundamental questions, including: What can figures of speech tell us about the structure of the conceptual system? If and how should we distinguish the literal from the nonliteral in our theories of language and thought? Are we primarily figurative thinkers and consequently figurative language users or the other way around? Why do we prefer to speak metaphorically in everyday conversation, when literal options may be available for use? Is metaphor the only vehicle through which we can understand abstract concepts? What role do cultural and social factors play in our comprehension of figurative language? These and related questions are raised and argued in an integrative look at the role of nonliteral language in cognition. This volume, a part of Counterpoints series, will be thought-provoking reading for a wide range of cognitive psychologists, linguists, and philosophers. (shrink)
The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their (...) own justifications, which tended to be explanations rather than logical justifications. In Experiment 3, the participants also evaluated as possible or impossible each of the four cases in the partitions of 16 conditionals: A and C, A and not-C, not-A and C, not-A and not-C. These evaluations corroborated the model theory. We consider the implications of these results for theories of reasoning based on logic, probabilistic logic, and suppositions. (shrink)
Acting in the present in anticipation of the future is argued to be a behavioral correlate of mental time travel (MTT). Yet, it is important to consider how other future-directed behaviors figure into a theory of MTT and future thinking more broadly. Developmental science can help in this formulation.
BackgroundThis study analyzed the difference in psychological distress of the healthcare workers in three different periods of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Argentina. Specifically, from the third week of the mandatory quarantine through the two following weeks.MethodsAnalysis of the responses of 1,458 members of the health personnel was done on a questionnaire on healthcare workers concerns regarding the care of patients with coronavirus, indicators of depression, anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, and coping.ResultsThe psychological indicators that were considered presented differences between (...) the evaluated periods. Perceived concerns about the possibility of infecting loved ones and infecting themselves were greatest in the periods after the onset of the pandemic. In addition, the perception of how the work environment worsened and how lack of sleep interfered with their work was also higher in periods 2 and 3. The same results were found in the indicators of depression, anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty. Finally, the indicators of high tension and concurrent lack of emotional control, which was greater in the last periods evaluated, were also expressed in the coping strategies.ConclusionThe differences found in the psychological indicators between the evaluated periods support the need for early psychological care of health personnel which should be a priority of public health and a fundamental fact to increase its immediate effectiveness in the care of infected patients. (shrink)
IntroductionThis study aimed to evaluate, in adults with mild cognitive impairment, the brain atrophy that may distinguish between three AT biomarker-based profiles, and to determine its clinical value.MethodsStructural MRI was employed to evaluate the volume and cortical thickness differences in MCI patients with different AT profiles, namely, A−T−−: normal AD biomarkers; A+T−−: AD pathologic change; and A+T++: prodromal AD. Sensitivity and specificity of these changes were also estimated.ResultsAn initial atrophy in medial temporal lobe areas was found in the A+T−− and (...) A+T++ groups, spreading toward the parietal and frontal regions in A+T++ patients. These structural changes allowed distinguishing AT profiles within the AD continuum; however, the profiles and their pattern of neurodegeneration were unsuccessful to determine the current clinical status.ConclusionsMRI is useful in the determination of the specific brain structural changes of AT profiles along the AD continuum, allowing differentiation between MCI adults with or without pathological AD biomarkers. (shrink)
Children’s math self-concepts—their beliefs about themselves and math—are important for teachers, parents, and students, because they are linked to academic motivation, choices, and outcomes. There have been several attempts at improving math achievement based on the training of math skills. Here we took a complementary approach and conducted an intervention study to boost children’s math self-concepts. Our primary objective was to assess the feasibility of whether a novel multicomponent intervention—one that combines explicit and implicit approaches to help children form more (...) positive beliefs linking themselves and math—can be administered in an authentic school setting. The intervention was conducted in Spain, a country in which math achievement is below the average of other OECD countries. We tested third grade students, using treatment and comparison groups and pre- and posttest assessments. A novelty of this study is that we used both implicit and explicit measures of children’s math self-concepts. For a subsample of students, we also obtained an assessment of year-end math achievement. Math self-concepts in the treatment and comparison groups did not significantly differ at pretest. Students in the treatment group demonstrated a significant increase in math self-concepts from pretest to posttest; students in the comparison group did not. In the treatment group, implicit math self-concepts at posttest were associated with higher year-end math achievement, assessed approximately 3 months after the completion of the intervention. Taken together, the results suggest that math self-concepts are malleable and that social–cognitive interventions can boost children’s beliefs about themselves and math. Based on the favorable results of this feasibility study, it is appropriate to formally test this novel multicomponent approach for improving math self-concepts using randomized controlled trial design. (shrink)
From Gnỗthi seautόn (‘Know Thyself’) to cognitive theories of the self there has been a long time, but the paradigm has almost remained the same. This article proposes a reconsideration of their rediscovery filtered through Jean Rhys’ post-colonial sensitivity. Between the ‘core self’ and its iridescent, exotic edges, broadly speaking, the thoroughly analyzed facets of cultural identity interpose.
RésuméNotre propos est de réunir quelques réflexions de Pascal Quignard sur le récit afin d’en dégager les coordonnées ou les prémisses d’une théorie narrative chez cet écrivain qui, n’étant pas un théoricien, est sans doute quelqu’un qui fait œuvre de pensée. Notre hypothèse est que, situées dans le cadre d’une épistémologie naturaliste et d’un récit anthropogénétique au sein duquel la prédation joue un rôle majeur, en particulier celui de condition de possibilité de la narration, les spéculations de Quignard s’élaborent sur (...) fond de la théorie sémio-narrative laquelle subit ainsi une reformulation. Nous soutenons que la réinterprétation quignardienne fait partie des théories, comme celles de Petitot et de Thom, qui proposent une solution morphogénétique au problème de la conversion tel qu’il se présente chez Greimas. Au sein de cette convergence avec le structuralisme naturaliste et morphodynamique, la spécificité de Quignard réside dans la configuration de la conversion comme capture. Cette figure dynamique devient alors un opérateur de narrativité différent des modèles logiques ou topologiques qui formalisent rationnellement la conversion. Elle est au cœur de la pensée de l’écrivain sur le phénomène narratif. (shrink)
This study examined the development and dynamics of trust in project teams and explored the relation with cooperation, monitoring and team performance. Two types of teams were distinguished at the start of the projects: low prior social-capital teams ; high prior social-capital teams. A longitudinal approach provided an opportunity to study trust dynamics in the course of the projects. Data from 79 project-research teams was collected longitudinally, with measurement moments at the beginning, middle and end of the project. Independent team (...) performance ratings were obtained for each team. Significant differences were found in relation to trust-building between high and low prior social-capital teams. High prior social-capital teams reported systematically higher levels of trust than low prior social-capital teams throughout the project. These differences had implications for the level of monitoring, cooperation and team performance. Cette étude examine le développement et la dynamique de la confiance au sein d'équipes de projets et explore les relations entre la coopération, le monitoring et la performance des équipes. On a distingué, en tout début de projet, deux types d'équipes: celles à faible capital social de départ — c'est-à-dire des équipes composées de membres n'ayant aucun passé commun de collaboration, ne se connaissant pas, et n'ayant aucun lien d'amitié; et celles à capital social de départ élevé — c'est-à-dire des équipes composées de membres ayant travaillé ensemble auparavant, se connaissant, ou encore, ayant des liens d'amitié. Une étude longitudinale a permis d'étudier la dynamique de la confiance tout au long des projets. Les données provenant de 79 équipes de recherche ont été collectées longitudinalement et des mesures ont été effectuées en début, milieu et fin de projets. On a ensuite procédé au classement des équipes en fonction de leurs performances. Des différences significatives quant à la construction de la confiance ont été relevées entre équipes à faible capital social de départ et équipes à capital social de départ élevé. Tout au long du projet, on a relevé un niveau de confiance systématiquement supérieur pour les équipes à capital social de départ élevé. Les différences constatées ont eu des implications au niveau du monitoring, de la coopération et de la performance des équipes. (shrink)
Valendo-se de O Livre Arbítrio e As Confissões como principais referências, este estudo visa analisar a problematização que Agostinho faz do Mal, vez que o Bispo de Hipona refletiu sobre a possibilidade de conciliar o pilar cristão de infinita bondade divina com a existência do mal no real. Neste artigo separamos duas fases dessa reflexão. A primeira busca resolver o problema do mal como existente no universo físico, desenvolvendo para tanto uma ontologia que culmina na impossibilidade da existência do mal (...) como substância: o Mal é privação do Bem. Já que o Mal não é substância, mas sim privação do Bem, não existe o mal natural: o mal genuíno é resultado da ação humana. Na segunda fase, o debate se dirige para o sujeito e o livre-arbítrio, ou seja, o âmbito moral. É preciso explicar por quais razões Deus nos deu o livre-arbítrio se com ele praticamos o mal. Como veremos, a possibilidade de escolher é um bem dado por Deus que permite a qualificação moral do ato, dessa forma, o homem deve possuir o livre-arbítrio para que possa ser justo ou injusto. Por fim, concluímos mostrando que as origens do mal estão na defecção da vontade que se afasta de Deus. Résumé : Nous analysons ici le problème du mal chez Augustin, en utilisant comme références principales les œuvres Le Libre Arbitre et Les Confessions. L'évêque d'Hippone a réfléchit sur la possibilité de concilier le pilier chrétien de la bonté infinie de Dieu avec l'existence du mal dans le réel. Nous avons séparé dans cet article deux phases de cette réflexion. La première vise à résoudre le problème du mal comme existant dans l'univers physique. Elle développe une ontologie qui culmine dans l'impossibilité de l'existence du mal en tant que substance: le mal est une privation du bien. Puisque le mal n'est pas une substance, mais bien il s’agit d’une privation du bien, il n’y a pas du mal naturel: le mal véritable est le résultat de l'action humaine. Dans la deuxième phase, le débat se dirige vers le sujet et le libre arbitre, en d'autres termes, le domaine de la morale. Il faut expliquer pourquoi Dieu nous a donné le libre arbitre alors que nous faisons du mal. Comme nous le verrons, la capacité de choisir est un Bien donné par Dieu qui permet à l'action morale, ainsi, l'homme doit avoir le libre arbitre afin qu'il puisse être juste ou injuste. On conclut en montrant que les origines du mal se trouvent dans la défection de la volonté qui se détourne de Dieu. Mots-clés : Augustin. Mal. Libre arbitre. Dieu. (shrink)
L’idée d’une discontinuité radicale entre l’Un et l’être intelligible a été parfois comprise comme la thèse la plus intéressante de Plotin pour l’histoire de la métaphysique. En effet, à côté de passages où Plotin établit un rapport de ressemblance entre l’effet et la cause, il y en a d’autres où une théorie de la causalité des principes est introduite, selon laquelle le principe « donne ce qu’il n’a pas ». Dans le but d’examiner si cette théorie conduit Plotin à soutenir (...) une discontinuité radicale entre l’Un et l’être intelligible, cet article examine le traité III, 8 . Une critique de Plotin à l’égard de la doctrine alexandriste de la dynamis y est signalée, et deux passages difficiles sont analysés : III, 8 , 2. 15-19 et III, 8 , 9. 29-32.Modèles de causalité chez Plotin Complete otherness of the One with respect to intelligible Being has been presented as the sharpest Plotinian contribution to the history of metaphysics. As a matter of fact, together with passages where similarity between the effect and the cause is held, there are other passages where a notion of causality is advanced, in which the principle produces « what it does not possess ». Does this involve that according to Plotinus there is complete otherness between the One and intelligible Being? This article focuses on treatise III, 8 , showing that it contains a criticism of Alexander of Aphrodisias’ doctrine of dynamis. It deals also with two controversial passages, III, 8 , 2. 15-19 and III, 8 , 9. 29-32. (shrink)
Emotional dysregulation, age, gender, and obesity are transdiagnostic risk factors for the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Previous studies found that patients with ED had less meaning in life than the non-clinical population, and that meaning in life acted as a buffer in the course of ED; however, to the data, there are no studies about the mediator role of meaning in life in association between the emotional dysregulation and the ED psychopathology.Objective: To analyze the mediating role of meaning (...) in life in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and the ED psychopathology in three samples with diverse risk factors for ED.Method: Sample 1, n = 153 undergraduate young women; sample 2, n = 122 participants with obesity; and sample 3, n = 292 participants with ED. Multiple mediation analysis was performed.Results: Sample 1: meaning in life showed a mediation effect between emotional dysregulation and the ED psychopathology, body satisfaction, and depression symptoms ; sample 2: meaning in life showed a mediation effect between emotional dysregulation and binge eating and purging behaviors and depression symptoms ; sample 3: meaning in life showed a mediation effect between emotional dysregulation and the ED psychopathology, body satisfaction, borderline symptoms, and hopelessness.Conclusions: These studies suggest the importance of considering meaning in life as a variable in the onset and maintenance of ED. (shrink)
Investigou-se as alterações no debate educacional no fim do Segundo Reinado e na primeira década republicana no Município Neutro. A metodologia foi descritiva-analítica, estabelecendo uma leitura crítica e qualitativa dos documentos. Examinou-se as leis, dividindo-as em imperiais e republicanas; foi proposta uma comparação entre a Reforma Leôncio Correia e o Decreto n.º 52, de 1897. Questionou-se: quais as características principais das leis da instrução do Distrito Federal no Segundo Reinado brasileiro e na década inicial da Primeira República? Quais as justificativas (...) para vigências ou interrupções das regulações? Como principais, o incentivo ao estudo para todos os públicos incluindo o pobre e a tentativa de implementação de um Sistema Nacional de Educação estatal; as vigências ou rupturas pautaram-se na secundarização da instrução como tema de ordem prioritariamente pública, atestada pela liberdade de ensino; falta de recursos à materialização das propostas; pelas constantes reformulações dos quadros políticos no Distrito Federal. (shrink)
This essay comments on the theory of social norms developed by Cristina Bicchieri in The Grammar of Society. It applauds her theory of norms but argues that it cannot account for the experimental results concerning ultimatum games. A theory of fairness is also needed. It develops a number of specific criticisms of her way of incorporating the influence of norms into preferences. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 5197 Helen C. White Hall, (...) 600 N. Park Street, Madison, WI 53706‐1474; e‐mail: [email protected] (shrink)
Using an economic bargaining game, we tested for the existence of two phenomena related to social norms, namely norm manipulation – the selection of an interpretation of the norm that best suits an individual – and norm evasion – the deliberate, private violation of a social norm. We found that the manipulation of a norm of fairness was characterized by a self-serving bias in beliefs about what constituted normatively acceptable behaviour, so that an individual who made an uneven bargaining offer (...) not only genuinely believed it was fair, but also believed that recipients found it fair, even though recipients of the offer considered it to be unfair. In contrast, norm evasion operated as a highly explicit process. When they could do so without the recipient's knowledge, individuals made uneven offers despite knowing that their behaviour was unfair. (shrink)
In The Grammar of Society, first published in 2006, Cristina Bicchieri examines social norms, such as fairness, cooperation, and reciprocity, in an effort to understand their nature and dynamics, the expectations that they generate, and how they evolve and change. Drawing on several intellectual traditions and methods, including those of social psychology, experimental economics and evolutionary game theory, Bicchieri provides an integrated account of how social norms emerge, why and when we follow them, and the situations where we are (...) most likely to focus on relevant norms. Examining the existence and survival of inefficient norms, she demonstrates how norms evolve in ways that depend upon the psychological dispositions of the individual and how such dispositions may impair social efficiency. By contrast, she also shows how certain psychological propensities may naturally lead individuals to evolve fairness norms that closely resemble those we follow in most modern societies. (shrink)
In Norms in the Wild, distinguished philosopher Cristina Bicchieri argues that when it comes to human behavior, social scientists place too much stress on rational deliberation. In fact, she says, many choices occur without much deliberation at all. Two people passing in a corridor automatically negotiate their shared space; cars at an intersection obey traffic signals; we choose clothing based on our instincts for what is considered appropriate. Bicchieri's theory of social norms accounts for these automatic components of coordination, (...) where individuals react automatically to cues that focus their attention on what the norm is in that situation. Social norms thus act as rules for making choices in a social world where people expect others -- often unconsciously -- to follow the same rule. Some norms enable seamless social co-operation, while others are less beneficial to human flourishing.Bicchieri is famous for her interdisciplinary work on game theory and most recently her work on social norms, and Norms in the Wild represents her latest challenge to many of the fundamental assumptions of the social sciences. Bicchieri's work has broad implications not only for understanding human behavior, but for changing it for better outcomes. People have a strongly conditioned preference for following social norms, but that also means that manipulating their expectations can cause major behavioral changes. Bicchieri has been working recently with UNICEF and other NGO's to explore the applicability of her views to issues of human rights around the world. Is it possible to change social expectations around forced marriage, genital mutilations, and public health practices like vaccinations and sanitation? If so, how? What tools might we use? This short book explores how social norms work, and how changing them - changing preferences, beliefs, and especially social expectations - can potentially improve lives all around the world. It will appeal to an unusually broad range of readers including philosophers, psychologists and others in behavioral sciences, and anyone involved in public policy or at NGOs. (shrink)
Kavramlar doğru anlamlandırılmadığı takdirde meselelerin anlaşılması noktasında yanlış sonuçlara varmanın kaçınılmaz olduğu bir hakikattir. Fıtrat kavramı bu manada insanın neliği bağlamında başat kavram olarak her daim farklı değerlendirmelere konu olmuştur. İnsanın, gerek kendisini var eden Allah ile olan ilişkisi gerekse hemcinsleriyle ve içerisinde yaşadığı âlemle ilişkisi çerçevesinde bu kavramın anlam alanının tespiti yine ait olduğu dünya üzerinden yapıldığı zaman konu hakkında doğru sonuçların elde edilmesine imkân tanıyacaktır. Kur’ân ve hadislerde yerini bulan fıtrat kavramının anlam alanına yönelik çalışmaların bu alanlarda derinlemesine (...) tahlili noktasında söz konusu metinleri, kendi iç bütünlükleri ve birbirleriyle olan ilişkileri bağlamında meseleyi ele alması, en sağlıklı yol olacaktır. Bu çalışmada kavramın önce sözlük anlamı, türevleri üzerinden ele alınmış daha sonra Kur’ân ve hadislerde geçtiği durumları, belirtilen usûl üzerinden değerlendirmeye tâbi tutulmuştur. Sonuç olarak luğavî anlamı da dikkate alınarak fıtrat kavramı ile Kur’ân’da insanın Allah’la ilişkisine, hadislerde ise insanın doğasındaki sâfiyete ve insanlarla olan ilişkisinde dikkat gerektiren yönüne vurgu yapıldığı ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. (shrink)
NG van Kampen is a well-known theoretical physicist who has had a long and distinguished career. His research covers scattering theory, plasma physics, statistical mechanics, and various mathematical aspects of physics. In addition to his scientific work, he has written a number of papers about more general aspects of science. An indefatigable fighter for intellectual honesty and clarity, he has pointed out repeatedly that the fundamental ideas of physics have been needlessly obscured. As those papers appeared in various journals, partly (...) in Dutch, it was felt that it would be worthwhile to collect them and make them available to a larger audience. This is a book of major importance to scientists and university teachers. (shrink)
The transmission of Greek learning to the Arabic-speaking world paved the way to the rise of Arabic philosophy. This volume offers a deep and multifarious survey of transmission of Greek philosophy through the schools of late Antiquity to the Syriac-speaking and Arabic-speaking worlds.
Öz Çalışmanın konusu irfanî geleneğin on beşinci yüzyıldaki önemli temsilcilerinden ve aynı zamanda İbnü’l-Arabî’nin takipçilerinden biri olan İbn Türke’nin varlık mertebelerine dair görüşleridir. Konu, İbn Türke’nin varlık ve varlığın mertebeleri ile ilgili düşüncelerinden hareketle hazırlanmıştır. Birincil kaynakların esas alındığı bu çalışmada, İbn Türke ve Ekberî geleneğin önemli temsilcilerinin eserlerine müracaat edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, felsefe ve kelâmın yanı sıra tasavvuf felsefesinin en önemli konularından biri olan varlık düşüncesi ve varlık mertebelerini İbn Türke’nin görüşleri çerçevesinde ele alarak âlemdeki varoluşun hakikatinin ne olduğu, (...) insanoğlunun özünün nereden geldiği gibi temel sorulara cevap olabilecek özgün bir çalışma ortaya koymaktır. Bu çalışmayla; varlığın bir ve tek hakikat olduğu, Hak’tan feyz ederek görünür âlemde ortaya çıkan her şeyin O’nun isim ve sıfatlarının tecellisi olduğu, her ne kadar Hak’tan ayrıymış gibi görünse de aslında Hakk’a doğru sonsuz bir dönüş içerisinde olduğu, dolayısıyla tek varlıktan kaynaklı çok sayıda varlığın esasen yokluğa mahkûm olduğu ve asıl varlığın Allah olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. (shrink)
The association of Berdiaev's name with the phenomenon of perestroika seems strange at first glance and even illogical. But perestroika, which is proceeding—or, more precisely, is trying to proceed—under the sign of an intellectual renaissance, has naturally aroused interest in the names of Russian philosophers who have undeservedly been forgotten. One of these is N.A. Berdiaev . He was a Russian patriot and was profoundly concerned with Russia's fate. Living in a critical period, Berdiaev reflected a great deal over the (...) past, present, and future of his Motherland, advanced the idea of its transformation, and even used the term "perestroika" in doing so. His thoughts concerning Russia's political renewal are profound, and some of them are applicable to the present life of our society. (shrink)
This book articulates a participatory conception of deliberative democracy that takes the democratic ideal of self-government seriously. It aims to improve citizens' democratic control and vindicate the value of citizens' participation against conceptions that threaten to undermine it. The book critically analyzes deep pluralist, epistocratic, and lottocratic conceptions of democracy. Their defenders propose various institutional ''shortcuts'' to help solve problems of democratic governance such as overcoming disagreements, citizens' political ignorance, or poor-quality deliberation. However, all these shortcut proposals require citizens to (...) blindly defer to actors over whose decisions they cannot exercise control. Implementing such proposals would therefore undermine democracy. Moreover, it seems naive to assume that a community can reach better outcomes 'faster' if it bypasses the beliefs and attitudes of its citizens. Unfortunately, there are no 'shortcuts' to make a community better than its members. The only road to better outcomes is the long, participatory road that is taken when citizens forge a collective will by changing one another's hearts and minds. However difficult the process of justifying political decisions to one another may be, skipping it cannot get us any closer to the democratic ideal. Starting from this conviction, the book defends a conception of democracy ''without shortcuts''. This conception sheds new light on long-standing debates about the proper scope of public reason, the role of religion in politics, and the democratic legitimacy of judicial review. It also proposes new ways to unleash the democratic potential of institutional innovations such as deliberative minipublics. (shrink)
According to familiar accounts, Rousseau held that humans are actuated by two distinct kinds of self love: amour de soi, a benign concern for one's self-preservation and well-being; and amour-propre, a malign concern to stand above other people, delighting in their despite. I argue that although amour-propre can (and often does) assume this malign form, this is not intrinsic to its character. The first and best rank among men that amour-propre directs us to claim for ourselves is that of occupying (...) 'man's estate'. This does not require, indeed it precludes, subjection of others. Amour-propre does not need suppression or circumscription if we are to live good lives; it rather requires direction to its proper end, not a delusive one. (shrink)