The present study aimed to analyze the stability of the memory of a stressful event over time in young people with mild or moderate intellectual disability. The results show a stability of the memory of what happened an hour and a week after the event in relation to the people involved, the apparatus used, and the parts of the body explored. No interaction effects were found between the stability of memory over time and the level of intellectual disability. The level (...) of disability only affected the description of the doctor who performed the exploration and the explored parts of the body, showing better results for people with mild disability. In addition, the results highlight the relationship between memory and IQ, especially verbal IQ. (shrink)
Resumen: Este texto es un estudio sobre el consumo de invertebrados marinos y de agua dulce en el sudoeste de Francia desde los principios del siglo XVI hasta el día de hoy. Toma en cuenta alrededor de 100 especies: bivalvos, incluso mejillones de agua dulce; gasterópodas; cefalópodas; crustáceas, incluso cangrejos de río; erizos y anémonas de mar. El artículo propone una historia tan detallada como sea posible de cada especie o grupo de especies cercanas; evoca las evoluciones de sus representaciones (...) sociales, de sus valorizaciones comerciales, de sus preparaciones culinarias, etc. Con su importante litoral sobre el Golfo de Vizcaya y sus ciudades ubicadas tierra adentro, el sudoeste de Francia constituye un área de estudio interesante para pensar la complejidad de los hábitos de consumo de mariscos durante el periodo anterior al desarrollo de los transportes rápidos y a la invención del frio artificial.: This text is a study on the consumption of marine and freshwater invertebrates in Southwest France from the early 16thcentury to the present day. Around 100 species are taken into account: bivalves including river mussels; gastropods; cephalopods; crustaceans including crayfishes; urchins and sea anemones. The article proposes a history as detailed as possible of each species or group of closely related species, including the evolution of their social representations, commercial valuations, culinary preparations, etc. With its important coastline on the Gulf of Gascony and its inland cities, Southwest France forms an interesting study area to think about the complexity of seafood consumption patterns in the era before the development of rapid transports and the invention of artificial refrigeration. (shrink)
This paper examines the enactment of agency in the Mars Exploration Rover mission. We argue that MER functioned as a distributed cognitive system, made up of highly specialized, though complementary, elements. To explain how a sense of shared agency was attained therein, we augment the distributed account with Tollefsen and Gallagher’s Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 47, 95-110, theory of joint agency. It claims joint actions involve a cascade of shared distal, proximal, and motor intentions, each with its own content (...) and timescale, and that narrative processes are crucial for stabilizing shared intentions. We argue MER possessed these three levels of intention, though they fell on different elements of the distributed cognitive system, and their timescales were longer than mundane cases of joint action. Scientists, collaborating with engineers, enacted shared distal and proximal intentions, while rovers enacted the motor intentions. Moreover, we show that we-narratives, including a commitment to consensus-based operations and an epistemic strategy for discovering the geological history of Mars, constrained the formation of distal and proximal intentions such that they could genuinely be attributed to the group. Nonetheless, our distributed account does not fully capture how rovers shaped the sense of embodiment of team members. Scientists and engineers described themselves as ‘becoming the rover,’ which allowed them to have a sense of presence on Mars. We argue this can be explained by the Material Engagement Theory, which complements the distributed cognition theory. (shrink)
In this paper the scientific trajectory of Spanish influential biochemist Alberto Sols (1917–1989) is presented in comparative perspective. His social and academic environment, his research training under the Cori's in the US in the early 1950s and his works when coming back to Spain to develop his own scientific career are described in order to present the central argument of this paper on his path from physiological research to research on enzymatic regulation. Sols' main contributions were both scientific and academic. (...) He and his collaborators not only contributed to biological knowledge on the biochemistry of metabolic regulation but to the active reception of biochemistry in the Spanish academia and to update of Spanish medical education. -/- . (shrink)
O processo de resposta do Teste Pictórico de Memória (TEPIC-M) classifica seus itens em três categorias sequenciais (céu, terra e água). Assim, aventou-se a hipótese que pessoas com uma familiaridade diária com o mar (Aracaju-grupo A) lembrariam mais desses itens quando comparadas com pessoas sem es..
Cet article constitue l'un des éléments d'un dossier comparatif international sur le traitement médiatique de l'attentat survenu à la gare d'Atocha à Madrid en mars 2004. Centré sur l'Italie et basé sur l'étude d'un corpus des quatre principaux quotidiens, il analyse les orientations du discours développé par cette presse dans les jours qui ont suivi cet événement. Il montre, qu'après un moment de compassion devant les conséquences dramatiques de l'attentat, ces titres se sont déterminés sur la base d'une analogie entre (...) la situation politique espagnole et la situation italienne et ceci en raison des positions identiques de leurs gouvernements quant au conflit en Irak. Des divergences de tons et d'attitude sont observables entre ces différents journaux, mais on assiste globalement à une forme de banalisation et de «nationalisation» de l'événement progressivement replié sur la scène nationale.This article is one of a comparative study on the international media coverage of the attack in Atocha train station in Madrid in March 2004. Centered on Italy and based on the study of a corpus of four major dailies, it analyzes the stand taken by the press in the days following the event. It shows, after a moment of compassion for the tragic consequences of the attack, these securities are determined on the basis of an analogy between the Spanish political situation and the situation in Italy and this because of the identical positions of their governments about the conflict in Iraq. Differences of tone and attitude are observable between these newspapers, but there is generally a form of trivialization and "nationalization" of the event gradually declined on the national scene. (shrink)
What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and (...) impossible or that makes a death indecent. The other component is culpable wrongdoing. Atrocities, such as genocides, slavery, war rape, torture, and severe child abuse, are Card's paradigms because in them these key elements are writ large. Atrocities deserve more attention than secular philosophers have so far paid them. They are distinguished from ordinary wrongs not by the psychological states of evildoers but by the seriousness of the harm that is done. Evildoers need not be sadistic:they may simply be negligent or unscrupulous in pursuing their goals. Card's theory represents a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic alternatives (including Kant's theory of radical evil). Utilitarians tend to reduce evils to their harms; Stoics tend to reduce evils to the wickedness of perpetrators: Card accepts neither reduction. She also responds to Nietzsche's challenges about the worth of the concept of evil, and she uses her theory to argue that evils are more important than merely unjust inequalities. She applies the theory in explorations of war rape and violence against intimates. She also takes up what Primo Levi called "the gray zone", where victims become complicit in perpetrating on others evils that threaten to engulf themselves. While most past accounts of evil have focused on perpetrators, Card begins instead from the position of the victims, but then considers more generally how to respond to -- and live with -- evils, as victims, as perpetrators, and as those who have become both. (shrink)
In this article, I respond to Laury Naranch’s and Mary Caputi’s discussion of my book Power and Feminist Agency in Capitalism (2017). In response to Naranch, I clarify how the political subject-in-outline translates into collective political action through the figure of the Chicana working-class woman. I also explain why the proletariat, more so than the precariat, implies a radical political imaginary if we rethink this concept in the context of my idea of the political subject-in-outline. I also clarify that my (...) chapters on Marx expose how Adorno and Marx have problematic imaginations of the working-class woman, which counter their otherwise radical imaginary. In response to Caputi, I clarify the meaning of capitalism in my book and underline that we need a rigorous critique of capitalism to counter the rise of the Far Right. I also explain why the fluid subject does not have agency and why the subject-in-outline is a better way to theorize transformative feminist agency. I also clarify that my conception of feminist political subjectivity does not assume a privileged vantage point outside power structures. (shrink)
What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Are some evils unforgivable? How should we respond to evils? Card offers a secular theory of evil--representing a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic approaches--that responds to these and other questions.
BackgroundScientists engaged in global health research are increasingly faced with barriers to access and use of human tissues from the developing world communities where much of their research is targeted. In part, the problem can be traced to distrust of researchers from affluent countries, given the history of 'scientific-imperialism' and 'biocolonialism' reflected in past well publicized cases of exploitation of research participants from low to middle income countries.DiscussionTo a considerable extent, the failure to adequately engage host communities, the opacity of (...) informed consent, and the lack of fair benefit-sharing have played a significant role in eroding trust. These ethical considerations are central to biomedical research in low to middle income countries and failure to attend to them can inadvertently contribute to exploitation and erode trust. A 'tissue trust' may be a plausible means for enabling access to human tissues for research in a manner that is responsive to the ethical challenges considered.SummaryPreventing exploitation and restoring trust while simultaneously promoting global health research calls for innovative approaches to human tissues research. A tissue trust can reduce the risk of exploitation and promote host capacity as a key benefit. (shrink)
A manned mission to Mars is faced with challenges and topics that may not be obvious but of great importance and challenging for such a mission. This is the first book that collects contributions from scholars in various fields, from astronomy and medicine, to theology and philosophy, addressing such topics. The discussion goes beyond medical and technological challenges of such a deep-space mission. The focus is on human nature, human emotions and biases in such a new environment. The primary audience (...) for this book are all researchers interested in the human factor in a space mission including philosophers, social scientists, astronomers, and others. This volume will also be of high interest for a much wider audience like the non-academic world, or for students. (shrink)
This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societallevel analyses. At the individual- level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub- dimensions and two sets of values dimensions. At the societal- level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each (...) society, we report the Cronbach' s? statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency as well as report interrater agreement analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country span sp. (shrink)
We present a geometrical analysis of the principles that lay at the basis of Categorial Grammar and of the Lambek Calculus. In Abrusci it is shown that the basic properties known as Residuation laws can be characterized in the framework of Cyclic Multiplicative Linear Logic, a purely non-commutative fragment of Linear Logic. We present a summary of this result and, pursuing this line of investigation, we analyze a well-known set of categorial grammar laws: Monotonicity, Application, Expansion, Type-raising, Composition, Geach laws (...) and Switching laws. (shrink)
A proposta pedagógica de António Ribeiro Sanches: a educação pública da Mocidade Portuguesa Resumo: Com as Cartas à Mocidade Portuguesa António Ribeiro Sanches define o seu lugar entre os filósofos que dedicaram os seus pensamentos à educação dos mais novos. Mas ao contrário de Locke, Rousseau ou Martinho de Mendonça, Sanches reorienta a sua atenção para a educação pública abrindo um caminho diferente de reflexão no âmbito da pedagogia e tornando mais clara a ligação entre educação e a preservação da (...) sociedade enquanto fim. Este artigo pretende analisar a proposta pedagógica de Sanches tendo presente que, para o autor, ainda que todos devam ter acesso à educação pública, esta deve ser pensada de acordo com a condição social de cada um. Sanches assume, assim, a ideia de uma educação entendida como instrumento que garante eficácia na determinação, e perpetuação, do lugar que cada um ocupa na sociedade pela transmissão de conhecimentos e promoção de aptidões específicas para cada classe social. Palavras-chave: António Ribeiro Sanches. Educação pública. Aristocracia. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. John Locke. The pedagogical proposal of António Ribeiro Sanches: the public education of the Portuguese Youth: With Cartas à Mocidade Portuguesa António Ribeiro Sanches defines his place among the philosophers who have devoted their thoughts to the education of the youngest. But unlike Locke, Rousseau or Martinho de Mendonça, Sanches reorients his attention to the public education by opening a different path of reflection in the field of pedagogy and making clearer the link between education and the preservation of society. This article intends to analyze the pedagogical proposal of Sanches, bearing in mind that, for the author, although all should have access to public education, this should be considered according to the social condition of each one. Sanches assumes, thus, the idea of an education understood as an instrument that guarantees effectiveness in determining, and perpetuating, the place that each occupies in society by transmitting knowledge and promoting specific skills for each social class. Keywords: António Ribeiro Sanches. Public education. Aristocracy. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. John Locke. La propuesta pegagógica de António Ribeiro Sanches: la educación pública de la Juventud Portuguesa Resumen: Con las Cartas à Mocidade Portuguesa António Ribeiro Sanches define su lugar entre los filósofos que han dedicado sus pensamientos a la educación de los más jóvenes. A diferencia de Locke, Rousseau o Martinho de Mendoná, Sanches reorienta su atención a la educación pública abriendo un camino de reflexión diferente en el campo de la pedagogía y haciendo más claro el vínculo entre la educación y la preservación de la sociedad. Este artículo pretende analizar la propuesta pedagógica de Sanches, teniendo en cuenta que, para el autor, aunque todos deben tener acceso a la educación pública, esto debe ser considerado de acuerdo con la condición social de cada uno. Sanches asume la idea de una educación entendida como un instrumento que garantiza la eficacia en la determinación y perpetuación del lugar que cada uno ocupa en la sociedad mediante la transmisión de conocimientos específicos para cada clase social. Palabras-clave: António Ribeiro Sanches. Educación pública. Aristocracia. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. John Locke. Data de registro: 10/10/2019 Data de aceite: 20/04/2020. (shrink)
In this article, I respond to David McIvor’s and Lars Rensmann’s discussion of my recent book, The Politics of Repressed Guilt: The Tragedy of Austrian Silence (2018, Edinburgh University Press). Both invited me to clarify my use of Arendt in my conception of embodied reflective judgment. I argue for a stronger connection between judgment and emotions than Arendt because one can effectively shut down critical thinking if one uses defense mechanisms to repress feelings of guilt. In response to McIvor, I (...) discuss the idea of the “subject-in-outline” and “embodied reflective spaces” to overcome the guilt/defense complex to engender a reparative politics of justice. Finally, in response to Rensmann, I point out that the lingering culture of repressed guilt helps us explain the general conditions that contributed to the rise of the far and extremist right in Austria, which I develop further in my new book Analyzing the Far Right. (shrink)
In Lewin et al. 359–386) the authors proved that certain systems of annotated logics are algebraizable in the sense of Block and Rigozzi 396). Later in Lewin et al. the study of the associated quasi-varieties of annotated algebras is initiated. In this paper we continue the study of the these classes of algebras, in particular, we report some recent results about the free annotated algebras.
Compreender em que medida a figura e a atuação de D. João Becker contribuiu na constituição de um ideal humano, tendo a educação como principal mecanismo para a sua efetivação, configurou-se na principal meta desta investigação. Para isso, examinou-se o período de 1913 a 1946, época em que D. João se constituiu na autoridade máxima da Igreja Católica no Rio Grande do Sul. Este estudo baseou-se numa pesquisa bibliográfica, enfatizando, sobretudo, a análise da documentação histórica referente ao acervo da revista (...) Unitas. O trabalho discute a formação de um ideal de homem e sociedade perfeitos veiculado pela revista, fundada por D. João Becker, em 1913. Do exame do referido periódico, sobressaem três categorias de análise: a educação, o homem e o sacerdote. Tais categorias preponderam ao se analisar a perspectiva católica no que tange à perfeição humana. D. João Becker configurou-se num dos grandes protagonistas da reestruturação da Igreja Católica Sul-Rio-Grandense. O artigo divide-se em duas partes: a primeira define o entendimento do conceito de perfeição humana para o Catolicismo, e a segunda pondera as três categorias destacadas. (shrink)
O principal objectivo do artigo é pensar a educação como um valor intemporal. Apresentar-se-á um duplo sentido que esta intemporalidade pode assumir: A educação surge como um valor essencial, quer ao longo da história, quer ao longo da nossa vida. Tendo em consideração o primeiro sentido proposto, procurar-se-á realçar a sua intemporalidade, nomeadamente em terreno filosófico. Destacar-se-ão, neste sentido, as seguintes obras: A República, de Platão; O Mestre, de Santo Agostinho; Emílio, de Rousseau, e Pedagogia, de Kant. Relativamente ao segundo (...) sentido, quanto à intemporalidade da educação ao longo da vida, destacar-se-ão os quatro pilares fundamentais desta mesma educação, como apresentados no pertinente Relatório para a UNESCO da Comissão Internacional sobre Educação para o século XXI: aprender a conhecer; aprender a fazer; aprender a viver juntos; aprender a ser. Por fim, pretender-se-á evidenciar a grande finalidade comum aos dois sentidos propostos: o aprender a ser. (shrink)
There is widespread agreement that an adequate understanding of the nature of science is a critical component of scientific literacy and a major goal in science education. However, we still do not know many specific details regarding how students and teachers learn particular aspects of NOS and what are the most important feature traits of instruction. In this context, the main objective of this review is to analyze articles from nine main science education journals that consider the teaching of NOS (...) to K-12 students, pre-service, and in-service science teachers in search of patterns in teaching and learning NOS. After reviewing 52 studies in nine journals that included data regarding participants’ views of NOS before and after an intervention, the main findings were as follows: some aspects of NOS are easier to learn than others, and subjective aspects of NOS and “the scientific method” seemed to be difficult for participants to understand; the interventions most frequently lasted 5 to 8 weeks for students, one semester for pre-service teachers, and 1 year for experienced teachers; and most of the interventions incorporated both decontextualized and contextualized activities. Given the substantial diversity in the methods and intervention designs used and the variables studied, it was not possible to infer a pattern of more-effective NOS teaching strategies from the reviewed studies. Future investigation should focus on disentangling whether a difference exists between the easy and difficult aspects of learning NOS and formulating a theoretical explanation for distinguishing the two types of aspects and assessing the effectiveness of different kinds of courses and strategies. (shrink)
The perceptibility and intelligibility of queer students and teachers have been a central theme in queer politics in education. Can queer teachers be ‘out’ to their colleagues and students? Can queer relationships be seen at the school prom? Can queerness be seen and heard? At the same time, perceptibility and intelligibility are by no means uncontested political goals. This paper analyzes different school initiatives by and/or for queer students and asks how political these initiatives are from the perspective of Jacques (...) Rancière's conception of politics. In particular, it employs Rancière's work on the ‘distribution of the sensible’ to analyze conditions of visibility and sayability and the political risks and benefits that gaining visibility and sayability carries for queer students and teachers. The paper brings Rancière's distinction between identification and subjectification into conversation with Judith Butler's work on the governing of intelligibility by social norms, and the promise of ‘insurrectionary speech’. Finally, Rancière's work on the role of allies in political interventions that shift the distribution of the sensible provides a fresh reading of Gay‐Straight Alliances in schools and the work of queer allies more generally. (shrink)
Daydreaming appears to have a complex relationship with life satisfaction and happiness. Here we demonstrate that the facets of daydreaming that predict life satisfaction differ between men and women , that the content of daydreams tends to be social others , and that who we daydream about influences the relation between daydreaming and happiness variables like life satisfaction, loneliness, and perceived social support . Specifically, daydreaming about people not close to us predicts more loneliness and less perceived social support, whereas (...) daydreaming about close others predicts greater life satisfaction. Importantly, these patterns hold even when actual social network depth and breadth are statistically controlled, although these associations tend to be small in magnitude. Individual differences and the content of daydreams are thus important to consider when examining how happiness relates to spontaneous thoughts. (shrink)
In this unique volume, some of today's most eminent political philosophers examine the thought of John Rawls, focusing in particular on his most recent work. These original essays explore diverse issues, including the problem of pluralism, the relationship between constitutive commitment and liberal institutions, just treatment of dissident minorities, the constitutional implications of liberalism, international relations, and the structure of international law. The first comprehensive study of Rawls's recent work, The Idea of Political Liberalism will be indispensable for political philosophers (...) and theorists interested in contemporary political thought. (shrink)