Results for 'Cognitive bias'

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  1.  70
    Cognitive Bias, Scepticism and Understanding.J. Adam Carter & Duncan Pritchard - 2017 - In Stephen R. Grimm, Christoph Baumberger & Sabine Ammon (eds.), Explaining Understanding: New Perspectives From Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. pp. 272-292.
    In recent work, Mark Alfano and Jennifer Saul have put forward a similar kind of provocative sceptical challenge. Both appeal to recent literature in empirical psychology to show that our judgments across a wide range of cases are riddled with unreliable cognitive heuristics and biases. Likewise, they both conclude that we know a lot less than we have hitherto supposed, at least on standard conceptions of what knowledge involves. It is argued that even if one grants the empirical claims (...)
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  2. Cognitive Bias, the Axiological Question and the Epistemic Probability of Theistic Belief.Dan Linford & Jason Megill - 2018 - In Mirosław Szatkowski (ed.), Ontology of Theistic Beliefs. De Gruyter. pp. 77-92.
    Some recent work in philosophy of religion addresses what can be called the “axiological question,” i.e., regardless of whether God exists, would it be good or bad if God exists? Would the existence of God make the world a better or a worse place? Call the view that the existence of God would make the world a better place “Pro-Theism.” We argue that Pro-Theism is not implausible, and moreover, many Theists, at least, (often implicitly) think that it is true. That (...)
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  3.  15
    Cognitive Bias Modification for Inferential Style.Noa Avirbach, Baruch Perlman & Nilly Mor - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (4):816-824.
    ABSTRACTIn this study, we developed a cognitive bias modification procedure that targets inferential style, and tested its effect on hope, mood, and self-esteem. Participants were randomly assigned to training conditions intended to encourage either a negative or a positive inferential style. Participants’ inferences for their failure on a cognitive challenge were congruent with their training condition. Moreover, compared to participants in the positive training condition, those in the negative condition reported less hope and exhibited lower mood and (...)
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  4. Anthropomorphism as Cognitive Bias.Mike Dacey - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1152-1164.
    Philosophers and psychologists have long worried that the human tendency to anthropomorphize leads us to err in our understanding of nonhuman minds. This tendency, which I call intuitive anthropomorphism, is a heuristic used by our unconscious folk psychology to understand nonhuman animals. The dominant understanding of intuitive anthropomorphism underestimates its complexity. If we want to understand and control intuitive anthropomorphism, we must treat it as a cognitive bias and look to the empirical evidence. This evidence suggests that the (...)
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  5.  4
    Cognitive Bias, Entrepreneurial Emotion, and Entrepreneurship Intention.Yijun Zhao & Baoguo Xie - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  6.  8
    Cognitive Bias and the Extraversion Personality Shaping the Behavior of Investors.Muhammad Ishfaq, Mian Sajid Nazir, Muhammad Ali Jibran Qamar & Muhammad Usman - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  7.  63
    Luck Attributions and Cognitive Bias.Steven D. Hales & Jennifer Adrienne Johnson - 2014 - Metaphilosophy 45 (4-5):509-528.
    Philosophers have developed three theories of luck: the probability theory, the modal theory, and the control theory. To help assess these theories, we conducted an empirical investigation of luck attributions. We created eight putative luck scenarios and framed each in either a positive or a negative light. Furthermore, we placed the critical luck event at the beginning, middle, or end of the scenario to see if the location of the event influenced luck attributions. We found that attributions of luckiness were (...)
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  8. Generics, Content and Cognitive Bias.Rachel Katharine Sterken - 2015 - Analytic Philosophy 56 (1):75-93.
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  9. Self-Reflexive Cognitive Bias.Joshua Mugg & Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-21.
    Cognitive scientists claim to have discovered a large number of cognitive biases, which have a tendency to mislead reasoners. Might cognitive scientists themselves be subject to the very biases they purport to discover? And how should this alter the way they evaluate their research as evidence for the existence of these biases? In this paper, we posit a new paradox, which bears a striking resemblance to some classical logical paradoxes. Suppose that research R appears to be good (...)
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  10. When, and How, Should Cognitive Bias Matter to Law.Govind Persad - 2014 - Law and Ineq 32:31.
    Recent work in the behavioral sciences asserts that we are subject to a variety of cognitive biases. For example, we mourn losses more than we prize equivalently sized gains; we are more inclined to believe something if it matches our previous beliefs; and we even relate more warmly or coldly to others depending on whether the coffee cup we are holding is warm or cold. Drawing on this work, case law and legal scholarship have asserted that we have reason (...)
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  11. Critical Thinking and Cognitive Bias.Jeffrey Maynes - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (2):183-203.
    Teaching critical thinking skill is a central pedagogical aim in many courses. These skills, it is hoped, will be both portable and durable. Yet, both of these virtues are challenged by pervasive and potent cognitive biases, such as motivated reasoning, false consensus bias and hindsight bias. In this paper, I argue that a focus on the development of metacognitive skill shows promise as a means to inculcate debiasing habits in students. Such habits will help students become more (...)
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  12.  7
    Cognitive Bias and Emotion in Neuropsychological Models of Depression.Patricia J. Deldin, Jennifer Keller, John A. Gergen & Gregory A. Miller - 2001 - Cognition and Emotion 15 (6):787-802.
  13. From Cognitive Bias Toward Advanced Computational Intelligence for Smart Infrastructure Monitoring.Meisam Gordan, Ong Zhi Chao, Saeed-Reza Sabbagh-Yazdi, Lai Khin Wee, Khaled Ghaedi & Zubaidah Ismail - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Visual inspections have been typically used in condition assessment of infrastructure. However, they are based on human judgment and their interpretation of data can differ from acquired results. In psychology, this difference is called cognitive bias which directly affects Structural Health Monitoring -based decision making. Besides, the confusion between condition state and safety of a bridge is another example of cognitive bias in bridge monitoring. Therefore, integrated computer-based approaches as powerful tools can be significantly applied in (...)
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  14. Cognitive Bias, Intentionality and Self-Deception.Anna Nicholson - 2007 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 26 (3):45-58.
     
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  15.  7
    Cognitive Bias in Rats is Not Influenced by Oxytocin.Molly C. McGuire, Keith L. Williams, Lisa L. M. Welling & Jennifer Vonk - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  16.  32
    Cognitive Bias, Situationism, and Virtue Reliabilism.Steven Bland - 2018 - Synthese 198 (1):471-490.
    Mark Alfano claims that the heuristics and biases literature supports inferential cognitive situationism, i.e., the view that most of our inferential beliefs are arrived at and retained by means of unreliable heuristics rather than intellectual virtues. If true, this would present virtue reliabilists with an unpleasant choice: they can either accept inferential skepticism, or modify or abandon reliabilism. Alfano thinks that the latter course of action is most plausible, and several reliabilists seem to agree. I argue that this is (...)
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  17.  28
    Cognitive Bias, Emotion, and Somatic Complaints in a Normal Sample.Lars-Gunnar Lundh, Jenny Wikström & Joakim Westerlund - 2001 - Cognition and Emotion 15 (3):249-277.
  18.  73
    Paternalism and Cognitive Bias.J. D. Trout - 2004 - Law and Philosophy 24 (4):393-434.
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  19.  7
    Cognitive Bias and Narrative Credibility in Proust.Darci L. Gardner - 2021 - Philosophy and Literature 45 (1):1-16.
  20. Cognitive Bias.P. Litvak & J. S. Lerner - 2009 - In David Sander & Klaus R. Scherer (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press.
     
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  21.  8
    When A+B < A: Cognitive Bias in Experts’ Judgment of Environmental Impact.Mattias Holmgren, Alan Kabanshi, John E. Marsh & Patrik Sörqvist - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  22.  17
    Assessment of Cognitive Bias in Anxiety and Depression Using a Colour Perception Task.Karin Mogg, Andrew Mathews, Jon May, Matthew Grove, Michael Eysenck & John Weinman - 1991 - Cognition and Emotion 5 (3):221-238.
  23.  12
    Effect of Cognitive Bias Modification-Memory on Depressive Symptoms and Autobiographical Memory Bias: Two Independent Studies in High-Ruminating and Dysphoric Samples.Janna N. Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M. Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G. Beevers, Eni S. Becker & Jasper A. J. Smits - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (2):288-304.
    ABSTRACTMemory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study–test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations. Immediately (...)
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  24.  32
    Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training Via Smartphones.Ranming Yang, Lixia Cui, Feng Li, Jing Xiao, Qin Zhang & Tian P. S. Oei - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  25. The Notion of Cognitive Bias.Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman - 2000 - In Raymond Boudon & Mohamed Cherkaoui (eds.), Central Currents in Social Theory. Sage Publications. pp. 8--349.
  26.  4
    Empirical Investigation of Cognitive Bias for Understanding User-Adaptive Algorithm適応アルゴリズム理解における認知バイアスの実験的検討.Kazunori Terada & Seiji Yamada - 2019 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 34 (4):A-I72_1-9.
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  27.  17
    A Neural Network Framework for Cognitive Bias.Johan E. Korteling, Anne-Marie Brouwer & Alexander Toet - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  28.  9
    The Indirect Effect of Attention Bias on Memory Via Interpretation Bias: Evidence for the Combined Cognitive Bias Hypothesis in Subclinical Depression.Jonas Everaert, Marlies Tierens, Kasia Uzieblo & Ernst H. W. Koster - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (8):1450-1459.
  29.  41
    The Illusory Function of Dreams: Another Example of Cognitive Bias.Linda Mealey - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):971-972.
    Patterns of dream content indicating a predominance of themes relating to threat are likely to reflect biases in dream recall and dream scoring techniques. Even if this pattern is not artifactual, it is yet reflective of threat-related biases in our conscious and nonconscious waking cognition, and is not special to dreams. [Revonsuo].
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  30. Illegitimate Values, Confirmation Bias, and Mandevillian Cognition in Science.Uwe Peters - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (4):1061-1081.
    In the philosophy of science, it is a common proposal that values are illegitimate in science and should be counteracted whenever they drive inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions. Drawing on recent cognitive scientific research on human reasoning and confirmation bias, I argue that this view should be rejected. Advocates of it have overlooked that values that drive inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions can contribute to the reliability of scientific inquiry at the group level even (...)
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  31. Racial Cognition and the Ethics of Implicit Bias.Daniel Kelly & Erica Roedder - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (3):522–540.
    We first describe recent empirical research on racial cognition, particularly work on implicit racial biases that suggests they are widespread, that they can coexist with explicitly avowed anti-racist and tolerant attitudes, and that they influence behavior in a variety of subtle but troubling ways. We then consider a cluster of questions that the existence and character of implicit racial biases raise for moral theory. First, is it morally condemnable to harbor an implicit racial bias? Second, ought each of us (...)
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  32.  7
    Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data From Non-Verbal Cognitive Bias Tests.Camille M. C. Raoult, Julia Moser & Lorenz Gygax - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  33. A Restriction Maybe, but is It Paternalism? Cognitive Bias and Choosing Governmental Decision Aids.J. D. Trout - manuscript
  34. Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions.Jules Holroyd - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:511-523.
  35.  11
    The Motivation to Sacrifice for a Cause Reflects a Basic Cognitive Bias.Christopher Y. Olivola - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  36.  2
    A Critical Review of Studies Assessing Interpretation Bias Towards Social Stimuli in People With Eating Disorders and the Development and Pilot Testing of Novel Stimuli for a Cognitive Bias Modification Training.Katie Rowlands, Emma Wilson, Mima Simic, Amy Harrison & Valentina Cardi - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  37.  2
    Seeing Isn’T Necessarily Believing: Misleading Contextual Information Influences Perceptual-Cognitive Bias in Radiologists.Bradley Fawver, Joseph L. Thomas, Trafton Drew, Megan K. Mills, William F. Auffermann, Keith R. Lohse & A. Mark Williams - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 26 (4):579-592.
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  38.  78
    Abstract: Cognitive Risk Bias and the Threat to the Semantics of Knowledge Ascriptions.Igal Kvart - manuscript
  39.  89
    Natural Myside Bias is Independent of Cognitive Ability.Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):225 – 247.
    Natural myside bias is the tendency to evaluate propositions from within one's own perspective when given no instructions or cues (such as within-participants conditions) to avoid doing so. We defined the participant's perspective as their previously existing status on four variables: their sex, whether they smoked, their alcohol consumption, and the strength of their religious beliefs. Participants then evaluated a contentious but ultimately factual proposition relevant to each of these demographic factors. Myside bias is defined between-participants as the (...)
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  40.  11
    The Cognitive Mechanisms Behind Attention Bias Modification in Anxiety: Proposals Based on Theoretical Accounts of Attentional Bias.Alexandre Heeren, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H. W. Koster & Pierre Philippot - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  41.  49
    Cognition and the Structure of Bias.Gabbrielle Johnson - 2019 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    I argue that there exists a natural kind social bias that subsumes seemingly heterogenous cases of implicit bias and other forms of social cognition. I explore the implications of this explicated notion of bias for the organization of the mind, theories of consciousness, and the system-dependence of biases.
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  42.  22
    Cognitive-Processing Bias in Chinese Student Teachers with Strong and Weak Professional Identity.Xin-Qiang Wang, Jun-Cheng Zhu, Lu Liu & Xiang-yu Chen - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  43.  24
    Studying the Role of Cognitive Control in Reasoning: Evidence for the Congruency Sequence Effect in the Ratio-Bias Task.Balazs Aczel & Bence Palfi - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (1):81-97.
    In this study, we investigated whether control of the conflict between incongruent heuristic and analytical answer options in a reasoning task is modulated by the presence of conflict on previous trials. In two experiments, we found that the incongruency of the previous trial has a significant effect on the control exhibited on the current trial. Our data also showed that this adaptation effect is modulated by the incongruency of the previous series of trials. These results demonstrate the same control adaptation (...)
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  44.  22
    The Appraisal Bias Model of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression.Marc Mehu & Klaus R. Scherer - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (3):272-279.
    Models of cognitive vulnerability claim that depressive symptoms arise as a result of an interaction between negative affect and cognitive reactions, in the form of dysfunctional attitudes and negative inferential style. We present a model that complements this approach by focusing on the appraisal processes that elicit and differentiate everyday episodes of emotional experience, arguing that individual differences in appraisal patterns can foster negative emotional experiences related to depression. In particular, dispositional appraisal biases facilitating the elicitation of these (...)
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  45.  13
    Negativity Bias in Language: A Cognitive-Affective Model of Emotive Intensifiers.Zhuo Jing-Schmidt - 2007 - Cognitive Linguistics 18 (3).
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  46.  35
    Corticocentric Myopia: Old Bias in New Cognitive Sciences.Josef Parvizi - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):354-359.
  47.  23
    Attractiveness Bias: A Cognitive Explanation.Stevie S. Schein, Logan T. Trujillo & Judith H. Langlois - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  48.  18
    Cognitive Interpretation Bias: The Effect of a Single Session Moderate Exercise Protocol on Anxiety and Depression.Séraphine C. Clarke, Nicholas R. Cooper, Mirinalee Rana & Bundy Mackintosh - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  49. Social Cognition and Cortical Function : An Evolutionary Perspective / Susanne Shultz & Robin I. M. Dunbar / Homo Heuristicus and the Bias-Variance Dilemma.Henry Brighton & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2012 - In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  50. Algorithmic bias: on the implicit biases of social technology.Gabbrielle M. Johnson - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):9941-9961.
    Often machine learning programs inherit social patterns reflected in their training data without any directed effort by programmers to include such biases. Computer scientists call this algorithmic bias. This paper explores the relationship between machine bias and human cognitive bias. In it, I argue similarities between algorithmic and cognitive biases indicate a disconcerting sense in which sources of bias emerge out of seemingly innocuous patterns of information processing. The emergent nature of this bias (...)
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