Results for 'Cosmology'

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  1.  46
    Cosmology and Convention.David Merritt - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 57:41-52.
    I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist’ in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time.
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  2.  24
    Cosmological Realism.David Merritt - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:193-208.
    I discuss the relevance of the current predicament in cosmology to the debate over scientific realism. I argue that the existence of two, empirically successful but ontologically inconsistent cosmological theories presents difficulties for the realist position.
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  3.  4
    Inflationary Cosmology and the String Multiverse.Bruce L. Gordon - 2010 - In Robert J. Spitzer (ed.), New Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and Philosophy. Grand Rapids: pp. 75-103.
    We begin with a discussion of the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin past-incompleteness theorem for inflationary universes and discuss its significance for various pre-big-bang inflationary scenarios in string cosmology, including landscape and cyclic ekpyrotic models. We then undertake a general critique of inflationary cosmology in respect of its stated goals and conclude with a critcal discussion of the string-theoretic multiverse as a "solution" to the problem of cosmological fine-tuning.
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  4.  32
    Cosmology — a Philosophical Survey.John Leslie - 1994 - Philosophia 24 (1-2):3-27.
  5.  32
    Cosmology of Mind.Sergei Mareyev - 2005 - Studies in East European Thought 57 (3-4):249-259.
    In Il’enkov’s “Cosmology of mind,” written in his younger days in the tradition of Spinoza and Engels, the thinking mind appears as a necessary attribute of matter. Like all other main forms of matter in motion, the mind has its cosmic purpose and predestination. Il’enkov argued that it has to close the beginning and the end of the Big Cycle in order to return the dying Universe to its fiery youth. Il’enkov believed that this is the sole way to (...)
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  6.  2
    Medieval Cosmology: Theories of Infinity, Place, Time, Void, and the Plurality of Worlds.Pierre Duhem - 1985 - University of Chicago Press.
    These selections from Le système du monde, the classic ten-volume history of the physical sciences written by the great French physicist Pierre Duhem (1861-1916), focus on cosmology, Duhem's greatest interest. By reconsidering the work of such Arab and Christian scholars as Averroes, Avicenna, Gregory of Rimini, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Duns Scotus, and William of Occam, Duhem demonstrated the sophistication of medieval science and cosmology.
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  7.  45
    Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China.Aihe Wang - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    This radical reinterpretation of the formative stages of Chinese culture and history traces the central role played by cosmology in the formation of China's early empires. It crosses the disciplines of history, social anthropology, archaeology, and philosophy to illustrate how cosmological systems, particularly the Five Elements, shaped political culture. By focusing on dynamic change in early cosmology, the book undermines the notion that Chinese cosmology was homogenous and unchanging. By arguing that cosmology was intrinsic to power (...)
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  8. Overlapping Cosmologies in Asia: Transcultural and Interdisciplinary Approaches.Bill M. Mak & Eric Huntington (eds.) - 2022 - Boston: Brill.
    The history of cosmology is often understood in terms of the development of modern science, but Asian cosmological thought and practice touched on many aspects of life, including mathematics, astronomy, politics, philosophy, religion, and art. Because of the deep pervasion of cosmology in culture, many opportunities arose for transmissions of cosmological ideas across borders and innovations of knowledge and application in new contexts. Taking a wider view, one finds that cosmological ideas traveled widely and intermingled freely, being frequently (...)
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  9. Cosmology: African Cosmologies.Barry Hallen - 2004 - In Lindsay Jones (ed.), Encyclopedia of Religion. Macmillan Reference.
    Africa's indigenous cultures evidence cosmologies that are diverse and still evolving. A comparison is made of those found in the Yoruba (Nigeria), Maasai (Kenya), and Ki-Kongo (DRC) cultures to demonstrate this.
     
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  10.  68
    Cosmology in Antiquity.M. R. Wright - 1995 - Routledge.
    Two and a half thousand years ago Greek philosophers "looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything." Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh. Early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings, to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded, and to reconcile the presence of balance and proportion with the apparent disorder of the cosmos. M. R. Wright examines cosmological theories of (...)
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  11. Plotinus' Cosmology: A Study of Ennead Ii.James Wilberding - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
     
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  12.  23
    Plotinus' Cosmology: A Study of Ennead Ii.1 (40): Text, Translation, and Commentary.James Wilberding - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
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  13.  12
    The Cosmological Argument & the Place of Contestation in Philosophical Discourse: From Plato & Aristotle to Contemporary Debates.Scott Ventureyra - 2016 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 32 (1):51-70.
    In this paper, I examine three significant periods of the cosmological argument which exemplify the importance of contestation: first, Plato’s and Aristotle’s formulation of it, second, Philoponus’ own reactions and influence, third, the contemporary state of such discourses. Contestation has an inestimable role in philosophical development and reflection, as will be demonstrated through the examination of such periods.
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  14.  57
    A Cosmological Argument Against Physicalism.Mats Wahlberg - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):165-188.
    In this article, I present a Leibnizian cosmological argument to the conclusion that either the totality of physical beings has a non-physical cause, or a necessary being exists. The crucial premise of the argument is a restricted version of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, namely the claim that every contingent physical phenomenon has a sufficient cause (PSR-P). I defend this principle by comparing it with a causal principle that is fundamental for physicalism, namely the Causal Closure of Physics, which says (...)
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  15.  16
    Can Cosmological Models Explain and Forecast the Public Health and Patterns of Somatic Alignments?Wei Zhang - 2015 - Philosophy East and West 65 (3):731-745.
    The symbiotic resonance of the planetary and psychosomatic bodies was one of the most ancient religious and philosophical assumptions in ancient China. A number of contemporary scholars have explored this assumption in various branches of Chinese thought. Here, I would like to investigate this ancient assumption further in relation to the classical medical traditions, arguing that it was the medical thinkers who first attempted a systematic treatment and modeling of the macrocosm and the somatic body as a microcosm. Specifically, I (...)
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  16.  11
    Cosmology, Particles, and the Unity of Science.Henrik Zinkernagel - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (3):493-516.
    During the last three decades, there has been a growing realization among physicists and cosmologists that the relation between particle physics and cosmology may constitute yet another successful example of the unity of science. However, there are important conceptual problems in the unification of the two disciplines, e.g. in connection with the cosmological constant and the conjecture of inflation. The present article will outline some of these problems, and argue that the victory for the unity of science in the (...)
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  17.  85
    The Cosmological Argument and the Causal Principle.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1975 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):185 - 190.
    I reply to Houston Craighead, who presents two arguments against my version of the cosmological argument. First, he argues that my arguments in defense of the causal principle in terms of the existence being accidental to an essence is fallacious because it begs the question. I respond that the objection itself is circular, and that it invokes the questionable contention that what is conceivable is possible. Against my contention that the causal principle might be intuitively known, I reply to his (...)
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  18. Cosmology and Biology in Ancient Philosophy: From Thales to Avicenna.Ricardo Salles (ed.) - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In antiquity living beings are inextricably linked to the cosmos as a whole. Ancient biology and cosmology depend upon one another and therefore a complete understanding of one requires a full account of the other. This volume addresses many philosophical issues that arise from this double relation. Does the cosmos have a soul of its own? Why? Is either of these two disciplines more basic than the other, or are they at the same explanatory level? What is the relationship (...)
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  19.  3
    A Cosmological Reformulation of Anselm’s Proof That God Exists.Richard Campbell - 2021 - Leiden ; Boston: Brill.
    In this book, Richard Campbell reformulates Anselm’s proof to show that factual evidence confirmed by modern cosmology validly implies that God exists. Anselm’s proof, which was never the “ontological argument” attributed to him, emerges as engaging with current philosophical issues concerning existence and scientific explanation.
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  20. The Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1972 - Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
    The book adapts St. Thomas's Third Way of demonstrating the existence of God in light of contemporary issues in philosophy. Major topics in this study are causation, the principles of causation and sufficient reason, logical and real necessity, causation of the cosmos, and non-dependency of the cosmological on the ontological argument.
     
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  21.  52
    Ancient Cosmologies.Carmen Blacker, Michael Loewe & J. Martin Plumley (eds.) - 1975 - Allen & Unwin.
  22.  19
    Kalam Cosmological Argument for God.Mark R. Nowacki - 2006 - Prometheus Books.
    Approximately 1500 years ago John Philoponus proposed a simple and compelling argument for the existence of God: (1) Whatever comes to be has a cause of its coming to be; (2) The universe came to be; (3) Therefore, the universe has a cause of its coming to be. Due to the influence of William Lane Craig — analytic philosopher, Christian apologist, champion of Philoponus’s position, and author of The Kalam Cosmological Argument — this argument and the family of subarguments that (...)
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  23.  3
    Sufi Cosmology.Christian Lange & Alexander D. Knysh (eds.) - 2022 - Boston: Brill.
    This volume discusses the origin and structure of the universe in mystical Islam (Sufism) and Islam's civilizational predecessors with special reference to parallel realms of existence and their interaction. Contributors address Sufi ideas about the fate of human beings in this and future life under three rubrics: (1) cosmogony and eschatology ("where do we come from?" and "where do we go?"); (2) conceptualizations of the world of the here-and-now ("where are we now?"); and (3) visualizations of realms of existence, their (...)
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  24. Cosmology and Continuity of Life: A Treatise on Natural Science, Philosophy and Religion.George Edwin Frost - 1957 - New York: Exposition Press.
  25. Cosmology: Philosophical and Scientific.Leo Albert Foley - 1962 - Milwaukee, Bruce Pub. Co..
  26. Cosmological Artificial Selection: Creation Out of Something? [REVIEW]Rüdiger Vaas - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (1):25-28.
    According to the scenario of cosmological artificial selection and artificial cosmogenesis, our universe was created and possibly even fine-tuned by cosmic engineers in another universe. This approach shall be compared to other explanations, and some far-reaching problems of it shall be discussed.
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  27. Cosmology.Paul J. Glenn - 1939 - St. Louis, Mo., And London, B. Herder Book Co..
  28. Theoretical Cosmology.A. A. Coley & G. F. R. Ellis - 2020 - Classical and Quantum Gravity 37 (1).
    We review current theoretical cosmology, including fundamental and mathematical cosmology and physical cosmology (as well as cosmology in the quantum realm), with an emphasis on open questions.
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  29.  16
    Physical Cosmology and Philosophical Physics.CosmologyEssay in Physics.T. A. Goudge - 1954 - Review of Metaphysics 7 (3):444 - 451.
    Several features of cosmology are of striking philosophical interest. Unlike other branches of physics which deal with kinds of occurrences and relations, cosmology investigates only one unique entity, the physical universe. Hence the science cannot avail itself of standard inductive procedures which depend on the assembling of samples. Cosmologists are therefore obliged to choose between two other procedures. Mr. Bondi calls them the "extrapolative" and the "axiomatic-deductive" lines of thought. The former starts from physical laws known to hold (...)
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  30. Cosmological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2009 - Noûs 43 (1):31-48.
    This paper provides a taxonomy of cosmological arguments and givesgeneral reasons for thinking that arguments that belong to a given category do not succeed.
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  31.  9
    Cosmology as Contact Between Science and Theology.Willem B. Drees - 2007 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 63 (1/3):533 - 553.
    Scientific cosmology raises various issues of philosophical interest. Among these is the understanding of the beginning', as it arises in normal cosmology, which seems not intelligible as an ordinary beginning (' in time'), but rather as a beginning ' of time'. Recent cosmological research that seeks to unite theories of gravity and of quantum physics is speculative; various proposals with different philosophical perspectives on time and reality co-exist. This plurality of speculative cosmological proposals reflects also a diversity of (...)
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  32. The Cosmological Constant, the Fate of the Universe, Unimodular Gravity, and All That.John Earman - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (4):559-577.
    The cosmological constant is back. Several lines of evidence point to the conclusion that either there is a positive cosmological constant or else the universe is filled with a strange form of matter (“quintessence”) that mimics some of the effects of a positive lambda. This paper investigates the implications of the former possibility. Two senses in which the cosmological constant can be a constant are distinguished: the capital Λ sense in which lambda is a universal constant on a par with (...)
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  33. Modern Cosmology - a Cognitive Approach God?Winfried Loffler - 2009 - Philosophy and Culture 36 (8):157-171.
    From cosmology to the fact that the existence of God and nature, to address these issues, the development of two kinds of controversial contemporary line of argument, I compared and assessed in this paper: the physical cosmology as a starting argument and the natural design as a starting point of the argument. I made ​​some preliminary assessment of the court. The results showed that the Big Bang argument are quite reasonable, however, found the natural design of the demonstration (...)
     
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  34. Cosmological Arguments.Raymond D. Bradley - unknown
    Although most cogently formulated by philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), al Ghazali (1058-1111), and Gottfried Leibniz (1646- 1716), cosmological arguments have a powerful appeal also to those nonphilosophers who feel that the "ultimate" explanation for the existence of the natural universe is that it was created by some sort of supernatural entity, viz., God.
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  35.  26
    Are Cosmological Theories Compatible with All Possible Evidence: A Missing Methodological Link.Nick Bostrom - unknown
    This paper argues that our current best cosmological theories, according to which cosmos is very big are compatible with all possible evidence. The problem is unrelated to the Quine-Duhem underdetermination thesis. The compatibility to which this paper draws attention is much more radical: it appears as if all of our best cosmological theories are perfectly probabilistically compatible with all possible evidence and that no empirical discovery could give us any reason whatever to favor one such theory over another. This consequence (...)
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  36. Cosmology and Creation: The Spiritual Significance of Contemporary Cosmology.Paul T. Brockelman - 1999 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The Big Bang is a myth, says Paul Brockelman in this fascinating look at the spiritual side of modern cosmology. But it is a myth in the best sense--a fully realized creation story, one that, for all its scientific origins, has the power to transform us spiritually. In Cosmology and Creation, philosopher and religious scholar Brockelman seeks to bridge the gap between the scientific and the spiritual, to bring together the head and the heart. We have isolated the (...)
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  37.  14
    Cosmological Black Holes and the Direction of Time.Federico López Armengol, Daniela Pérez & Gustavo Romero - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (2):415-426.
    Macroscopic irreversible processes emerge from fundamental physical laws of reversible character. The source of the local irreversibility seems to be not in the laws themselves but in the initial and boundary conditions of the equations that represent the laws. In this work we propose that the screening of currents by black hole event horizons determines, locally, a preferred direction for the flux of electromagnetic energy. We study the growth of black hole event horizons due to the cosmological expansion and accretion (...)
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  38.  8
    Cosmology, biology, and origin of the soul in al-fārābī and avicenna.Luis Xavier López-Farjeat - 2019 - Ideas Y Valores 68 (169):13-32.
    RESUMEN Se discute cómo pueden dos filósofos islámicos sostener que la generación del cuerpo es necesaria para que se origine el alma y, al mismo tiempo, afirmar que ésta puede separarse del cuerpo, ya sea transformándose en un intelecto inmaterial -en el caso de al-Fārābī-, o bien en un alma individuada e inmortal -en el caso de Avicena. El primero es cercano al hilemorfismo peripatético; el segundo adopta un dualismo robusto. Se argumenta que la integración de la cosmología, la biología (...)
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  39.  12
    Cosmological Constraints From Low-Redshift Data.Vladimir V. Luković, Balakrishna S. Haridasu & Nicola Vittorio - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (10):1446-1485.
    In this paper we summarise the constraints that low-redshift data—such as supernovae Ia, baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic chronometers —are able to set on the concordance model and its extensions, as well as on inhomogeneous but isotropic models. We provide a broad overlook into these cosmological scenarios and several aspects of data analysis. In particular, we review a number of systematic issues of SN Ia analysis that include magnitude correction techniques, selection bias and their influence on the inferred cosmological constraints. (...)
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  40.  8
    Critical Cosmology: On Nations and Globalization: A Philosophical Essay.Gérard Raulet - 2005 - Lexington Books.
    Critical Cosmology takes up the task of establishing the much needed philosophical tools to think globalization by reading Kant's refoundation of ...
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  41. Cosmology.Kenneth F. Dougherty - 1956 - Peekskill, N.Y., Graymoor Press.
  42. Cosmology.Kenneth F. Dougherty - 1965 - Peekskill, N.Y., Graymoor Press.
  43.  4
    Puranic Cosmology: Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Vāyu Purāṇa, Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa, and Liṅga Purāṇa.Danavir Goswami (ed.) - 2007 - Rupanuga Vedic College.
    v. 1. Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Vāyu Purāṇa, Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa, and Liṅga Purāṇa.
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  44.  19
    Modern Cosmology & Philosophy.John Leslie (ed.) - 1998 - Prometheus Books.
    Did the universe originate from a "big bang" as argued by leading astrophysicists and others? Or does some other theory more accurately describe its beginnings? Are there other forms of life in the universe? What about other universes? This volume discusses these and other topics in this hotly debated area where philosophy and science meet.
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  45.  7
    Physical Cosmology and Philosophy.John Leslie & Paul Edwards - 1990 - Macmillan Publishing Company.
  46.  16
    Are Cosmological Arguments Good Arguments?Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2022 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 92 (3):129-145.
    Over the course of his work, Graham Oppy developed numerous important criticisms of versions of the cosmological argument. Here I am not concerned with his specific criticisms of cosmological arguments but rather with his claim that cosmological arguments per se are not good arguments, for they provide no persuasive reason for believing the conclusion that God exists and are embedded in theories that already affirm the conclusion. I explore what he believes makes an argument good, contend that cosmological arguments can (...)
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  47.  21
    Cosmological Black Holes and the Direction of Time.Gustavo E. Romero, Daniela Pérez & Federico G. López Armengol - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (2):415-426.
    Macroscopic irreversible processes emerge from fundamental physical laws of reversible character. The source of the local irreversibility seems to be not in the laws themselves but in the initial and boundary conditions of the equations that represent the laws. In this work we propose that the screening of currents by black hole event horizons determines, locally, a preferred direction for the flux of electromagnetic energy. We study the growth of black hole event horizons due to the cosmological expansion and accretion (...)
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  48.  7
    Cosmology, Astronomy, and Philosophy Around 1800: Schelling, Hegel, Herder.Laura Follesa - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):242-260.
    This article focuses on debates on philosophical knowledge, mathematics, and the empirical sciences by analyzing the positions on cosmological and astronomical knowledge, around 1800, of three German authors: Herder, Schelling, and Hegel. I show the mutual interdependence of Schelling’s and Hegel’s Naturphilosophie and Herder’s Ideen, and I then demonstrate that the latter’s position during the last years of his life was a reaction to Schelling’s and Hegel’s speculative philosophy. While Herder seems to ignore the works of the Naturphilosophen in his (...)
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  49.  46
    The Cosmological and Ontological Arguments: How Saint Thomas Solved the Kantian Problem.J. William Forgie - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (1):89 - 100.
    Let us call the Dependency Theses (DT) the view, first stated by Kant, that certain versions of the cosmological argument depend on the ontological argument. At least two different reasons have been given for the supposed dependence. Given the DT, some of Aquinas' views about God's essence, and about our knowledge of God's existence, can seem, at least at first, to be inconsistent. I consider two different ways of defending Aquinas against this suspicion of inconsistency. On the first defence, based (...)
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  50.  19
    The Cosmological and Ontological Arguments: How Saint Thomas Solved the Kantian Problem: J. William Forgie.J. William Forgie - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (1):89-100.
    Let us call the Dependency Theses the view, first stated by Kant, that certain versions of the cosmological argument depend on the ontological argument. At least two different reasons have been given for the supposed dependence. Given the DT, some of Aquinas' views about God's essence, and about our knowledge of God's existence, can seem, at least at first, to be inconsistent. I consider two different ways of defending Aquinas against this suspicion of inconsistency. On the first defence, based on (...)
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