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  1.  83
    The Normative Foundations of Unethical Supervision in Organizations.Ali F. Ünal, Danielle E. Warren & Chao C. Chen - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (1):5-19.
    As research in the areas of unethical and ethical leadership grows, we note the need for more consideration of the normative assumptions in the development of constructs. Here, we focus on a subset of this literature, the “dark side” of supervisory behavior. We assert that, in the absence of a normative grounding, scholars have implicitly adopted different intuitive ethical criteria, which has contributed to confusion regarding unethical and ethical supervisory behaviors as well as the proliferation of overlapping terms and fragmentation (...)
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  2.  37
    Paradoxical Relationships Between Cultural Norms of Particularism and Attitudes Toward Relational Favoritism: A Cultural Reflectivity Perspective.Chao C. Chen, Joseph P. Gaspar, Ray Friedman, William Newburry, Michael C. Nippa, Katherine Xin & Ronaldo Parente - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 145 (1):63-79.
    We examined how the cultural dimension of universalism–particularism influences managers’ attitudes toward relational favoritism. Paradoxically, we found in a survey study that Brazilian and Chinese managers perceived more negative consequences of relational favoritism than did American managers—even though the Brazilians and the Chinese perceived stronger particularistic cultural norms in their countries than Americans did in the United States. We attribute this pattern of results to “cultural reflexivity”—the ability of people from transforming economies to be culturally self-critical during a period of (...)
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  3.  16
    Feeling Guilty and Entitled: Paradoxical Consequences of Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior.Mo Chen, Chao C. Chen & Marshall Schminke - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 183 (3):865-883.
    Given the paradoxical nature of unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB), that it simultaneously involves sincere extraordinary efforts to help the organization but violates ethical norms, we examined its paradoxical psychological and behavioral outcomes in the workplace. We hypothesized that UPB generates simultaneous but conflicting feelings: On one hand, guilt (for having behaved unethically) and on the other, psychological entitlement (for having done something positive for the organization). In turn, these conflicting psychological states differentially affect two conflicting behaviors. Feelings of guilt motivate (...)
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  4.  14
    For the Sake of the Ingroup: The Double-Edged Effects of Collectivism on Workplace Unethical Behavior.Chao C. Chen, Oliver J. Sheldon, Mo Chen & Scott J. Reynolds - forthcoming - Business Ethics Quarterly:1-35.
    The existing literature provides conflicting evidence of whether a collectivistic value orientation is associated with ethical or unethical behavior. To address this confusion, we integrate collectivism theory and research with prior work on social identity, moral boundedness, group morality, and moral identity to develop a model of the double-edged effects of collectivism on employee conduct. We argue that collectivism is morally bounded depending on who the other is, and thus it inhibits employees’ motivation to engage in unethical pro-self behavior, yet (...)
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