Results for 'Competition'

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  1. Entry form.Pif Gold Medal Competition - 2012 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press. pp. 400.
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  2. Complexity of meaning, 3 Complexity of processing operations, 3 Conceptual classes, 103 Connectionism, 61, 80, 86, 87.Competition Model - 2005 - Behaviorism 34:83.
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  3.  9
    Re-thinking trust in a performative culture: the case of post-compulsory education.Competitiveness Settlement - 2004 - In Jerome Satterthwaite, Elizabeth Atkinson & Wendy Martin (eds.), The Disciplining of Education: New Languages of Power and Resistance. Trentham Books. pp. 2--69.
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  4. Competition as cooperation.C. Thi Nguyen - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (1):123-137.
    Games have a complex, and seemingly paradoxical structure: they are both competitive and cooperative, and the competitive element is required for the cooperative element to work out. They are mechanisms for transforming competition into cooperation. Several contemporary philosophers of sport have located the primary mechanism of conversion in the mental attitudes of the players. I argue that these views cannot capture the phenomenological complexity of game-play, nor the difficulty and moral complexity of achieving cooperation through game-play. In this paper, (...)
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  5. How Competitive Can Virtuous Envy Be?Rosalind Chaplin - 2024 - Apa Studies 23 (2):30-33.
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  6. Reasons, Competition, and Latitude.Justin Snedegar - 2021 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics Volume 16. Oxford University Press.
    The overall moral status of an option—whether it is required, permissible, forbidden, or something we really should do—is explained by competition between the contributory reasons bearing on that option and the alternatives. A familiar challenge for accounts of this competition is to explain the existence of latitude: there are usually multiple permissible options, rather than a single required option. One strategy is to appeal to distinctions between reasons that compete in different ways. Philosophers have introduced various kinds of (...)
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  7. The competition for knowledge: Shades of gray and rules of thumb.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (3):50 - 62.
    All research is immersed in the competition for knowledge, but this is not always governed by fairness. In this opinion article, I elaborate on indicators of unfairness to be found in both evaluation guides and evaluation panels, and I spontaneously offer a number of rules of thumb meant to keep it at bay. Although they are explicitly offered to the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and in particular to the evaluation panel for Philosophy, Ethics and Religion of (...)
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  8.  52
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Joseph Heath (ed.) - 2014 - New York: Oup Usa.
    In four new and nine previously published essays, Joseph Heath provides a compelling new framework for thinking about the moral obligations of economic actors. The "market failures" approach to business ethics that he develops provides the basis for a unified theory of business ethics, corporate law, economic regulation, and the welfare state.
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  9.  22
    Competition and its tendency to corrupt philosophy.Yvette Drissen - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 1 (9):5–27.
    Competition plays a substantial and structural role in philosophy today. It is therefore remarkable that it has received little systematic ethical scrutiny in the literature until now. This paper aims to contribute to establishing a discussion about competition in the discipline of philosophy by arguing (i) that philosophy is not inherently competitive and (ii) that competition tends to corrupt the practice of philosophy. Regarding (i), I argue that philosophy can best be understood as a cooperative endeavour. The (...)
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  10.  54
    Competitive Irrationality in Transitional Economies: Are Communist Managers Less Irrational?Lance E. Brouthers, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu & Steve Werner - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):397-408.
    Why do marketing managers in the transitional economies of Eastern Europe and China often engage in competitively irrational behavior, choosing pricing strategies that damage competitors’ profits, rather than choosing pricing strategies that improve their firm’s profits? We propose one possible reason, the moral vacuum created by the collapse of communist ideology. We hypothesize and find that managers who experienced formal communist moral ideological indoctrination are less likely to be competitively irrational than the post-communist managers who did not. Implications are discussed.
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  11.  52
    Competition, Redemption, and Hope.Scott Kretchmar - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):101-116.
    Zero-sum aspects of sport have generated a number of ethical concerns and a similar number of defenses or apologetics. The trick has been to find a middle position that neither overly gentrifies sport nor inappropriately emphasizes the significance of winning and losing. One such position would have us focus on the process of trying to win over the fact of having one. It would also ameliorate any harms associated with defeat by pointing out that benefits like achievement, excellence, and moral (...)
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  12.  65
    Virtual competitions and the gamer’s dilemma.Karim Nader - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):239-245.
    This paper expands Rami Ali’s dissolution of the gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 17:267-274, 2015). Morgan Luck’s gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 11(1):31-36, 2009) rests on our having diverging intuition when considering virtual murder and virtual child molestation in video games. Virtual murder is seemingly permissible, when virtual child molestation is not and there is no obvious morally relevant difference between the two. Ali argues that virtual murder and virtual child molestation are equally permissible/impermissible when considered under different modes of (...)
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  13.  3
    Competition in Religious Life.Jay Newman - 2006 - Wilfrid Laurier Press.
    In his latest work on the social consequences of religious commitment, Jay Newman reveals in clear and concise fashion the extent to which competitiveness is an essential feature of religious life. His assessment charts various classical strategies that have been proposed for either eliminating such competitiveness or directing it into appropriate channels. After a detailed philosophical analysis of the nature and value of competition, the author examines competition between denominations and within denominations, and considers religious competition in (...)
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  14.  85
    Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche.Thomas R. Alley - 1982 - Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):165-179.
    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible (...)
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  15.  97
    The perverse effects of competition on scientists' work and relationships.Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, (...)
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  16.  34
    Non-Competition Covenants in Case of a Business Transfer.Virginijus Bitė - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (1):177-198.
    The validity (probability) of non-competition covenants which are typical for business transfer transactions is one of those issues on which discussions go in the international business transfer theory and practice. On one hand, such covenants help ensure the business interests of the buyer, on the other hand, by their nature, they can mean a restriction of competition, which is prohibited by law. This article, based on the analysis of the European Union, the Lithuanian and foreign legislation, case-law and (...)
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  17.  13
    Competitive and Coordinative Interactions between Body Parts Produce Adaptive Developmental Outcomes.Richard Gawne, Kenneth Z. McKenna & Michael Levin - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (8):1900245.
    Large‐scale patterns of correlated growth in development are partially driven by competition for metabolic and informational resources. It is argued that competition between organs for limited resources is an important mesoscale morphogenetic mechanism that produces fitness‐enhancing correlated growth. At the genetic level, the growth of individual characters appears independent, or “modular,” because patterns of expression and transcription are often highly localized, mutations have trait‐specific effects, and gene complexes can be co‐opted as a unit to produce novel traits. However, (...)
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  18.  21
    Competitive morality.Gilbert Roberts - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):97-98.
    Baumard et al. argue that partner choice leads to fairness and mutualism, which then form the basis for morality. I comment that mutualism takes us only so far, and I apply the theory of competitive altruism in arguing how strategic investment in behaviours which make one a desirable partner may drive moral conduct.
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  19. Competition Theory and Channeling Explanation.Christopher H. Eliot - 2011 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 3 (20130604):1-16.
    The complexity and heterogeneity of causes influencing ecology’s domain challenge its capacity to generate a general theory without exceptions, raising the question of whether ecology is capable, even in principle, of achieving the sort of theoretical success enjoyed by physics. Weber has argued that competition theory built around the Competitive Exclusion Principle (especially Tilman’s resource-competition model) offers an example of ecology identifying a law-like causal regularity. However, I suggest that as Weber presents it, the CEP is not yet (...)
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  20.  49
    Competitive Irrationality: The Influence of Moral Philosophy.Dennis B. Arnett & Shelby D. Hunt - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):279-303.
    Abstract:This study explores a phenomenon that has been shown to adversely affect managers’ decisions—competitive irrationality. Managers are irrationally competitive in their decisions when they focus on damaging the profits of competitors, rather than improving their own profit performance. Studies by Armstrong and Collopy (1996) and Griffith and Rust (1997) suggest that the phenomenon is common but not universal. We examine the question of why some individuals exhibit competitive irrationality when making decisions, while others do not by focusing on four aspects (...)
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  21. Cue competition effects and young children's causal and counterfactual inferences.Teresa McCormack, Stephen Andrew Butterfill, Christoph Hoerl & Patrick Burns - 2009 - Developmental Psychology 45 (6):1563-1575.
    The authors examined cue competition effects in young children using the blicket detector paradigm, in which objects are placed either singly or in pairs on a novel machine and children must judge which objects have the causal power to make the machine work. Cue competition effects were found in a 5- to 6-year-old group but not in a 4-year-old group. Equivalent levels of forward and backward blocking were found in the former group. Children's counterfactual judgments were subsequently examined (...)
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  22. The Competition Account of Achievement‐Value.Ian D. Dunkle - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (4):1018-1046.
    A great achievement makes one’s life go better independently of its results, but what makes an achievement great? A simple answer is—its difficulty. I defend this view against recent, pressing objections by interpreting difficulty in terms of competitiveness. Difficulty is determined not by how hard the agent worked for the end but by how hard others would need to do in order to compete. Successfully reaching a goal is a valuable achievement because it is difficult, and it is difficult because (...)
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  23. Peer competition and cooperation.Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera - 2018 - In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Basel:
    Peer competition and peer cooperation can be intuitively seen as opposing phenomena. However, depending on multiple factors, they might be complementary. In a population divided into groups, for instance, members of each group may cooperate with their peers in order to compete with neighboring groups. Alternatively, they may compete with their peers as a means of choosing the best cooperative partners and demonstrate that they are reliable cooperative partners. For instance, if subjects can choose with whom they wish to (...)
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  24.  71
    The competition controversy in community ecology.Gregory Cooper - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):359-384.
    There is a long history of controversy in ecology over the role of competition in determining patterns of distribution and abundance, and over the significance of the mathematical modeling of competitive interactions. This paper examines the controversy. Three kinds of considerations have been involved at one time or another during the history of this debate. There has been dispute about the kinds of regularities ecologists can expect to find, about the significance of evolutionary considerations for ecological inquiry, and about (...)
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  25.  50
    Hypothesis Competition beyond Mutual Exclusivity.Jonah N. Schupbach & David H. Glass - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):810-824.
    Competition between scientific hypotheses is not always a matter of mutual exclusivity. Consistent hypotheses can compete to varying degrees either directly or indirectly via a body of evidence. We motivate and defend a particular account of hypothesis competition by showing how it captures these features. Computer simulations of Bayesian inference are used to highlight the limitations of adopting mutual exclusivity as a simplifying assumption to model scientific reasoning, particularly due to the exclusion of hypotheses that may be true. (...)
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  26. How competition harmed banking: the need for a pelican gambit.Thomas Donaldson - 2019 - In Christopher Cowton & James Dempsey (eds.), Business Ethics After the Global Financial Crisis: Lessons From the Crash. New York: Routledge.
     
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  27.  34
    Competition and Integration among Stock Exchanges: The Dilemma of Conflicting Regulatory Objectives and Strategies.Mahmood Bagheri & Chizu Nakajima - 2004 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24 (1):69-97.
    Different aspects of competition in stock exchanges have been discussed from either a positive or normative perspective, but this article seeks to come up with an approach encompassing both positive and normative dimensions of competition in various aspects of stock exchanges' activities. As far as the positive nature of the securities market and industry is concerned, conflicting trends are emerging. The liberalization of securities markets and the disappearance of technical barriers have dismantled the monopoly of national stock exchanges (...)
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  28.  21
    Employee Competitive Attitude and Competitive Behavior Promote Job-Crafting and Performance: A Two-Component Dynamic Model.Haifeng Wang, Lei Wang & Chunquan Liu - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:416339.
    While competition has become increasingly fierce in organizations and in the broader market, the research on competition at an individual level is limited. Most existing research focuses on trait competitiveness. We argue that employee competitiveness can be state-like and can be demonstrated as an attitude toward and behavior representative of competition. We therefore propose a dynamic model with two separate components: competitive attitude and competitive behavior. Drawing upon self-determination theory and the person-environment interaction perspective, we examine how (...)
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  29. Competition for consciousness among visual events: The psychophysics of reentrant visual processes.Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 129 (4):481-507.
    Advances in neuroscience implicate reentrant signaling as the predominant form of communication between brain areas. This principle was used in a series of masking experiments that defy explanation by feed-forward theories. The masking occurs when a brief display of target plus mask is continued with the mask alone. Two masking processes were found: an early process affected by physical factors such as adapting luminance and a later process affected by attentional factors such as set size. This later process is called (...)
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  30.  12
    Resource competition and reproduction.Eckart Voland & R. I. M. Dunbar - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (1):33-49.
    A family reconstitution study of the Krummhörn population (Ostfriesland, Germany, 1720–1874) reveals that infant mortality and children’s probabilities of marrying or emigrating unmarried are affected by the number of living same-sexed sibs in farmers’ families but not in the families of landless laborers. We interpret these results in terms of a “local resource competition” model in which resource-holding families are obliged to manipulate the reproductive future of their offspring. In contrast, families that lack resources have no need to manipulate (...)
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  31.  51
    Competitive Learning: From Interactive Activation to Adaptive Resonance.Stephen Grossberg - 1987 - Cognitive Science 11 (1):23-63.
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  32.  98
    Digraph Competitions and Cooperative Games.René van Den Brink & Peter Borm - 2002 - Theory and Decision 53 (4):327-342.
    Digraph games are cooperative TU-games associated to domination structures which can be modeled by directed graphs. Examples come from sports competitions or from simple majority win digraphs corresponding to preference profiles in social choice theory. The Shapley value, core, marginal vectors and selectope vectors of digraph games are characterized in terms of so-called simple score vectors. A general characterization of the class of (almost positive) TU-games where each selectope vector is a marginal vector is provided in terms of game semi-circuits. (...)
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  33. Regulation, Competition, and Liberalization.Mark Armstrong - unknown
    In many countries throughout the world, regulators are struggling to determine whether and how to introduce competition into regulated industries. This essay exam- ines the complexities involved in the liberalization process. While stressing the impor- tance of case-specific analyses, this essay distinguishes liberalization policies that generally are procompetitive from corresponding anticompetitive liberalization policies.
     
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  34.  9
    Competitive Governments: An Economic Theory of Politics and Public Finance.Albert Breton - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Competitive Governments, explores in a systematic way the hypothesis that governments are internally competitive, that they are competitive in their relations with each other and in their relations with other institutions in society which, like them, supply consuming households with goods and services. Breton contends that competition not only serves to bring the political system to an equilibrium, but it also leads to a revelation of the households' true demand functions for publicly provided goods and services and to the (...)
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  35.  11
    Competition in Education.R. F. Dearden - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 6 (1):119-133.
    R F Dearden; Competition in Education, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 6, Issue 1, 30 May 2006, Pages 119–133, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.19.
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  36.  44
    Homer, Competition, and Sport.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):33-51.
    In this article I argue both that an understanding of sport’s general character as competitive play can help us to read Homer more insightfully and that this reading can boomerang back to us to further illuminate the sport as competitive play thesis. My overall method is that of (Rawlsian) reflective equilibrium. The three sections of Homer that I examine are the Phaiacian games in Book 8 of the ‘Odyssey’, the Patroclos games in Book 23 of the ‘Iliad’, and the Penelope (...)
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  37. Competition and Morality.James D. Carlson, Adam D. Bailey & Ronald K. Mitchell - 2013 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 24:2-5.
    We review an argument that proposes two moralities—“everyday” moral norms and “adversarial” moral norms—are required for business contexts. We take issue with an implication of this idea, namely that competitive actions do not need to be in accord with “everyday” moral norms. After showing that the argument for two moralities in business does not succeed, we propose a distinction between two types of competitive actions: principled, those actions which comport with every day morality, and merely self-interested, those actions that do (...)
     
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  38.  1
    Consideration on Validity of 'Competition for Wedding' Structure. 염중섭 - 2009 - Journal of Eastern Philosophy 57:345-383.
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  39.  16
    No Competition Without Solidarity? Three Normative Frameworks for Analyzing the Fairness of Competition.Christian Arnsperger - 2011 - Ethical Perspectives 18 (3):355-383.
    This paper argues that the question of the compatibility between competition and solidarity needs to be clarified by distinguishing a variety of possible normative frameworks. Using a core metaphor of a race between runners hired by stadiums, I develop and discuss three ethical frameworks: the emergentist perspective, which considers that competition is in itself the locus of solidarity; the social-democratic perspective, which views solidarity as the main counterweight to the abrasive effects of competition – without, however, calling (...)
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  40.  65
    Competitive Bluffing: An Examination of a Common Practice and its Relationship with Performance.Rebecca M. Guidice, G. Stoney Alder & Steven E. Phelan - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):535-553.
    Bluffing, a common and consequential form of competitive behavior, has been comparably ignored in the management literature, even though misleading one's rivals is suggested to be an advantageous skill in a multifaceted and highly competitive environment. To address this deficiency and advance scholarship on competitive dynamics, our study investigates the moral reasoning behind competitive bluffing and, using a simulated market-entry game, examines the performance effects of bluffing. Findings suggest that decision makers' views on the ethicality of bluffing competitors differ from (...)
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  41.  15
    Competition and its tendency to corrupt philosophy.Yvette Drissen - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 9 (1):5-27.
    Competition plays a substantial and structural role in philosophy today. It is therefore remarkable that it has received little systematic ethical scrutiny in the literature until now. This paper aims to contribute to establishing a discussion about competition in the discipline of philosophy by arguing that philosophy is not inherently competitive and that competition tends to corrupt the practice of philosophy. Regarding, I argue that philosophy can best be understood as a cooperative endeavour. The idea that philosophy (...)
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  42.  74
    Mixed Competition and Mixed Messages.Pam R. Sailors - 2014 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41 (1):65-77.
    A survey of the philosophy of sport literature reveals that arguments regarding the issue of sex segregation in athletics have been advanced from time to time, but there has been little sustained discussion, no consensus, and no change in existing practice. In this paper, an effort to advance the conversation, I begin with Jane English’s seminal 1978 article as a springboard and employ existing literature on the question of sex segregation in order to raise difficulties with English’s analysis and outline (...)
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  43.  39
    Competition and cooperation among similar representations: Toward a unified account of facilitative and inhibitory effects of lexical neighbors.Qi Chen & Daniel Mirman - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (2):417-430.
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  44.  80
    Affirmative Action without Competition.Andreas Bengtson - forthcoming - American Journal of Political Science.
    Affirmative action is standardly pursued in relation to admissions to prestigious universities, in hiring for prestigious jobs, and when it comes to being elected to parliament. Central to these forms of affirmative action is that they have to do with competitive goods. A good is competitive when, if we improve A’s chances of getting the good, we reduce B’s chances of obtaining the good. I call this Competitive Affirmative Action. I distinguish this from Non-competitive Affirmative Action. The latter has to (...)
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  45.  18
    Competitive Recovery–Stress and Mood States in Mexican Youth Athletes.Luis Felipe Reynoso-Sánchez, Germán Pérez-Verduzco, Miguel Ángel Celestino-Sánchez, Jeanette M. López-Walle, Jorge Zamarripa, Blanca Rocío Rangel-Colmenero, Hussein Muñoz-Helú & Germán Hernández-Cruz - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    BackgroundMonitoring recovery–stress balance in sport is becoming more relevant to prevent training maladaptation and reach the optimal performance for each athlete. The use of questionnaires that identify the athlete’s recovery–stress state have much acceptance in sports due to reliability and useful, furthermore for its low cost. Identifying possible differences between sport modalities and sex is important to determine specific needs and possible intervention ways to keep a recovery–stress balance. The aim was to analyze the differences in the recovery–stress state and (...)
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  46.  57
    Competitive Processes in Cross‐Situational Word Learning.Daniel Yurovsky, Chen Yu & Linda B. Smith - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (5):891-921.
    Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. However, the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This article investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition. Competitive mechanisms would allow learners to find the signal in noisy input and would help to explain the speed with which learners succeed in statistical learning tasks. Because cross-situational word learning provides information at (...)
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  47.  28
    Competition between automatic and controlled processes.B. Meier - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):309-319.
    We investigated the competition between automatic and controlled processes in a word stem completion task. Prime-display duration and the prime-target interval were manipulated. On each trial a masked prime was displayed briefly, followed either immediately or after a delay by a word stem. The subjects were required to complete each stem with the first word that came to mind, to report any prime they could identify, and not to give as completion any identified prime. By the assumption that automatic (...)
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  48.  22
    Fair Competition and Inclusion in Sport: Avoiding the Marginalisation of Intersex and Trans Women Athletes.Jonathan Cooper - 2023 - Philosophies 8 (2):28.
    Despite the reality of intersex individuals whose biological markers do not necessarily all point towards a traditional binary understanding of either male or female, the vast majority of sports divide competition into categories based on a binary notion of biological sex and develop policies and regulations to police the divide. In so doing, sports governing bodies (SGBs) adopt an imperfect model of biological sex in order to serve their particular purposes, which, typically, will include protecting the fundamental sporting value (...)
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  49.  27
    Killing the competition.Martin Daly & Margo Wilson - 1990 - Human Nature 1 (1):81-107.
    Sex- and age-specific rates of killing unrelated persons of one’s own sex were computed for Canada (1974–1983), England/Wales (1977–1986), Chicago (1965–1981), and Detroit (1972) from census information and data archives of all homicides known to police. Patterns in relation to sex and age were virtually identical among the four samples, although the rates varied enormously (from 3.7 per million citizens per annum in England/Wales to 216.3 in Detroit). Men’s marital status was related to the probability of committing a same-sex, nonrelative (...)
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  50.  26
    Intercultural competition over resources via contests for symbolic capitals.Itamar Even-Zohar - 2020 - Semiotica 2020 (232):235-250.
    Intergroup competition over resources is attested since the dawn of history. Written and archaeological evidence go back to at least the fourth millennium BC. According to accepted views, evolution has favored humans because of their ability to have cumulative cultures, which has made flexible adaptation possible. One major aspect of this adaptation has been the ability to handle power contests without engaging physical force. Instead, increasing prestige dynamics has allowed contest management by displaying symbolic assets. These have growingly been (...)
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