Results for 'Computer simulation'

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  1. Computer Simulations in Science and Engineering. Concept, Practices, Perspectives.Juan Manuel Durán - 2018 - Springer.
    This book addresses key conceptual issues relating to the modern scientific and engineering use of computer simulations. It analyses a broad set of questions, from the nature of computer simulations to their epistemological power, including the many scientific, social and ethics implications of using computer simulations. The book is written in an easily accessible narrative, one that weaves together philosophical questions and scientific technicalities. It will thus appeal equally to all academic scientists, engineers, and researchers in industry (...)
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  2.  57
    Computer Simulation in the Physical Sciences.Fritz Rohrlich - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:507-518.
    Computer simulation is shown to be philosophically interesting because it introduces a qualitatively new methodology for theory construction in science different from the conventional two components of "theory" and "experiment and/or observation". This component is "experimentation with theoretical models." Two examples from the physical sciences are presented for the purpose of demonstration but it is claimed that the biological and social sciences permit similar theoretical model experiments. Furthermore, computer simulation permits theoretical models for the evolution of (...)
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  3. Computer simulation and the features of novel empirical data.Greg Lusk - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:145-152.
    In an attempt to determine the epistemic status of computer simulation results, philosophers of science have recently explored the similarities and differences between computer simulations and experiments. One question that arises is whether and, if so, when, simulation results constitute novel empirical data. It is often supposed that computer simulation results could never be empirical or novel because simulations never interact with their targets, and cannot go beyond their programming. This paper argues against this (...)
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  4. Computer Simulations as Experiments.Anouk Barberousse, Sara Franceschelli & Cyrille Imbert - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):557 - 574.
    Whereas computer simulations involve no direct physical interaction between the machine they are run on and the physical systems they are used to investigate, they are often used as experiments and yield data about these systems. It is commonly argued that they do so because they are implemented on physical machines. We claim that physicality is not necessary for their representational and predictive capacities and that the explanation of why computer simulations generate desired information about their target system (...)
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  5.  69
    Computer Simulations as Scientific Instruments.Ramón Alvarado - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1183-1205.
    Computer simulations have conventionally been understood to be either extensions of formal methods such as mathematical models or as special cases of empirical practices such as experiments. Here, I argue that computer simulations are best understood as instruments. Understanding them as such can better elucidate their actual role as well as their potential epistemic standing in relation to science and other scientific methods, practices and devices.
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  6.  91
    Computer Simulations, Machine Learning and the Laplacean Demon: Opacity in the Case of High Energy Physics.Florian J. Boge & Paul Grünke - forthcoming - In Andreas Kaminski, Michael Resch & Petra Gehring (eds.), The Science and Art of Simulation II.
    In this paper, we pursue three general aims: (I) We will define a notion of fundamental opacity and ask whether it can be found in High Energy Physics (HEP), given the involvement of machine learning (ML) and computer simulations (CS) therein. (II) We identify two kinds of non-fundamental, contingent opacity associated with CS and ML in HEP respectively, and ask whether, and if so how, they may be overcome. (III) We address the question of whether any kind of opacity, (...)
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  7. Computer Simulation, Measurement, and Data Assimilation.Wendy S. Parker - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (1):273-304.
    This article explores some of the roles of computer simulation in measurement. A model-based view of measurement is adopted and three types of measurement—direct, derived, and complex—are distinguished. It is argued that while computer simulations on their own are not measurement processes, in principle they can be embedded in direct, derived, and complex measurement practices in such a way that simulation results constitute measurement outcomes. Atmospheric data assimilation is then considered as a case study. This practice, (...)
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  8. Do computer simulations support the Argument from Disagreement?Aron Vallinder & Erik J. Olsson - 2013 - Synthese 190 (8):1437-1454.
    According to the Argument from Disagreement (AD) widespread and persistent disagreement on ethical issues indicates that our moral opinions are not influenced by moral facts, either because there are no such facts or because there are such facts but they fail to influence our moral opinions. In an innovative paper, Gustafsson and Peterson (Synthese, published online 16 October, 2010) study the argument by means of computer simulation of opinion dynamics, relying on the well-known model of Hegselmann and Krause (...)
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  9. Are computer simulations experiments? And if not, how are they related to each other?Claus Beisbart - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (2):171-204.
    Computer simulations and experiments share many important features. One way of explaining the similarities is to say that computer simulations just are experiments. This claim is quite popular in the literature. The aim of this paper is to argue against the claim and to develop an alternative explanation of why computer simulations resemble experiments. To this purpose, experiment is characterized in terms of an intervention on a system and of the observation of the reaction. Thus, if (...) simulations are experiments, either the computer hardware or the target system must be intervened on and observed. I argue against the first option using the non-observation argument, among others. The second option is excluded by e.g. the over-control argument, which stresses epistemological differences between experiments and simulations. To account for the similarities between experiments and computer simulations, I propose to say that computer simulations can model possible experiments and do in fact often do so. (shrink)
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  10. Is computer simulation changing the face of experimentation?Ronald N. Giere - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (1):59 - 62.
    Morrison points out many similarities between the roles of simulation models and other sorts of models in science. On the basis of these similarities she claims that running a simulation is epistemologically on a par with doing a traditional experiment and that the output of a simulation therefore counts as a measurement. I agree with her premises but reject the inference. The epistemological payoff of a traditional experiment is greater (or less) confidence in the fit between a (...)
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  11. Computer simulation and the philosophy of science.Eric Winsberg - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (5):835-845.
    There are a variety of topics in the philosophy of science that need to be rethought, in varying degrees, after one pays careful attention to the ways in which computer simulations are used in the sciences. There are a number of conceptual issues internal to the practice of computer simulation that can benefit from the attention of philosophers. This essay surveys some of the recent literature on simulation from the perspective of the philosophy of science and (...)
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  12.  63
    Computer Simulation Validation: Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives.Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam (eds.) - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This unique volume introduces and discusses the methods of validating computer simulations in scientific research. The core concepts, strategies, and techniques of validation are explained by an international team of pre-eminent authorities, drawing on expertise from various fields ranging from engineering and the physical sciences to the social sciences and history. The work also offers new and original philosophical perspectives on the validation of simulations. Topics and features: introduces the fundamental concepts and principles related to the validation of (...) simulations, and examines philosophical frameworks for thinking about validation; provides an overview of the various strategies and techniques available for validating simulations, as well as the preparatory steps that have to be taken prior to validation; describes commonly used reference points and mathematical frameworks applicable to simulation validation; reviews the legal prescriptions, and the administrative and procedural activities related to simulation validation; presents examples of best practice that demonstrate how methods of validation are applied in various disciplines and with different types of simulation models; covers important practical challenges faced by simulation scientists when applying validation methods and techniques; offers a selection of general philosophical reflections that explore the significance of validation from a broader perspective. This truly interdisciplinary handbook will appeal to a broad audience, from professional scientists spanning all natural and social sciences, to young scholars new to research with computer simulations. Philosophers of science, and methodologists seeking to increase their understanding of simulation validation, will also find much to benefit from in the text. (shrink)
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  13.  86
    Why computer simulations are not inferences, and in what sense they are experiments.Florian J. Boge - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (1):1-30.
    The question of where, between theory and experiment, computer simulations (CSs) locate on the methodological map is one of the central questions in the epistemology of simulation (cf. Saam Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 48, 293–309, 2017). The two extremes on the map have them either be a kind of experiment in their own right (e.g. Barberousse et al. Synthese, 169, 557–574, 2009; Morgan 2002, 2003, Journal of Economic Methodology, 12(2), 317–329, 2005; Morrison Philosophical Studies, 143, 33–57, (...)
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  14. Computer simulation: The cooperation between experimenting and modeling.Johannes Lenhard - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (2):176-194.
    The goal of the present article is to contribute to the epistemology and methodology of computer simulations. The central thesis is that the process of simulation modeling takes the form of an explorative cooperation between experimenting and modeling. This characteristic mode of modeling turns simulations into autonomous mediators in a specific way; namely, it makes it possible for the phenomena and the data to exert a direct influence on the model. The argumentation will be illustrated by a case (...)
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  15. Computer Simulations.Paul Humphreys - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:497 - 506.
    This article provides a survey of some of the reasons why computational approaches have become a permanent addition to the set of scientific methods. The reasons for this require us to represent the relation between theories and their applications in a different way than do the traditional logical accounts extant in the philosophical literature. A working definition of computer simulations is provided and some properties of simulations are explored by considering an example from quantum chemistry.
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  16. Computer simulation through an error-statistical lens.Wendy S. Parker - 2008 - Synthese 163 (3):371-384.
    After showing how Deborah Mayo’s error-statistical philosophy of science might be applied to address important questions about the evidential status of computer simulation results, I argue that an error-statistical perspective offers an interesting new way of thinking about computer simulation models and has the potential to significantly improve the practice of simulation model evaluation. Though intended primarily as a contribution to the epistemology of simulation, the analysis also serves to fill in details of Mayo’s (...)
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  17.  42
    Computer Simulations: An Inferential Conception.Otávio Bueno - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):378-398.
    In this paper, I offer an inferential conception of computer simulations, emphasizing the role that simulations play as inferential devices to represent empirical phenomena. Three steps are involved in a simulation: an immersion step, a derivation step, and an interpretation and correction step. After presenting the view, I mention some cases, such as simulations of the current flow between silicon atoms and buckyballs as well as of genetic regulatory systems. I argue that the inferential conception accommodates the integration (...)
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  18.  42
    Computer simulations and the changing face of scientific experimentation.Juan M. Durán & Eckhart Arnold (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    In this volume, scientists, historians, and philosophers join to examine computer simulations in scientific practice. One central aim of the volume is to provide a multiperspective view on the topic. Therefore, the text includes philosophical studies on computer simulations, as well as case studies from simulation practice, and historical studies of the evolution of simulations as a research method.
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  19. Computer Simulations in Science.Eric Winsberg - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. The philosophical novelty of computer simulation methods.Paul Humphreys - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):615 - 626.
    Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set of scientific methods and that these methods introduce new issues in the philosophy of science. These issues are both epistemological and methodological in kind.
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  21.  5
    Computer Simulation in the Physical Sciences.Fritz Rohrlich - 1990 - PSA Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990 (2):507-518.
    The central claim of this paper is that computer simulation provides (though not exclusively) a qualitatively new and different methodology for the physical sciences, and that this methodology lies somewhere intermediate between traditional theoretical physical science and its empirical methods of experimentation and observation. In many cases it involves a new syntax which gradually replaces the old, and it involves theoretical model experimentation in a qualitatively new and interesting way. Scientific activity has thus reached a new milestone somewhat (...)
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  22.  31
    Why Computer Simulation Cannot Be an End of Thought Experimentation.N. K. Shinod - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (3):431-453.
    Computer simulation and thought experiments seem to produce knowledge about the world without intervening in the world. This has called for a comparison between the two methods. However, Chandrasekharan et al. argue that the nature of contemporary science is too complex for using TEs. They suggest CS as the tool for contemporary sciences and conclude that it will replace TEs. In this paper, by discussing a few TEs from the history of science, I show that the replacement thesis (...)
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  23.  45
    Computer Simulations, Idealizations and Approximations.Ronald Laymon - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:519 - 534.
    It's uncontroversial that notions of idealization and approximation are central to understanding computer simulations and their rationale. What's not so clear is what exactly these notions come to. Two distinct forms of approximation will be distinguished and their features contrasted with those of idealizations. These distinctions will be refined and closely tied to computer simulations by means of Scott-Strachey denotational programming semantics. The use of this sort of semantics also provides a convenient format for argumentation in favor of (...)
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  24. Computer simulations and the trading zone.Peter Galison - 1996 - In Peter Galison & David J. Stump (eds.), The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power. Stanford University Press. pp. 118--157.
     
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  25.  73
    Computer simulations and experiments: The case of the Higgs boson.Michela Massimi & Wahid Bhimji - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 51 (C):71-81.
  26.  24
    Computer simulations and experiments: in vivo–in vitro conditions in biochemistry.Pio Garcia - 2015 - Foundations of Chemistry 17 (1):49-65.
    Scientific practices have been changed by the increasing use of computer simulations. A central question for philosophers is how to characterize computer simulations. In this paper, we address this question by analyzing simulations in biochemistry. We propose that simulations have been used in biochemistry long before computers arrived. Simulation can be described as a surrogate relationship between models. Moreover, a simulative aspect is implicit in the classical dichotomy between in vivo–in vitro conditions. Based on a discussion about (...)
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  27. Computer Simulation of Human Thinking: An Inquiry into its Possibility and Implications.Napoleon Mabaquiao Jr - 2011 - Philosophia 40 (1):76-87.
    Critical in the computationalist account of the mind is the phenomenon called computational or computer simulation of human thinking, which is used to establish the theses that human thinking is a computational process and that computing machines are thinking systems. Accordingly, if human thinking can be simulated computationally then human thinking is a computational process; and if human thinking is a computational process then its computational simulation is itself a thinking process. This paper shows that the said (...)
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  28.  63
    Introduction: Computer Simulations in Social Epistemology.Igor Douven - 2009 - Episteme 6 (2):107-109.
    Over recent decades, computer simulations have become a common tool among practitioners of the social sciences. They have been utilized to study such diverse phenomena as the integration and segregation of different racial groups, the emergence and evolution of friendship networks, the spread of gossip, fluctuations of housing prices in an area, the transmission of social norms, and many more. Philosophers of science and others interested in the methodological status of these studies have identified a number of distinctive virtues (...)
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  29. How can computer simulations produce new knowledge?Claus Beisbart - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):395-434.
    It is often claimed that scientists can obtain new knowledge about nature by running computer simulations. How is this possible? I answer this question by arguing that computer simulations are arguments. This view parallels Norton’s argument view about thought experiments. I show that computer simulations can be reconstructed as arguments that fully capture the epistemic power of the simulations. Assuming the extended mind hypothesis, I furthermore argue that running the computer simulation is to execute the (...)
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  30.  11
    Computer Simulations as Fiction in Science.Miloš Agatonović - 2022 - Balkan Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):5-10.
    The present paper intends to show that computer simulations used in science are akin to fiction. Starting from the problem of defining computer simulation, the paper discusses the uses and disadvantages of simulations in science. Computer simulations have a representational function, but they do not resemble the phenomena that they purport to represent. Computer simulations do not preserve the content of the models, input data, and theories from which they proceed, since the content is modified (...)
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  31. A Computer Simulation of the Argument from Disagreement.Johan E. Gustafsson & Martin Peterson - 2012 - Synthese 184 (3):387-405.
    In this paper we shed new light on the Argument from Disagreement by putting it to test in a computer simulation. According to this argument widespread and persistent disagreement on ethical issues indicates that our moral opinions are not influenced by any moral facts, either because no such facts exist or because they are epistemically inaccessible or inefficacious for some other reason. Our simulation shows that if our moral opinions were influenced at least a little bit by (...)
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  32.  42
    Computer Simulation, Experiment, and Novelty.Julie Jebeile - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (4):379-395.
    It is often said that computer simulations generate new knowledge about the empirical world in the same way experiments do. My aim is to make sense of such a claim. I first show that the similarities between computer simulations and experiments do not allow them to generate new knowledge but invite the simulationist to interact with simulations in an experimental manner. I contend that, nevertheless, computer simulations and experiments yield new knowledge under the same epistemic circumstances, independently (...)
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  33.  8
    Computer simulations and surrogative reasoning for the design of new robots.Viola Schiaffonati & Edoardo Datteri - 2023 - Synthese 202 (1):1-20.
    Computer simulations are widely used for surrogative reasoning in scientific research. They also play a crucial role in engineering, more specifically in the design of new robotic systems, yet the nature of this role has been little discussed so far in the philosophy of technology literature. The main claim made in this article is that the notion of surrogative reasoning is central to understanding how computer simulations can serve the purpose of designing new robots. More specifically, it is (...)
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  34. Models, measurement and computer simulation: the changing face of experimentation.Margaret Morrison - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33-57.
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By focussing (...)
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  35. Computer Simulations: A New Mode of Scientific Inquiry?Stéphanie Ruphy - 2015 - In Sven Ove Hansson (ed.), The Role of Technology in Science: Philosophical Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Verlag.
     
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  36.  17
    Computer Simulations of Developmental Change: The Contributions of Working Memory Capacity and Long‐Term Knowledge.Gary Jones, Fernand Gobet & Julian M. Pine - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (7):1148-1176.
    Increasing working memory (WM) capacity is often cited as a major influence on children's development and yet WM capacity is difficult to examine independently of long‐term knowledge. A computational model of children's nonword repetition (NWR) performance is presented that independently manipulates long‐term knowledge and WM capacity to determine the relative contributions of each in explaining the developmental data. The simulations show that (a) both mechanisms independently cause the same overall developmental changes in NWR performance, (b) increase in long‐term knowledge provides (...)
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  37.  70
    Computer simulations in game theory.Paul Weirich - manuscript
    A computer simulation runs a model generating a phenomenon under investigation. For the simulation to be explanatory, the model has to be explanatory. The model must be isomorphic to the natural system that realizes the phenomenon. This paper elaborates the method of assessing a simulation's explanatory power. Then it illustrates the method by applying it to two simulations in game theory. The first is Brian Skyrms's (1990) simulation of interactive deliberations. It is intended to explain (...)
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  38. Does matter really matter? Computer simulations, experiments, and materiality.Wendy S. Parker - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):483-496.
    A number of recent discussions comparing computer simulation and traditional experimentation have focused on the significance of “materiality.” I challenge several claims emerging from this work and suggest that computer simulation studies are material experiments in a straightforward sense. After discussing some of the implications of this material status for the epistemology of computer simulation, I consider the extent to which materiality (in a particular sense) is important when it comes to making justified inferences (...)
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  39. Why Simpler Computer Simulation Models Can Be Epistemically Better for Informing Decisions.Casey Helgeson, Vivek Srikrishnan, Klaus Keller & Nancy Tuana - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (2):213-233.
    For computer simulation models to usefully inform climate risk management, uncertainties in model projections must be explored and characterized. Because doing so requires running the model many ti...
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  40.  72
    Computer simulation and philosophy of science: Eric Winsberg: Science in the age of computer simulation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010, 168pp, $24.00 PB.Wendy S. Parker - 2011 - Metascience 21 (1):111-114.
    Computer simulation and philosophy of science Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9567-8 Authors Wendy S. Parker, Department of Philosophy, Ellis Hall 202, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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    Computer simulation of dental professionals as a moral community.David W. Chambers - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):467-476.
    Current empirical studies of moral behavior of healthcare professionals are almost entirely focused on self-reports, usually collected under the assumption that an ethical disposition characterizes individuals across various contexts. It is well known, however, that individuals adjust their behavior to what they see being done by those in their peer group. That presents a methodological challenge to traditional research within a community of peers because the behavior of each individual is both the result of norms and a contributor to the (...)
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  42. Validation of Computer Simulations from a Kuhnian Perspective.Eckhart Arnold - 2019 - In Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam (eds.), Computer Simulation Validation: Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 203-224.
    While Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions does not specifically deal with validation, the validation of simulations can be related in various ways to Kuhn's theory: 1) Computer simulations are sometimes depicted as located between experiments and theoretical reasoning, thus potentially blurring the line between theory and empirical research. Does this require a new kind of research logic that is different from the classical paradigm which clearly distinguishes between theory and empirical observation? I argue that this is not the (...)
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  43.  10
    Complexity Computer Simulation in the Study of the Overall Playing Method of Campus Football.Zhao Dai - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-9.
    With the mutual exchange and integration of world football, modern football is in an increasingly comprehensive direction. This research mainly discusses complexity computer simulation in the study of the overall play of campus football. Complexity computer simulation is used to design the background of the simulated football field, and the area is divided according to the size ratio of the actual football field. Then, it uses drawing software to draw the football and player controls. The construction (...)
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    Computer Simulations Then and Now: an Introduction and Historical Reassessment.Arianna Borrelli & Janina Wellmann - 2019 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 27 (4):407-417.
  45.  9
    A computer simulation study of the structures of twin boundaries in body-centred cubic crystals.P. D. Bristowe & A. G. Crocker - 1975 - Philosophical Magazine 31 (3):503-517.
  46.  15
    Simulating Science: Computer Simulations as Scientific Instruments.Ramón Alvarado - 2023 - Springer Verlag.
    This book provides a philosophical framework to understand computer simulations as scientific instruments. This is in sharp contrast to existing philosophical approaches on the subject, which have historically understood computer simulations as either formal abstractions or as broadly construed empirical practices. In order to make its case, the volume contains a thorough examination of conventional philosophical approaches as well as their respective limitations. Yet, also, unlike other accounts of computer simulations from the perspective of the philosophy of (...)
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  47.  11
    Towards Computer Simulations of Virtue Ethics.Jeremiah A. Lasquety-Reyes - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):399-413.
    This article presents two approaches for computer simulations of virtue ethics in the context of agent-based modeling, a simple way and a complex way. The simple way represents virtues as numeric variables that are invoked in specific events or situations. This way can easily be implemented and included in social simulations. On the other hand, the complex way requires a PECS framework: physical, cognitive, emotional, and social components need to be implemented in agents. Virtue is the result of the (...)
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  48.  2
    Computer Simulations, Idealizations and Approximations.Ronald Laymon - 1990 - PSA Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990 (2):519-534.
    It’s uncontroversial that notions of idealization and approximation are central to understanding computer simulations and their rationale. So, for example, one common form of computer simulation is to abandon a realistic approach that is computationally non-tractable for a more idealized but computationally tractable approach. Many simulations of systems of interacting members can be understood this way. In such simulations, realistic descriptions of individual members are replaced with less realistic descriptions which have the virtue of making interactions computationally (...)
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  49.  21
    Computer simulation modelling and visualization of 3d architecture of biological tissues.Carole J. Clem & Jean Paul Rigaut - 1995 - Acta Biotheoretica 43 (4):425-442.
    Recent technical improvements, such as 3D microscopy imaging, have shown the necessity of studying 3D biological tissue architecture during carcinogenesis. In the present paper a computer simulation model is developed allowing the visualization of the microscopic biological tissue architecture during the development of metaplastic and dysplastic lesions.The static part of the model allows the simulation of the normal, metaplastic and dysplastic architecture of an external epithelium. This model is associated to a knowledge base which contains only data (...)
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  50.  66
    Evidence and Knowledge from Computer Simulation.Wendy S. Parker - 2020 - Erkenntnis 87 (4):1521-1538.
    Can computer simulation results be evidence for hypotheses about real-world systems and phenomena? If so, what sort of evidence? Can we gain genuinely new knowledge of the world via simulation? I argue that evidence from computer simulation is aptly characterized as higher-order evidence: it is evidence that other evidence regarding a hypothesis about the world has been collected. Insofar as particular epistemic agents do not have this other evidence, it is possible that they will gain (...)
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