The expansion of research on deep brain stimulation and adaptive DBS raises important neuroethics and policy questions related to data sharing. However, there has been little empirical research on the perspectives of experts developing these technologies. We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with aDBS researchers regarding their data sharing practices and their perspectives on ethical and policy issues related to sharing. Researchers expressed support for and a commitment to sharing, with most saying that they were either sharing their data or would (...) share in the future and that doing so was important for advancing the field. However, those who are sharing reported a variety of sharing partners, suggesting heterogeneity in sharing practices and lack of the broad sharing that would reflect principles of open science. Researchers described several concerns and barriers related to sharing, including privacy and confidentiality, the usability of shared data by others, ownership and control of data, and limited resources for sharing. They also suggested potential solutions to these challenges, including additional safeguards to address privacy issues, standardization and transparency in analysis to address issues of data usability, professional norms and heightened cooperation to address issues of ownership and control, and streamlining of data transmission to address resource limitations. Researchers also offered a range of views on the sensitivity of neural activity data and data related to mental health in the context of sharing. These findings are an important input to deliberations by researchers, policymakers, neuroethicists, and other stakeholders as they navigate ethics and policy questions related to aDBS research. (shrink)
Agostino Lupoli considers anew the skeptical elements in Hobbes’s Logica. At variance with Popkin’s approach, which he finds insufficient, and in the line with the late Arrigo Pacchi’s insights, which he intends to extend, he shows that the De corpore contains both more than traces of skepticism and a very engaged discussion of the thesis of Quod nihil scitur, the famous, but seldom read, book by Francis Sanchez, who taught philosophy and medicine in France in the early years of (...) seventeenth century. In line with nominalist logic, Sanchez makes a very sharp criticism of Aristotelian theory of the definition, whose ontological claims he criticizes. In accordance with this criticism is Hobbes’s strict nominalism, his tautological conception of the proposition as well as other elements in his logic. (shrink)
Introduction Currently, The nature and scope of Clinical Ethics Protocols in Madrid are not well understood.Objectives The main objective is to describe the features of ‘guideline/recommendation’ type CEPs that have been or are being developed by existing Clinical Ethics Committees in Madrid. Secondary objectives include characterisation of those CECs that have been the most prolific in reference to CEP creation and implementation and identification of any trends in future CEP development.Methods We collected CEPs produced and in process by CECs accredited (...) in the public hospitals in Madrid, Spain, from 1996 to 2008.Results CECs developed 30 CEPs, with 10 more in process. The most common topic is refusal of treatment . If CEPs addressing terminal illness, Do-Not-Resuscitate orders and advance directives are placed into a separate ‘ethical problems at the end of life’ category, this CEP subject emerges as the most common . There is a relationship between the age of the CEC and the development of CEPs . CECs now seem to be more likely to engage in CEP development.Conclusions The CECs in Madrid, Spain, have developed a significant number of CEPs and there is a trend towards continued development. The most frequent topics are ethical problems at the end of life and refusal of treatment by the patient. (shrink)
El presente informe fue realizado por el Grupo Consultivo ad hoc del Consorcio sobre Ciencia y Tecnología(CyT) para el Desarrollo Sustentable, que fue establecido y patrocinado por tres organizaciones científicas internacionales: ICSU, ISTS, y TWAS. Este informe es una evaluación independiente que ha sido presentado a las tres organizaciones patrocinantes. El informe representa las opiniones y recomendaciones de los miembros del Grupo de Consultores, y no necesariamente de las organizaciones..
Nos hemos acostumbrado a considerar como normales una serie de situaciones de injusticia extrema que son fuente de miseria y esterilización de las posibilidades humanas de vastos sectores de la población mundial. El presente artículo trata de mostrar que tales situaciones no resultan de la violación de principios éticos fundamentales por parte de algunos individuos u organizaciones aisladas, sino, justamente, de la aplicación de los criterios éticos que prevalecen hoy en la práctica económica y política. La vigencia de éstos se (...) debe a que convienen a los intereses de los países y grupos económicos que dominan el escenario global, quienes los aprovechan de manera ideológica para mantener su poder, al margen del perjuicio que causan al desarrollo de las sociedades menos avanzadas económicamente. El texto concluye haciendo énfasis en la necesidad de replantear los criterios éticos que sirven para sustentar las decisiones económicas en el marco de la globalización actual. (shrink)
In this interview, poet, playwright and human rights activist, Sonia Sanchez, offers rare commentary on her creative process and her life as an artist-activist. Sanchez discusses her childhood in Alabama and the influence of her father and her grandmother in her work. She talks about her dissatisfactions with organized religion, the meaning of spirituality in her life, and the challenge of living a principled life. Sanchez also describes her encounter with Malcolm X, her experience in the Nation (...) of Islam and gender tensions in the Black Arts Movement. Finally, Prof. Sanchez offers advice to young hip hop artists and explains her creative process as a writer. (shrink)
En el artículo, se sigue el objetivo de revisar los planteamientos del español radicado en México, Adolfo Sánchez, fallecido en 2011, luego de una destacada actividad investigativa en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Sus reflexiones en torno a la estética de Marx llevaron a Sánchez a plantear asuntos como la praxis de la creación artística, en que el realismo socialista que busca el reflejo del mundo y la ideología en la obra resulta perjudiciales para la tarea estética e, incluso, (...) pueden coartar la libertad del creador. Sánchez se preocupa por incluir en la praxis estética la acción interpretativa del lector en que el placer por una obra nos conecta con la significación de lo humano, raíz del sentido de la belleza. De tal modo, en la expresión estética de una obra, las mediaciones culturales e ideológicas no se dan ausentes, ya que las ideas culturales, políticas o filosóficas dejan huellas en la creación del artista. (shrink)
The development of information and communication technologies offers innovative opportunities to establish business strategies focused on customer value co-creation. This situation is especially notable in the banking industry. e-Banking activities can support competitive advantages. However, the adoption of e-banking is not yet well-established among consumers. In this sense, the technology acceptance model is considered essential in studying consumer behavior applied to adopt a particular technology. According to the TAM model, this study analyses the factors which influence bank customers to adopt (...) e-banking to facilitate their banking services and support the process of value co-creation. Consequently, the authors examine five main aspects of the technology adoption model to provide a broad understanding of bank customers’ consumption of e-banking. A partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis is conducted to evaluate proposed relationships between factors and customers’ e-banking adoption. (shrink)
The capacity of next-generation closed-loop or adaptive deep brain stimulation devices to read and write shows great potential to effectively manage movement, seizure, and psychiatric disorders, and also raises the possibility of using aDBS to electively modulate mood, cognition, and prosociality. What separates aDBS from most neurotechnologies currently used for enhancement is that aDBS remains an invasive, surgically-implanted technology with a risk-benefit ratio significantly different when applied to diseased versus non-diseased individuals. Despite a large discourse about the ethics of enhancement, (...) no empirical studies yet examine perspectives on enhancement from within the aDBS research community. We interviewed 23 aDBS researchers about their attitudes toward expanding aDBS use for enhancement. A thematic content analysis revealed that researchers share ethical concerns related to safety and security; enhancement as unnecessary, unnatural or aberrant; and fairness, equality, and distributive justice. Most researchers felt that enhancement applications for DBS will eventually be technically feasible and that attempts to develop such applications for DBS are already happening. However, researchers unanimously felt that DBS ideally should not be considered for enhancement until researchers better understand brain target localization and functioning. While many researchers acknowledged controversies highlighted by scholars and ethicists, such as potential impacts on personhood, authenticity, autonomy and privacy, their ethical concerns reflect considerations of both gravity and perceived near-term likelihood. (shrink)
Este artículo muestra la relación entre algunos planteamientos de Martin Heidegger a propósito de la filosofía, la historia, el pasado y la tradición y propuestas análogas en el campo literario, principalmente a cargo a cargo del poeta y crítico T. S Eliot. Nos centraremos fundamentalmente en cuatro aspectos: la reinvención del canon, la reconsideración metodológica del pasado, la atención a la forma de presentación y el cuestionamiento de la propia disciplina.
O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a autoeficácia e a qualidade de vida de jovens adultos com doenças crônicas, examinando possíveis diferenças entre homens e mulheres. Participaram 20 pacientes com diversos tipos de doenças crônicas, com idade média de 31,5 anos (DP 3,6) e que estavam inte..
Apresentação do n.1 da Revista Filosfia e Educação, dedicado à temática Educação e epistemologias. A organização deste número temático contou com a colaboração do Prof. Dr. Marcelo Donizete da Silva da |Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. A seleção de trabalhos inclui nove artigos diretamente relacionados com a temática proposta e que compõem a seção do dossiê e seis artigos da seção de fluxo contínuo da revista Filosofia e Educação.
O período medieval é longo e de grande efervescência. Nele o saber foi se desenvolvendo e organizando aos poucos, acentuando-se sempre mais a importância da natureza. A partir do século XII, organizam-se escolas, no século XIII, as universidades. Nas "Siete Partidas" o rei Alfonso X idealiza e define o que seria o studi.um generale.
The purpose of this article is to expose, comment on and analyse the procedures of scientific research and the experimental techniques in the biomedical sciences of the 17th century, with Francesco Redi as the main figure of this study. Specifically, we would like to show how the path through which experimentation takes place in the field of biomedical sciences is not necessarily animated by the physical-mathematical spirit that would supposedly characterise the trite category of «Scientific Revolution», without it being prejudice (...) for the use of precise scientific methods and the obtaining of highly effective experimental results. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende deslindar o cenário teórico da primeira investigação de Logische Untersuchungen, refazendo o percurso de Husserl na fundamentação da teoria da significação. Obstina-se, ainda, apontar os elementos fulcrais que possibilitarão a fundamentação da fenomenologia, bem como os embates de Husserl com alguns eminentes pensadores da tradição lógica.
Drawing on sixteenth-century Protestant discourse on marriage and sexuality, this essay examines the anxieties permeating Spenser’s two poetical celebrations of his courtship and wedding with Elizabeth Boyle. Though the Reformers’ departure from Rome included an embrace of clerical marriage and an advocacy for the virtues of companionate marriage, revulsion at the sinfulness of sex remained. Through the sonnets of the Amoretti and the stanzas of the Epithalamion, an idea of mutual love is disrupted by a Protestant-tinged sense of innate and (...) pervasive depravity. Special attention is given to sonnets #58 and #84, and to the Epithalamion passages on Maia and Alcema. (shrink)
Partiendo de la hermenéutica metódica de Schleiemacher y de la tipología de las concepciones del mundo de Dilthey, se reflexiona, sobre todo en compañía de Paul Ricoeur, acerca del método mas adecuado de comprender e interpretar las obras filosóficas.