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  1.  19
    Who Purchases From the Informal Economy and Why?Ioana Alexandra Horodnic, Claudia Ioana Ciobanu, Adriana Zaiț & Colin C. Williams - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    In recent decades scholars have acknowledged that transactions in the informal economy have not vanished with modernization and industrialization as expected but rather remain an important contemporary aspect of overall production and consumption across the world, in both developing and developed countries. Yet little is known about the profile of the consumers in this realm or what drives them to purchase from the informal economy. A systematic review of the literature investigating consumption in the informal economy reveals a severely underdeveloped (...)
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  2.  6
    Informal payments by patients, institutional trust and institutional asymmetry.Adrian V. Horodnic, Colin C. Williams, Claudia Ioana Ciobanu & Daniela Druguș - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the extent of the practice of using informal payments for accessing the services of public clinics or hospitals across Europe and to explain the prevalence of this corrupt practice using the framework of institutional theory. To achieve this, a multi-level mixed-effect logistic regression on 25,744 interviews undertaken in 2020 with patients across 27 European Union countries is conducted. The finding is that the practice of making informal payments remains a prevalent practice, although (...)
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  3.  36
    Explaining employers' illicit envelope wage payments in the EU‐27: a product of over‐regulation or under‐regulation?Colin C. Williams - 2013 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 22 (3):325-340.
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence in the 27 member states of the European Union of a little discussed illicit wage arrangement in which formal employees are paid two wages by their formal employers – an official declared salary and an additional undeclared wage, thus allowing employers to evade their full social insurance and tax liabilities. Reporting the results of a 2007 Eurobarometer survey involving 26,659 face-to-face interviews, the finding is that one in 18 formal employees (...)
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    Explaining employers' illicit envelope wage payments in the EU-27: a product of over-regulation or under-regulation?Colin C. Williams - 2013 - Business Ethics: A European Review 22 (3):325-340.
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence in the 27 member states of the European Union of a little discussed illicit wage arrangement in which formal employees are paid two wages by their formal employers – an official declared salary and an additional undeclared wage, thus allowing employers to evade their full social insurance and tax liabilities. Reporting the results of a 2007 Eurobarometer survey involving 26,659 face‐to‐face interviews, the finding is that one in 18 formal employees (...)
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