Results for 'Cosmology'

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  1. Is human history predestined.in Wang Fuzhi’S. Cosmology - 2001 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28:321-337.
  2. Dele Jegede.Artasaro An & Afrocentric Cosmology - 1993 - In Kariamu Welsh-Asante (ed.), The African Aesthetic: Keeper of the Traditions. Greenwood Press. pp. 153--237.
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  3. Cosmology and convention.David Merritt - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 57:41-52.
    I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist’ in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time.
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  4.  20
    Cosmological Fine-Tuning Arguments: What (If Anything) Should We Infer From the Fine-Tuning of Our Universe for Life?Jason Waller - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
    If the physical constants, initial conditions, or laws of nature in our universe had been even slightly different, then the evolution of life would have been impossible. This observation has led many philosophers and scientists to ask the natural next question: why is our universe so "fine-tuned" for life? The debates around this question are wide-ranging, multi-disciplinary, complicated, technical, and heated. This study is a comprehensive investigation of these debates and the many metaphysical and epistemological questions raised by cosmological fine-tuning. (...)
  5. Cosmological Realism.David Merritt - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88 (C):193-208.
    I discuss the relevance of the current predicament in cosmology to the debate over scientific realism. I argue that the existence of two, empirically successful but ontologically inconsistent cosmological theories presents difficulties for the realist position.
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  6.  8
    Medieval cosmology: theories of infinity, place, time, void, and the plurality of worlds.Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem - 1985 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Edited by Roger Ariew.
    These selections from Le système du monde, the classic ten-volume history of the physical sciences written by the great French physicist Pierre Duhem (1861-1916), focus on cosmology, Duhem's greatest interest. By reconsidering the work of such Arab and Christian scholars as Averroes, Avicenna, Gregory of Rimini, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Duns Scotus, and William of Occam, Duhem demonstrated the sophistication of medieval science and cosmology.
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  7.  6
    Cosmology and Politics in Plato's Later Works.Dominic J. O'Meara - 2017 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Knowledge of the structure of the cosmos, Plato suggests, is important in organizing a human community which aims at happiness. This book investigates this theme in Plato's later works, the Timaeus, Statesman, and Laws. Dominic J. O'Meara proposes fresh readings of these texts, starting from the religious festivals and technical and artistic skills in the context of which Plato elaborates his cosmological and political theories, for example the Greek architect's use of models as applied by Plato in describing the making (...)
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  8. Cosmological arguments.Graham Oppy - 2009 - Noûs 43 (1):31-48.
    This paper provides a taxonomy of cosmological arguments and givesgeneral reasons for thinking that arguments that belong to a given category do not succeed.
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  9. Cosmology: What One Needs to Know.John R. Albright - 2000 - Zygon 35 (1):173-180.
    Cosmology, the study of the universe, has a past, which is reviewed here. The standard model—the Big Bang, or the hot, dense early universe that is still expanding—is based on observations that are basically consistent but which require additional input to improve the agreement. Out of the early universe came the galaxies and stars that shine today. The future of the universe depends on the density of matter: too much mass leads to the Big Crunch; too little leads to (...)
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  10. Cosmology: What One Needs to Know.John R. Albright - 2000 - Zygon 35 (1):173-180.
    Cosmology, the study of the universe, has a past, which is reviewed here. The standard model—the Big Bang, or the hot, dense early universe that is still expanding—is based on observations that are basically consistent but which require additional input to improve the agreement. Out of the early universe came the galaxies and stars that shine today. The future of the universe depends on the density of matter: too much mass leads to the Big Crunch; too little leads to (...)
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  11.  4
    Vedic cosmology and ethics: selected studies.Henk W. Bodewitz - 2019 - Boston: Brill. Edited by Dorothea Maria Heilijgers-Seelen.
    The articles by Henk Bodewitz collected in this volume, published between 1969 and 2013, deal with Vedic cosmology and ethics on basis of a systematic philological study of early Vedic texts, from the Ṛgveda to various Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads.
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  12. The cosmological argument.William L. Rowe - 1971 - Noûs 5 (1):49-61.
  13. The cosmological constant, the fate of the universe, unimodular gravity, and all that.John Earman - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (4):559-577.
    The cosmological constant is back. Several lines of evidence point to the conclusion that either there is a positive cosmological constant or else the universe is filled with a strange form of matter (“quintessence”) that mimics some of the effects of a positive lambda. This paper investigates the implications of the former possibility. Two senses in which the cosmological constant can be a constant are distinguished: the capital Λ sense in which lambda is a universal constant on a par with (...)
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  14.  11
    Cosmology and Anankê in the Timaeus and Our Knowledge of the Forms.Naomi Reshotko - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (4):509-535.
    At Tm. 47e, Timaeus steps back from his discussion of what came about through noûs and turns toward an account of what came about through anankê. Broadie, 2012, Nature and Divinity in Plato’s Timaeus, sketches out two routes for the interpretation of this ‘new beginning.’ The ‘metaphysical’ approach uses perceptibles qua imitations of intelligibles in order to glimpse the intelligibles (just as we look at our reflection in a mirror in order to view ourselves). The ‘cosmological’ reading assumes we use (...)
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  15.  37
    Cosmology of Mind.Sergei Mareyev - 2005 - Studies in East European Thought 57 (3-4):249-259.
    In Il’enkov’s “Cosmology of mind,” written in his younger days in the tradition of Spinoza and Engels, the thinking mind appears as a necessary attribute of matter. Like all other main forms of matter in motion, the mind has its cosmic purpose and predestination. Il’enkov argued that it has to close the beginning and the end of the Big Cycle in order to return the dying Universe to its fiery youth. Il’enkov believed that this is the sole way to (...)
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  16.  14
    The Cosmological Argument.William L. Rowe - 1975 - New York: Fordham University Press.
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  17. Cosmological Arguments from Contingency.Joshua Rasmussen - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (9):806-819.
    Cosmological arguments from contingency attempt to show that there is a necessarily existing god‐like being on the basis of the fact that any concrete things exist at all. Such arguments are built out of the following components: (i) a causal principle that applies to non‐necessary entities of a certain category; (ii) a reason to think that if the causal principle is true, then there would have to be a necessarily existing concrete thing; (iii) a reason to think that the necessarily (...)
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  18.  7
    Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action.Robert J. Russell, Nancey C. Murphy & C. J. Isham (eds.) - 1993 - Vatican Observatory.
    This collection of research papers explores the implications of quantum cosmology and the status of the laws of nature for theological and philosophical issues regarding God's action in the world. The main goal is to contribute to constructive theology as it engages current research in the natural sciences, and to investigate the philosophical and theological elements in ongoing theoretical research in the natural sciences.
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  19.  71
    Cosmology in antiquity.M. R. Wright - 1995 - New York: Routledge.
    Two and a half thousand years ago Greek philosophers "looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything." Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh. Early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings, to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded, and to reconcile the presence of balance and proportion with the apparent disorder of the cosmos. M. R. Wright examines cosmological theories of (...)
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  20.  24
    Bouncing Cosmologies: Progress and Problems.Robert Brandenberger & Patrick Peter - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):797-850.
    We review the status of bouncing cosmologies as alternatives to cosmological inflation for providing a description of the very early universe, and a source for the cosmological perturbations which are observed today. We focus on the motivation for considering bouncing cosmologies, the origin of fluctuations in these models, and the challenges which various implementations face.
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  21.  4
    Framing cosmologies: the anthropology of worlds.Allen Abramson & Martin Holbraad (eds.) - 2014 - Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    How might the anthropological study of cosmologies – the ways in which the horizons of human worlds are imagined and engaged – illuminate understandings of the contemporary world? This book addresses this question by bringing together anthropologists whose research is informed by a concern with cosmological dimensions of social life in different ethnographic settings. Its overall aim is to reaffirm the value of the cosmological frame as a continuing source of analytical insight. Attending to the novel cosmological formations that emerge (...)
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  22.  90
    The cosmological argument and the causal principle.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1975 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):185 - 190.
    I reply to Houston Craighead, who presents two arguments against my version of the cosmological argument. First, he argues that my arguments in defense of the causal principle in terms of the existence being accidental to an essence is fallacious because it begs the question. I respond that the objection itself is circular, and that it invokes the questionable contention that what is conceivable is possible. Against my contention that the causal principle might be intuitively known, I reply to his (...)
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  23.  26
    Plotinus' cosmology: a study of Ennead II.1 (40): text, translation, and commentary.James Wilberding - 2006 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
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  24.  9
    Overlapping cosmologies in Asia: transcultural and interdisciplinary approaches.Bill M. Mak & Eric Huntington (eds.) - 2022 - Boston: Brill.
    The history of cosmology is often understood in terms of the development of modern science, but Asian cosmological thought and practice touched on many aspects of life, including mathematics, astronomy, politics, philosophy, religion, and art. Because of the deep pervasion of cosmology in culture, many opportunities arose for transmissions of cosmological ideas across borders and innovations of knowledge and application in new contexts. Taking a wider view, one finds that cosmological ideas traveled widely and intermingled freely, being frequently (...)
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  25. Multiverse Cosmological Models.P. C. W. Davies - unknown
    Recent advances in string theory and inflationary cosmology have led to a surge of interest in the possible existence of an ensemble of cosmic regions, or “universes”, among the members of which key physical parameters, such as the masses of elementary particles and the coupling constants, might assume different values. The observed values in our cosmic region are then attributed to an observer selection effect (the so-called anthropic principle). The assemblage of universes has been dubbed “the multiverse”. In this (...)
     
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  26. Quantum cosmologies and the "beginning".Willem B. Drees - 1991 - Zygon 26 (3):373-396.
    The cosmology proposed by Stephen Hawking has been understood as support for an atheistic stance, due mainly to its view of the nature of time in combination with the absence of explicit boundary conditions. Against such a view, this article argues that one might develop a theistic understanding of the Universe in the context of Hawking's cosmology. In addition, the quantum cosmologies of Andrej Linde and Roger Penrose are presented. The coexistence of different research programs and their implicit (...)
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  27.  3
    Buddhist cosmology: the study of a Burmese manuscript.James Emanuel Bogle - 2016 - Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books.
    In this book, a Burmese manuscript from the mid-nineteenth century is the catalyst for a study of the multifaceted Buddhist cosmos. The manuscript not only lays out the complex array of realms in the Buddhist universe but also ventures into a number of esoteric and little-understood aspects of the Therav da cosmological system and its inhabitants. By presenting translations and narration of much of the manuscript's text and sharing his careful analysis of its vivid illustrations, the author uncovers fascinating details (...)
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  28.  58
    Cosmology and hindu thought.Anindita Niyogi Balslev - 1990 - Zygon 25 (1):47-58.
    . This paper outlines some major ideas concerning cosmogony and cosmogony and cosmology that pervade the Hindu conceptual world. The basic source for this discussion is the philosophical literature of some of the principal schools of Hindu thought, such as VaiVaiśika, Sānkhya, and Advaita Vedānta, focusing on the themes of cosmology, time, and soteriology. The core of Hindu philosophical thinking regarding these issues is traced back to the Rk Vedic cosmogonical speculations, analyzed, and contrasted with the “views of (...)
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  29. The anthropic cosmological principle.John D. Barrow - 1986 - New York: Oxford University Press. Edited by Frank J. Tipler.
    Ever since Copernicus, scientists have continually adjusted their view of human nature, moving it further and further from its ancient position at the center of Creation. But in recent years, a startling new concept has evolved that places it more firmly than ever in a special position. Known as the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, this collection of ideas holds that the existence of intelligent observers determines the fundamental structure of the Universe. In its most radical version, the Anthropic Principle asserts that (...)
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  30.  11
    Physical Cosmology and Philosophy.John Leslie & Paul Edwards - 1990 - Macmillan Publishing Company.
  31.  11
    Inflationary Cosmology and the String Multiverse.Bruce L. Gordon - 2010 - In Robert J. Spitzer (ed.), New Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and Philosophy. Grand Rapids: pp. 75-103.
    We begin with a discussion of the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin past-incompleteness theorem for inflationary universes and discuss its significance for various pre-big-bang inflationary scenarios in string cosmology, including landscape and cyclic ekpyrotic models. We then undertake a general critique of inflationary cosmology in respect of its stated goals and conclude with a critcal discussion of the string-theoretic multiverse as a "solution" to the problem of cosmological fine-tuning.
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  32.  36
    The Cosmological Argument & the place of Contestation in Philosophical Discourse: From Plato & Aristotle to Contemporary Debates.Scott Ventureyra - 2016 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 32 (1):51-70.
    In this paper, I examine three significant periods of the cosmological argument which exemplify the importance of contestation: first, Plato’s and Aristotle’s formulation of it, second, Philoponus’ own reactions and influence, third, the contemporary state of such discourses. Contestation has an inestimable role in philosophical development and reflection, as will be demonstrated through the examination of such periods.
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  33.  1
    Plotinus' cosmology: a study of Ennead II.1 (40): text, translation, and commentary.James Wilberding - 2006 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
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  34. Kalām cosmological arguments: Reply to professor Craig.Graham Oppy - 1995 - Sophia 34 (2):15-29.
    This paper is a reply to Professor William Lane Craig's “Graham Oppy On The kalām Cosmological Argument” Sophia 32.1, 1993, pp. 1–11. Further references to the literature are contained therein.
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  35. Cosmology as a science.Peter G. Bergmann - 1970 - Foundations of Physics 1 (1):17-22.
    In recent years, observational techniques at cosmological distances have been sufficiently improved that cosmology has become an empirical science, rather than a field for unchecked speculation. There remains the fact that its object, the whole universe, exists only once; hence, we are unable to separate “general” features from particular aspects of “our” universe. This might not be a serious drawback if we were justified in the belief that presently accepted laws of nature remain valid on the cosmological scale. In (...)
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  36.  69
    Cosmological Ethics in the Timaeus and Early Stoicism.Gabor Betegh - 2003 - In David Sedley (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Volume Xxiv: Summer 2003. Oxford University Press. pp. 273-302.
  37.  69
    A Cosmological Argument against Physicalism.Mats Wahlberg - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):165-188.
    In this article, I present a Leibnizian cosmological argument to the conclusion that either the totality of physical beings has a non-physical cause, or a necessary being exists. The crucial premise of the argument is a restricted version of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, namely the claim that every contingent physical phenomenon has a sufficient cause (PSR-P). I defend this principle by comparing it with a causal principle that is fundamental for physicalism, namely the Causal Closure of Physics, which says (...)
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  38.  3
    Celtic cosmology: perspectives from Ireland and Scotland.Ann Dooley, Séamus Mac Mathúna, Jacqueline Borsje, Gregory Toner & John William Shaw (eds.) - 2014 - Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
    The essays in this collection, many originally presented at a 2008 colloquium on Celtic Cosmology and the Power of Words, aim to examine the worldviews held by the Celtic peoples, particularly the Gaelic (Irish and Scottish) perspectives. Texts and inscriptions, some of them pre-Christian, in Celtic languages and in Celtic Latin provide the sources for the worldviews under study. This area of research is also linked to that of the power of words, which refers to human belief in powerful (...)
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  39.  17
    Cosmology.H. Bondi - 1954 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (16):350-352.
  40.  14
    Cosmology, particles, and the unity of science.Henrik Zinkernagel - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (3):493-516.
    During the last three decades, there has been a growing realization among physicists and cosmologists that the relation between particle physics and cosmology may constitute yet another successful example of the unity of science. However, there are important conceptual problems in the unification of the two disciplines, e.g. in connection with the cosmological constant and the conjecture of inflation. The present article will outline some of these problems, and argue that the victory for the unity of science in the (...)
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  41.  53
    Cosmology from alpha to omega.Robert John Russell - 1994 - Zygon 29 (4):557-577.
    This paper focuses on four passages in the journey of the universe from beginning to end: its origin in the Big Bang, the production of heavy elements in first generation stars, the buzzing symphony of life on earth, and the distant future of the cosmos. As a physicist and a Christian theologian, I will ask how each of these passages casts light on the deepest questions of existence and our relation to God, and in turn how these questions are being (...)
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  42. Comparing Cosmological Models.Andrew Holster - manuscript
    The standard model of cosmology is acclaimed in physics as accurate, robust, well-tested, our best scientific theory of the cosmos, but it has had serious anomalies for a while, including the Hubble tension, anomalous galaxies, and the completely unexplained nature of dark energy and dark matter. And lurking behind it all is the lack of a unified theory: General Relativity (GR) and quantum mechanics (QM) are inconsistent. Now startling new observations by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2022 (...)
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  43.  75
    The Cosmological Argument.Robert Merrihew Adams & William L. Rowe - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (3):445.
  44.  1
    Philosophical Cosmology.T. M. Rudavsky - 2010 - In Steven Nadler (ed.), Maimonides. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 61–84.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Kalâm Atomism Cosmology and Creation Can Humans Know the Superlunar Heavens? Conclusion further reading.
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  45. The cosmological argument: a reassessment.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1972 - Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
    The book adapts St. Thomas's Third Way of demonstrating the existence of God in light of contemporary issues in philosophy. Major topics in this study are causation, the principles of causation and sufficient reason, logical and real necessity, causation of the cosmos, and non-dependency of the cosmological on the ontological argument.
     
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  46.  8
    The Cosmology of Evidence: Suffering, Science, and Biological Witness After Three Mile Island.M. X. Mitchell - 2021 - Journal of the History of Biology 54 (1):7-29.
    The 1979 partial nuclear reactor meltdown at Three Mile Island was simultaneously hyper-visible and hidden from public view. It was the subject of non-stop media attention, but its causes and consequences required expert explanation. No fire or explosion marked the moment when insensible radionuclides escaped the facility. Yet, residents recalled a variety of troubling sights, sounds, odors, tastes, and sensations. Public distrust percolated in the interstices between government assertions that little radiation had escaped the facility and residents’ sense memories of (...)
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  47.  91
    Plato's Cosmology and its Ethical Dimensions.Gabriela Roxana Carone - 2005 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Although a great deal has been written on Plato's ethics, his cosmology has not received so much attention in recent times and its importance for his ethical thought has remained underexplored. By offering accounts of Timaeus, Philebus, Politicus and Laws X, the book reveals a strongly symbiotic relation between the cosmic and human sphere. It is argued that in his late period Plato presents a picture of an organic universe, endowed with structure and intrinsic value, which both urges our (...)
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  48.  48
    Cosmology, religion, and society.J. W. Bowker - 1990 - Zygon 25 (1):7-23.
    . It is a mistake to assume that science and religion are competing accounts of the same subject matter, so that either science supersedes religion or religion anticipates science. Using the question of cosmic origins as an example, I argue that the basic task of religion is not the scientific one of establishing the most accurate acccunt of the origin of the universe. Rather, as illustrated from Jewish, Hindu, Chinese, and Buddhist thought, religion uses a variety of cosmologies to help (...)
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  49.  5
    Cosmology and Vigilance: Political Vanguardism in Saint-Simon and Blanqui.William R. Cameron - 2023 - Political Theory 51 (5):741-766.
    This paper re-examines the idea of political vanguardism—long consigned to the dustbin of defunct scientific socialist ideology—to shed light on the theory of democratic representation. The discussion connects the use of the term “vanguard” by two prominent early socialist thinkers to what it terms the “cosmological” dimension of their writings. It shows how each author figured vanguard agency as fomenting different visions of the intellectual progress required for representative government, and that these visions were sustained by analogies to the origin (...)
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  50.  10
    A Cosmological Reformulation of Anselm’s Proof That God Exists.Richard Campbell - 2021 - Leiden ; Boston: Brill.
    In this book, Richard Campbell reformulates Anselm’s proof to show that factual evidence confirmed by modern cosmology validly implies that God exists. Anselm’s proof, which was never the “ontological argument” attributed to him, emerges as engaging with current philosophical issues concerning existence and scientific explanation.
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