Results for 'Charlie T. Blunden'

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Charlie Blunden
Utrecht University
  1. Libertarianism and Collective Action: Is There a Libertarian Case for Mandatory Vaccination?Charlie T. Blunden - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):71-74.
    In his paper ‘A libertarian case for mandatory vaccination’, Jason Brennan argues that even libertarians, who are very averse to coercive measures, should support mandatory vaccination to combat the harmful disease outbreaks that can be caused by non-vaccination. He argues that libertarians should accept the clean hands principle, which would justify mandatory vaccination. The principle states that there is a (sometimes enforceable) moral obligation not to participate in collectively harmful activities. Once libertarians accept the principle, they will be compelled to (...)
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  2. Between Market Failures and Justice Failures: Trade-Offs Between Efficiency and Equality in Business Ethics.Charlie Blunden - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.
    The Market Failures Approach (MFA) is one of the leading theories in contemporary business ethics. It generates a list of ethical obligations for the managers of private firms that states that they should not create or exploit market failures because doing so reduces the efficiency of the economy. Recently the MFA has been criticised by Abraham Singer on the basis that it unjustifiably does not assign private managers obligations based on egalitarian values. Singer proposes an extension to the MFA, the (...)
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  3.  69
    Moral Progress: Recent Developments.Hanno Sauer, Charlie Blunden, Cecilie Eriksen & Paul Rehren - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (10):e12769.
    Societies change over time. Chattel slavery and foot-binding have been abolished, democracy has become increasingly widespread, gay rights have become established in some countries, and the animal rights movement continues to gain momentum. Do these changes count as moral progress? Is there such a thing? If so, how should we understand it? These questions have been receiving increasing attention from philosophers, psychologists, biologists, and sociologists in recent decades. This survey provides a systematic account of recent developments in the understanding of (...)
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  4.  19
    Recent Work on Moral Revolutions.Michael Klenk, Elizabeth O’Neill, Chirag Arora, Charlie Blunden, Cecilie Eriksen, Jeroen Hopster & Lily Frank - forthcoming - Analysis.
    In the last few decades, several philosophers have written on the topic of moral revolutions, distinguishing them from other kinds of society-level moral change. This article surveys recent accounts of moral revolutions in moral philosophy. Different authors use quite different criteria to pick out moral revolutions. Features treated as relevant include radicality, depth or fundamentality, pervasiveness, novelty and particular causes. We also characterize the factors that have been proposed to cause moral revolutions, including anomalies in existing moral codes, changing honour (...)
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  5. Don't Throw the Baby Out with the Math Water: Why Discounting the Developmental Foundations of Early Numeracy is Premature and Unnecessary.Kevin Muldoon, Charlie Lewis & Norman Freeman - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):663-664.
    We see no grounds for insisting that, because the concept natural number is abstract, its foundations must be innate. It is possible to specify domain general learning processes that feed into more abstract concepts of numerical infinity. By neglecting the messiness of children's slow acquisition of arithmetical concepts, Rips et al. present an idealized, unnecessarily insular, view of number development.
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  6.  61
    Motivational Approaches to Intellectual Vice.Charlie Crerar - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (4):753-766.
    Despite the now considerable literature on intellectual virtue, there remains relatively little philosophical discussion of intellectual vice. What discussion there is has been shaped by a powerful assumption—that, just as intellectual virtue requires that we are motivated by epistemic goods, intellectual vice requires that we aren't. In this paper, I demonstrate that this assumption is false: motivational approaches cannot explain a range of intuitive cases of intellectual vice. The popularity of the assumption is accounted for by its being a manifestation (...)
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  7.  11
    « Quand la métaphysique s’en va-t-en guerre ». Du destin de la guerre de 14-18 dans la pensée contemporaine.Charlie Galibert - 2011 - Noesis 18:161-176.
    On n’en aura peut-être jamais fini avec la Grande Guerre, cette immense boucherie industrielle planétaire où s’engloutirent durant quatre infernales années les jeunesses des deux pays se prétendant les plus civilisés d’Europe. À l’échelle humaine, elle reste un des traitements les plus épouvantables de l’homme par l’homme et sans doute l’assomption d’une guerre historique à la pure logique de l’abstraction conceptuelle : La Guerre. 70 millions de soldats, 10 millions de morts. 3 à 4 fois plus...
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  8.  19
    When Doctors and Parents Don’T Agree: The Story of Charlie Gard.Natasha Hammond-Browning - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (4):461-468.
    This discussion follows a series of high profile cases involving a terminally ill child, Charlie Gard. These cases are significant as they trace the complexities that arise when parents and medical teams do not agree as well as addressing the question of whether there is a right to access experimental treatment.
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  9. Are Emotions Psychological Constructions?Charlie Kurth - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (5):1227-1238.
    According to psychological constructivism, emotions result from projecting folk emotion concepts onto felt affective episodes (e.g., Barrett 2017, LeDoux 2015). Moreover, while constructivists acknowledge there’s a biological dimension to emotion, they deny that emotions are (or involve) affect programs. So they also deny that emotions are natural kinds. However, the essential role constructivism gives to felt experience and folk concepts leads to an account that’s extensionally inadequate and functionally inaccurate. Moreover, biologically-oriented proposals that reject these commitments are not similarly encumbered. (...)
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  10. ‘Absolute’ adjectives in belief contexts.Charlie Siu - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (4):875-910.
    It is a consequence of both Kennedy and McNally’s typology of the scale structures of gradable adjectives and Kennedy’s :1–45, 2007) economy principle that an object is clean just in case its degree of cleanness is maximal. So they jointly predict that the sentence ‘Both towels are clean, but the red one is cleaner than the blue one’ :259–288, 2004) is a contradiction. Surely, one can account for the sentence’s assertability by saying that the first instance of ‘clean’ is used (...)
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  11.  31
    Monetary Valuation of Livelihoods for Understanding the Composition and Complexity of Rural Households.Delali B. K. Dovie, E. T. F. Witkowski & Charlie M. Shackleton - 2005 - Agriculture and Human Values 22 (1):87-103.
    There is, at present, little precise understanding of the relative contributions of the various income streams used by impoverished rural households in southern Africa. The impact of household profiles on overall income also is not well understood. There is, therefore, little consideration of these factors in national economic accounting. This paper is an attempt to reduce this gap in knowledge by reflecting on the relative contribution of agro-pastoralism, secondary woodland resources, and formal and informal cash income streams to households in (...)
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  12. Being Realistic About Motivation.Charlie Kurth - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (10):2751-2765.
    T.M. Scanlon’s ‘reasons fundamentalism’ is thought to face difficulties answering the normative question—that is, explaining why it’s irrational to not do what you judge yourself to have most reason to do (e.g., Dreier 2014a). I argue that this difficulty results from Scanlon’s failure to provide a theory of mind that can give substance to his account of normative judgment and its tie to motivation. A central aim of this paper is to address this deficiency. To do this, I draw on (...)
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  13. I Don't Know, Just Wait: Remembering Remarriage in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.William Day - 2011 - In David LaRocca (ed.), The Philosophy of Charlie Kaufman. University Press of Kentucky.
    "In 'I Don't Know, Just Wait: Remembering Remarriage in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind', William Day shows how Kaufman's Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind should be considered part of the film genre known as remarriage comedy; but he also shows how Kaufman contributes something new to the genre. Day addresses, in particular, how the conversation that is the condition for reunion involves discovering 'what it means to have memories together as a way of learning how to be together'. (...)
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  14. Religion, Philosophy, and Psychical Research : Selected Essays / Charlie Broad.Charlie Dunbar Broad - 1953 - Routledge and Kegan Paul.
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  15. I Watch, Therefore I Am: From Socrates to Sartre, the Great Mysteries of Life as Explained Through Howdy Doody, Marcia Brady, Homer Simpson, Don Draper, and Other Tv Icons.Gregory Bergman - 2011 - Adams Media.
    What's the world made of? Donuts! and Beer! -- Protagoras, Gorgias, Captain Kirk, and Denny Crane -- Socrates : The Sergeant Schultz of Ancient Greece -- Plato is the new American Idol -- Aristotle loves Lucy -- Charlie Harper's Non-Epicurean lifestyle -- St. Augustine's Highway to Heaven -- Scully shaves Mulder with Ockham's Razor -- Larry Hagman dreams of Descartes -- Locke versus Hobbes, or The Brady Bunch takes on Survivor -- Can or can't Kant like vampires? -- Reading (...)
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  16.  52
    Replies.Scott Soames - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):429–452.
    His first point is that true exhibits pathologies that smidget doesn’t. If smidget is undefined for Charlie, then the sentence Charlie is a smidget is undefined, and there is no basis for accepting either it or its negation. There is no pathology here; it is simply a case in which a sentence and its negation must both be rejected. With smidget there is no paradoxicality analogous to Liar sentences and no circularity corresponding to Truth Tellers. Gupta concludes that (...)
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  17.  2
    Replies.Scott Soames - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):429-452.
    His first point is that true exhibits pathologies that smidget doesn’t. If smidget is undefined for Charlie, then the sentence Charlie is a smidget is undefined, and there is no basis for accepting either it or its negation. There is no pathology here; it is simply a case in which a sentence and its negation must both be rejected. With smidget there is no paradoxicality analogous to Liar sentences and no circularity corresponding to Truth Tellers. Gupta concludes that (...)
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  18.  69
    On Being John Malkovich and Not Being Yourself.Christopher Falzon - unknown
    In Being John Malkovich, the first of Charlie Kaufman's screenplays to be made into a feature film, the protagonist, Craig Schwartz , finds a portal into the body of actor John Malkovich , allowing him to inhabit it for fifteen minutes. Craig describes the experience to his sexy and condescending coworker Maxine , whom he lusts after: "It raises all sorts of philosophical-type questions, you know ... about the nature of self, about the existence of a soul You know, (...)
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  19. Lost and Philosophy: The Island has its Reasons.Sharon Kaye (ed.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Sometimes it feels like you need a Ph.D. to follow the show. But you don't. You just need this book in which twenty-one philosophers explore the deep questions we all face as survivors on this planet: Does "everything happen for a reason"? Is torture ever justified? Who are the Others? How do we know we're not patients in Hurley's psych ward? What if the Dharma Intitiative is experimenting on us? Desmond may not be able to save Charlie, but this (...)
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  20.  4
    Introduction to the Special Issue.Martha Montello - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (3):293-294.
    In the summer of 2017, much of the world was riveted by the case of Charlie Gard, a baby in London whose parents wanted an experimental treatment and whose doctors thought that further treatment would be futile. The case worked its way through the British courts and, eventually, was even heard by the European Court of Human Rights. Pope Francis and President Trump weighed in. If nothing else, the case revealed how controversial the issues around medical futility and shared (...)
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  21.  29
    Emotions: From Cases to Theories.Matteo Galletti & Ariele Niccoli - 2019 - Humana Mente 12 (35).
    Monographic issue on the Philosophy of Emotions. Contents: Resentment, Empathy and Indignation; Jacqueline Taylor / Compassion without Cognitivism; Charlie Kurth / “I Don’t Want Your Compassion!”. The Importance of Empathy for Morality; Manuel Camassa / Making sense of emotional contagion; Carme Isern-Mas, Antoni Gomila / On Pride; Lorenzo Greco / Envy and its objects; Alessandra Fussi / Admiration, moral knowledge and transformative experiences; Maria Silvia Vaccarezza / Fear as Related to Courage: An Aristotelian-Thomistic Redefinition of Cognitive Emotions; Claudia Navarini, (...)
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  22. The Mind and its Place in Nature.Charlie Dunbar Broad - 1925 - London, England: Routledge.
  23.  35
    I–T. M. Scanlon.T. M. Scanlon - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):301-317.
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  24. The T-Schema is Not a Logical Truth.R. T. Cook - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):231-239.
    It is shown that the logical truth of instances of the T-schema is incompatible with the formal nature of logical truth. In particular, since the formality of logical truth entails that the set of logical truths is closed under substitution, the logical truth of T-schema instances entails that all sentences are logical truths.
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  25.  21
    Can’T Philosophers Tell the Difference Between Science and Religion?: Demarcation Revisited.Robert T. Pennock - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):177-206.
    In the 2005 Kitzmiller v Dover Area School Board case, a federal district court ruled that Intelligent Design creationism was not science, but a disguised religious view and that teaching it in public schools is unconstitutional. But creationists contend that it is illegitimate to distinguish science and religion, citing philosophers Quinn and especially Laudan, who had criticized a similar ruling in the 1981 McLean v. Arkansas creation-science case on the grounds that no necessary and sufficient demarcation criterion was possible and (...)
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  26.  29
    Concepts: A Critical Approach.Andy Blunden - 2012 - Brill.
    This book offers an overview of theories of the Concept, drawing on the philosopher Hegel and the Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Concepts are shown to be both units of the mind and units of a cultural formation.
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  27.  29
    Why Charlie Gard’s Parents Should Have Been the Decision-Makers About Their Son’s Best Interests.Raanan Gillon - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):462-465.
    This paper argues that Charlie Gard’s parents should have been the decision-makers about their son’s best interests and that determination of Charlie’s best interests depended on a moral decision about which horn of a profound moral dilemma to choose. Charlie’s parents chose one horn of that moral dilemma and the courts, like Charlie Gard’s doctors, chose the other horn. Contrary to the first UK court’s assertion, supported by all the higher courts that considered it, that its (...)
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  28.  28
    Religion, Philosophy, and Physical Research.Charlie Dunbar Broad - 1953 - London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    the importance of this story in relation to the evidence for the ostensibly supernormal physical phenomena of Spiritualism. From 1869 onwards Sidgwick began to be associated with Myers in a common interest in psychical research. In the very ...
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  29. Taboo, Hermeneutical Injustice, and Expressively Free Environments.Charlie Crerar - 2016 - Episteme 13 (2).
    In this paper I draw attention to a shortcoming in Miranda Fricker's 2007 account of hermeneutical injustice: that the only hermeneutical resource she acknowledges is a shared conceptual framework. Consequently, Fricker creates the impression that hermeneutical injustice manifests itself almost exclusively in the form of a conceptual lacuna. Considering the negative hermeneutical impact of certain societal taboos, however, suggests that there can be cases of hermeneutical injustice even when an agent's conceptual repertoire is perfectly adequate. I argue that this observation (...)
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  30.  66
    Interpreting Spinoza: Critical Essays.Charlie Huenemann (ed.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    The philosophy of Spinoza is increasingly recognised as holding a position of crucial importance and influence in early modern thought, and in previous years has been the focus of a rich and growing body of scholarship. In this volume of essays, leading experts in the field offer penetrating analyses of his views about God, necessity, imagination, the mind, knowledge, history, society, and politics. The essays treat questions of perennial importance in Spinoza scholarship but also constitute critical examinations of his worldview. (...)
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  31.  51
    Charlie Hebdo Meets Utility Monster.William A. Edmundson - forthcoming - The Critique.
    The Charlie Hebdo massacre in January 2015 and the subsequent attacks of November 13 cast a garish light onto a conundrum at the center of how liberal democracies understand themselves. The Syrian emigrant crisis has added further color. How can a tolerant, liberal political culture tolerate the presence of intolerant, illiberal, sub-cultures while remaining true to its principles of tolerance? The problem falls within the intersection of two developments in the thinking of John Rawls, the great American political philosopher (...)
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  32.  88
    Examination of Mctaggart’s Philosophy.Charlie Dunbar Broad - 1933 - Octagon Books.
  33. The Anxious Mind: An Investigation Into the Varieties and Virtues of Anxiety.Charlie Kurth - 2018 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    This book is about the various forms of anxiety—some familiar, some not—that color and shape our lives. The objective is two-fold. The first aim is to deepen our understanding of what anxiety is. The second aim is to re-orient thinking about the role of emotions in moral psychology and ethical theory. Here I argue that the current focus on backward looking moral emotions like guilt and shame leaves us with a picture that is badly incomplete. To get a better understanding (...)
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  34.  22
    Holbach. PH T. Baron De. 226 Hook. S. 179. 181 Horiheimer. M.. 2.T. Adorno, L. Althusser, T. Amott, P. Anderson, P. V. Annenkov, G. Babeuf, F. Bacon, B. Barry, D. Bell & I. Berlin - 1984 - In T. Ball & J. Farr (eds.), After Marx. Cambridge University Press.
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  35.  68
    Assertion and The Provision of Knowledge.Charlie Pelling - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (251):293-312.
    Epistemic relationism in the theory of assertion is the view that an assertion's epistemic propriety depends purely on the relation between the asserter and the proposition asserted. Many accounts of assertion are relationist in this sense, including the familiar knowledge, belief, and justification accounts. A notable feature of such accounts is that they give no direct importance to the role of hearer: as far as such accounts are concerned, we need make no mention of hearers in characterising an assertion's propriety (...)
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  36. The Greatest Happiness Principle*: T. L. S. Sprigge.T. L. S. Sprigge - 1991 - Utilitas 3 (1):37-51.
    My purpose in what follows is not so much to defend the basic principle of utilitarianism as to indicate the form of it which seems most promising as a basic moral and political position. I shall take the principle of utility as offering a criterion for two different sorts of evaluation: first, the merits of acts of government, social policies, and social institutions, and secondly, the ultimate moral evaluation of the actions of individuals. I do not take it as implying (...)
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  37.  37
    Natural Kinds: T. E. Wilkerson.T. E. Wilkerson - 1988 - Philosophy 63 (243):29-42.
    What is a natural kind ? As we shall see, the concept of a natural kind has a long history. Many of the interesting doctrines can be detected in Aristotle, were revived by Locke and Leibniz, and have again become fashionable in recent years. Equally there has been agreement about certain paradigm examples: the kinds oak, stickleback and gold are natural kinds, and the kinds table, nation and banknote are not. Sadly agreement does not extend much further. It is impossible (...)
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  38. Moral Anxiety and Moral Agency.Charlie Kurth - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 5:171-195.
    A familiar feature of moral life is the distinctive anxiety that we feel in the face of a moral dilemma or moral conflict. Situations like these require us to take stands on controversial issues. But because we are unsure that we will make the correct decision, anxiety ensues. Despite the pervasiveness of this phenomenon, surprisingly little work has been done either to characterize this “ moral anxiety” or to explain the role that it plays in our moral lives. This paper (...)
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  39. Cultivating Disgust: Prospects and Moral Implications.Charlie Kurth - 2021 - Emotion Review 13 (2):101-112.
    Is disgust morally valuable? The answer to that question turns, in large part, on what we can do to shape disgust for the better. But this cultivation question has received surprisingly little attention in philosophical debates. To address this deficiency, this article examines empirical work on disgust and emotion regulation. This research reveals that while we can exert some control over how we experience disgust, there’s little we can do to substantively change it at a more fundamental level. These empirical (...)
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  40.  20
    Charlie Gard: In Defence of the Law.Eliana Close, Lindy Willmott & Benjamin P. White - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):476-480.
    Much of the commentary in the wake of the Charlie Gard litigation was aimed at apparent shortcomings of the law. These include concerns about the perceived inability of the law to consider resourcing issues, the vagueness of the best interests test and the delays and costs of having disputes about potentially life-sustaining medical treatment resolved by the courts. These concerns are perennial ones that arise in response to difficult cases. Despite their persistence, we argue that many of these criticisms (...)
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  41.  97
    Tipper is Ready but He is Not Strong Enough: Minimal Proposition, Question Under Discussion, and What is Said.Charlie Siu - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (9):2577-2584.
    A standard objection to Cappelen and Lepore’s Semantic Minimalism is that minimal propositions are explanatorily idle. But Schoubye and Stokke recently proposed that minimal proposition and the question under discussion of a conversation jointly determine what is said in a systematic and explanatory way. This note argues that their account both overgenerates and undergenerates.
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  42. It Seems Like There Aren’T Any Seemings.T. Ryan Byerly - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (4):771-782.
    Abstract I argue that the two primary motivations in the literature for positing seemings as sui generis mental states are insufficient to motivate this view. Because of this, epistemological views which attempt to put seemings to work don’t go far enough. It would be better to do the same work by appealing to what makes seeming talk true rather than simply appealing to seeming talk. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-12 DOI 10.1007/s11406-012-9363-8 Authors T. Ryan Byerly, Department of Philosophy, Baylor (...)
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  43. Anxiety, Normative Uncertainty, and Social Regulation.Charlie Kurth - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):1-21.
    Emotion plays an important role in securing social stability. But while emotions like fear, anger, and guilt have received much attention in this context, little work has been done to understand the role that anxiety plays. That’s unfortunate. I argue that a particular form of anxiety—what I call ‘practical anxiety’—plays an important, but as of yet unrecognized, role in norm-based social regulation. More specifically, it provides a valuable form of metacognition, one that contributes to social stability by helping individuals negotiate (...)
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  44.  78
    Assertion and Safety.Charlie Pelling - 2013 - Synthese 190 (17):3777-3796.
    Safety is a notion familiar to epistemologists principally because of the way in which it has been used in the attempt to cast light on the nature of knowledge. In particular, some have argued that an important constraint on knowledge is that one knows p only if one believes p safely. In this paper, I use safety for a different purpose: to cast light on the nature of assertion. I introduce what I call the safety account of assertion, according to (...)
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  45.  60
    Omnipotence: P. T. Geach.P. T. Geach - 1973 - Philosophy 48 (183):7-20.
    It is fortunate for my purposes that English has the two words ‘almighty’ and ‘omnipotent’, and that apart from any stipulation by me the words have rather different associations and suggestions. ‘Almighty’ is the familiar word that comes in the creeds of the Church; ‘omnipotent’ is at home rather in formal theological discussions and controversies, e.g. about miracles and about the problem of evil. ‘Almighty’ derives by way of Latin ‘omnipotens’ from the Greek word ‘ pantokratōr ’; and both this (...)
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  46.  10
    Must We Love Epistemic Goods?Charlie Crerar - 2021 - Philosophical Quarterly 71 (4):pqaa072.
    It is widely held that for an agent to have any intellectual character virtues, they must be fundamentally motivated by a love of epistemic goods. In this paper, I challenge this ‘strong motivational requirement’ on virtue. First, I call into question three key reasons offered in its defence: that a love of epistemic goods is needed to explain the scope, the performance quality, or the value of virtue. Secondly, I highlight several costs and restrictions that we incur from its acceptance. (...)
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  47.  79
    T. J. Luce : Livy: The Rise of Rome. Books 1–5 Pp. Xxx + 372, 2 Maps. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Paper, £8.99. ISBN: 0-19-282296-9. [REVIEW]T. Davina McClain - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (1):304-305.
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  48.  19
    The Posterior Parietal Cortex and Serial Visual Search: A tDCS Study.Blunden Holly & Pammer Kristen - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  49. Charlie Kurth, The Anxious Mind: An Investigation Into the Varieties and Virtues of Anxiety. [REVIEW]Daniel Kelly - 2021 - Ethics 132 (1):249-255.
    Kurth wants us to understand and appreciate our anxiety more than we typically do. His concise and crisply written monograph makes a good case that we should. It deepens our understanding of what anxiety is, and of how it animates different facets of our mental and moral lives. The case he builds that, roughly, anxiety is one of the brain’s ways of affectively signaling and responding to uncertainty is clearly argued and meticulously organized. Kurth hits the targets he sets for (...)
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  50. The Folk Strike Back; or, Why You Didn’T Do It Intentionally, Though It Was Bad and You Knew It.Mark T. Phelan & Hagop Sarkissian - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 138 (2):291 - 298.
    Recent and puzzling experimental results suggest that people’s judgments as to whether or not an action was performed intentionally are sensitive to moral considerations. In this paper, we outline these results and evaluate two accounts which purport to explain them. We then describe a recent experiment that allegedly vindicates one of these accounts and present our own findings to show that it fails to do so. Finally, we present additional data suggesting no such vindication could be in the offing and (...)
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