Results for 'Change'

999 found
Order:
  1.  3
    Lian: ling de yi xing xi guo mai.Chang Yang - 1997 - Nanning Shi: Fa xing Guangxi xin hua shu dian.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  5
    Modellierung der Wortbedeutung für den Sprachverstehensprozess: Entwicklung einer Bedeutungskonzeption aus der Verbindung zwischen der kulturhistorischen Schule und den Simulationsmodellen.Chang-Lin Yu - 2001 - New York: G. Olms.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  17
    Creativity and Taoism: a study of Chinese philosophy, art, & poetry.Chung-Yuan Chang - 1963 - London: Wildwood House.
  4. Ssu hsiang yü she hui.Tung-sun Chang - 1974
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  23
    Chinese translations of soviet philosophical works, 1949?1963. IV.Wei-Shung Chang - 1972 - Studies in Soviet Thought 12 (2):174-189.
  6.  23
    The impact of Soviet dialectical materialism on China through translations.Wei-Shung Chang - 1971 - Studies in Soviet Thought 11 (3):208-211.
  7. Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism and Pluralism.Hasok Chang - 2012 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science.
    This book exhibits deep philosophical quandaries and intricacies of the historical development of science lying behind a simple and fundamental item of common sense in modern science, namely the composition of water as H2O. Three main phases of development are critically re-examined, covering the historical period from the 1760s to the 1860s: the Chemical Revolution, early electrochemistry, and early atomic chemistry. In each case, the author concludes that the empirical evidence available at the time was not decisive in settling the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   211 citations  
  8. Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress.Hasok Chang - 2004 - New York, US: OUP Usa.
    This book presents the concept of “complementary science” which contributes to scientific knowledge through historical and philosophical investigations. It emphasizes the fact that many simple items of knowledge that we take for granted were actually spectacular achievements obtained only after a great deal of innovative thinking, painstaking experiments, bold conjectures, and serious controversies. Each chapter in the book consists of two parts: a narrative part that states the philosophical puzzle and gives a problem-centred narrative on the historical attempts to solve (...)
  9.  9
    Making Comparisons Count.Ruth Chang - 2001 - New York: Routledge.
    This book attempts to answer two questions: Are alternatives for choice ever incomparable? and In what ways can items be compared? The arguments offered suggest that alternatives for choice no matter how different are never incomparable, and that the ways in which items can be compared are richer and more varied than commonly supposed.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  10.  9
    Making Comparisons Count.Ruth Chang - 2001 - New York: Routledge.
    This book attempts to answer two questions: Are alternatives for choice ever incomparable? and In what ways can items be compared? The arguments offered suggest that alternatives for choice no matter how different are never incomparable, and that the ways in which items can be compared are richer and more varied than commonly supposed.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  11. Introduction.Ruth Chang - 1997 - In Incommensurability, incomparability, and practical reason. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard. pp. 1-34.
    This paper is the introduction to the volume. It gives an argumentative view of the philosophical landscape concerning incommensurability and incomparability. It argues that incomparability, not incommensurability, is the important phenomenon on which philosophers should be focusing and that the arguments for the existence of incomparability are so far not compelling.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   154 citations  
  12. Incommensurability, incomparability, and practical reason.Ruth Chang (ed.) - 1997 - Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard.
    Can quite different values be rationally weighed against one another? Can the value of one thing always be ranked as greater than, equal to, or less than the value of something else? If the answer to these questions is no, then in what areas do we find commensurability and comparability unavailable? And what are the implications for moral and legal decision making? This book struggles with these questions, and arrives at distinctly different answers.".
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   143 citations  
  13. Bourdieu's Theory of Cultural Change: Explication, Application, Critique.Dimensions of Cultural Change & Supply Vs Demand - 2002 - Sociological Theory 20 (2).
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  16
    Why the order of the figures of the hypothetical syllogisms was changed.Hypothetical Syllogisms Was Changed - 2000 - Classical Quarterly 50:247-251.
  15.  33
    Machine learning in medicine: should the pursuit of enhanced interpretability be abandoned?Chang Ho Yoon, Robert Torrance & Naomi Scheinerman - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (9):581-585.
    We argue why interpretability should have primacy alongside empiricism for several reasons: first, if machine learning models are beginning to render some of the high-risk healthcare decisions instead of clinicians, these models pose a novel medicolegal and ethical frontier that is incompletely addressed by current methods of appraising medical interventions like pharmacological therapies; second, a number of judicial precedents underpinning medical liability and negligence are compromised when ‘autonomous’ ML recommendations are considered to be en par with human instruction in specific (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  16. Voluntarist reasons and the sources of normativity.Ruth Chang - 2009 - In David Sobel & Steven Wall (eds.), Reasons for Action. Cambridge University Press. pp. 243-71.
    This paper investigates two puzzles in practical reason and proposes a solution to them. First, sometimes, when we are practically certain that neither of two alternatives is better than or as good as the other with respect to what matters in the choice between them, it nevertheless seems perfectly rational to continue to deliberate, and sometimes the result of that deliberation is a conclusion that one alternative is better, where there is no error in one’s previous judgment. Second, there are (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   61 citations  
  17. Parity, Imprecise Comparability, and the Repugnant Conclusion.Ruth Chang - 2016 - Theoria 82 (2):183-215.
    This article explores the main similarities and differences between Derek Parfit’s notion of imprecise comparability and a related notion I have proposed of parity. I argue that the main difference between imprecise comparability and parity can be understood by reference to ‘the standard view’. The standard view claims that 1) differences between cardinally ranked items can always be measured by a scale of units of the relevant value, and 2) all rankings proceed in terms of the trichotomy of ‘better than’, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   34 citations  
  18.  1
    Thermodynamics and point defects in the B2 intermetallic phase PdIn.M. Huang, W. Oates & Y. Chang - 2003 - Philosophical Magazine 83 (5):589-601.
    The X-ray and bulk densities of PdIn alloys have been determined at ambient temperature on samples annealed at 1273 and 1373 K and quenched in water-ice mixtures. From these measurements the vacancy concentrations in this intermetallic phase have been obtained as a function of In concentration at these two temperatures. In addition, a generalized thermodynamic model is presented which considers the existence of antisite and vacancy defects on both sublattices without any dilute solution approximations. This model uses three energy parameters, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. Parity, interval value, and choice.Ruth Chang - 2005 - Ethics 115 (2):331-350.
    This paper begins with a response to Josh Gert’s challenge that ‘on a par with’ is not a sui generis fourth value relation beyond ‘better than’, ‘worse than’, and ‘equally good’. It then explores two further questions: can parity be modeled by an interval representation of value? And what should one rationally do when faced with items on a par? I argue that an interval representation of value is incompatible with the possibility that items are on a par (a mathematical (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   69 citations  
  20.  37
    The Effects of Moral Development and Adverse Selection Conditions on Managers’ Project Continuance Decisions: A Study in the Pacific-Rim Region.C. Janie Chang & Sin-Hui Yen - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (3):347-360.
    According to agency theory, agents base their economic decisions on self-interests when adverse selection conditions exist. However, cognitive moral development theory predicts that ethics/morals may influence decision-makers not to behave egoistically. Rutledge and Karim, 173-184) find both the moral reasoning level of the managers and an adverse selection condition affect a manager's project evaluation decisions significantly. Since prior studies have shown that national culture might influence the application of agency theory in project evaluation, this current study uses a different moral (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  21. Model Theory.C. C. Chang & H. Jerome Keisler - 1992 - Studia Logica 51 (1):154-155.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   117 citations  
  22. Can Desires Provide Reasons for Action.Ruth Chang - 2004 - In R. Jay Wallace (ed.), Reason and value: themes from the moral philosophy of Joseph Raz. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 56--90.
    What sorts of consideration can be normative reasons for action? If we systematize the wide variety of considerations that can be cited as normative reasons, do we find that there is a single kind of consideration that can always be a reason? Desire-based theorists think that the fact that you want something or would want it under certain evaluatively neutral conditions can always be your normative reason for action. Value-based theorists, by contrast, think that what plays that role are evaluative (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   56 citations  
  23. Preservative realism and its discontents: Revisiting caloric.Hasok Chang - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):902-912.
    A popular and plausible response against Laudan's “pessimistic induction” has been what I call “preservative realism,” which argues that there have actually been enough elements of scientific knowledge preserved through major theory‐change processes, and that those elements can be accepted realistically. This paper argues against preservative realism, in particular through a critical review of Psillos's argument concerning the case of the caloric theory of heat. Contrary to his argument, the historical record of the caloric theory reveals that beliefs about (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   73 citations  
  24. The possibility of parity.Ruth Chang - 2002 - Ethics 112 (4):659-688.
    This paper argues for the existence of a fourth positive generic value relation that can hold between two items beyond ‘better than’, ‘worse than’, and ‘equally good’: namely ‘on a par’.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   287 citations  
  25. Making comparisons count.Ruth Chang - 2002 - New York: Routledge.
    The central aim of this book is to answer two questions: Are alternatives for choice ever incomparable? and, In what ways can items be compared? The arguments offered suggest that alternatives for choice no matter how different are never incomparable, and that the ways in which items can be compared are richer and more varied than commonly supposed. This work is the first book length treatment of the topics of incomparability, value, and practical reason.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   43 citations  
  26. Slurs as Illocutionary Force Indicators.Chang Liu - 2020 - Philosophia 49 (3):1051-1065.
    Slurs are derogatory words and they are used to derogate certain groups. Theories of slurs must explain why they are derogatory words, as well as other features like independence and descriptive ineffability. This paper proposes an illocutionary force indicator theory of slurs: they are derogatory terms because their use is to perform the illocutionary act of derogation, which is a declarative illocutionary act to enforce norms against the target. For instance, calling a Chinese person “chink” is an act of derogation (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  27. The Persistence of Epistemic Objects Through Scientific Change.Hasok Chang - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (3):413-429.
    Why do some epistemic objects persist despite undergoing serious changes, while others go extinct in similar situations? Scientists have often been careless in deciding which epistemic objects to retain and which ones to eliminate; historians and philosophers of science have been on the whole much too unreflective in accepting the scientists’ decisions in this regard. Through a re-examination of the history of oxygen and phlogiston, I will illustrate the benefits to be gained from challenging and disturbing the commonly accepted continuities (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  28. Incommensurability (and incomparability).Ruth Chang - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell. pp. 2591-2604.
    This encyclopedia entry urges what it takes to be correctives to common (mis)understandings concerning the phenomenon of incommensurability and incomparability and briefly outlines some of their philosophical upshots.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  29. Grounding practical normativity: going hybrid.Ruth Chang - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (1):163-187.
    In virtue of what is something a reason for action? That is, what makes a consideration a reason to act? This is a metaphysical or meta-normative question about the grounding of reasons for action. The answer to the grounding question has been traditionally given in ‘pure’, univocal terms. This paper argues that there is good reason to understand the ground of practical normativity as a hybrid of traditional ‘pure’ views. The paper 1) surveys the three leading ‘pure’ answers to the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   102 citations  
  30. Realism for Realistic People: A New Pragmatist Philosophy of Science.Hasok Chang - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this innovative book, Hasok Chang constructs a philosophy of science for 'realistic people' interested in understanding and promoting the actual practices of inquiry in science and other knowledge-focused areas of life. Inspired by pragmatist philosophy, he reconceives the very notions of reality and truth on the basis of his concept of the 'operational coherence' of epistemic activities, and offers new pragmatist conceptions of truth and reality as operational ideals achievable in actual scientific practice. Rejecting the version of scientific realism (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  31. Beyond case-studies: History as philosophy.Hasok Chang - unknown
    What can we conclude from a mere handful of case studies? The field of HPS has witnessed too many hasty philosophical generalizations based on a small number of conveniently chosen case studies. One might even speculate that dissatisfaction with such methodological shoddiness contributed decisively to a widespread disillusionment with the whole HPS enterprise. Without specifying clear mechanisms for history-philosophy interaction, we are condemned to either making unwarranted generalizations from history, or writing entirely "local" histories with no bearing on an overall (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  32. Сe beeby.Education as an Instrument Of Change - 1980 - Paideia 8:193.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. Forward: Focus on Agricultural and Rural Development. UPCA, College.Chi-Wan Rural Asia Marches Chang - forthcoming - Laguna.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Lun Hei-ko-erh ti lo chi hsüeh.Shih-Ying Chang - 1973
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  6
    Mo-tzŭ chi chieh.Chʻun-I. Chang - 1971 - Edited by Di Mo.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. Wang Yangming yu chan.Wing-Tsit Chang - 1973 - [Taibei]: Wu yin jing she. Edited by Wing-Tsit Chan.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. Wang Yangming yu chan.Wing-Tsit Chang - 1973 - Taibei Shi: Taiwan xue sheng shu ju. Edited by Wing-Tsit Chan.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Yü chʻieh shu. Chang, Ho & [From Old Catalog] - 1961
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  8
    Yu zhou fa ze.John Chang & 海之濤 - 2004 - [Sydney]: Aodaliya yu zhou fa ze yan jiu hui.
    本書已再版多次,越來越受到世人的關注,大概人們對這個宇宙確實有很多疑問,他們對當今世界的宗教、哲學和科學理論對自然的解釋越來越不滿意,他們期待著一個更重大的發現和突破,而本書正好在這個時候出現,回答了 現行宗教、哲學和科學無法回答的問題,給出了可能的答案。 遵循宇宙法則,全球宗教(“.”)將被統一,人們再不會為這些宗教戰爭所痛苦,世界將變得和平和美好。 遵循宇宙法則,全部社會哲學理論(“o”)將被統一,統治階級將更關心民眾疾苦,虛心接受人民的監督,社會再不會有腐敗和貪官,國家將變的更進步和富強。 遵循宇宙法則,全部自然科學理論(“1”)將被統一,科學家將花更多精力在創造和對宇宙的探索上,而不是專為統治階級研製殺人武器來危害社會。 相信將來,會有越來越多的人們接受這部書、喜歡它、支持它,並不斷完善它。人們也會從這部書中,不斷感受到它的力量,發現社會的弊病,改革它、摒棄它,這樣我們的社會就會前進,知識就會進步,更不會有戰爭。到那時 ,我們地球人就會自豪地對全宇宙智人說,我們也理解了宇宙法則,現在就加入你們的行列。.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Toward a Theory of Offense: Should You Feel Offended?Chang Liu - 2021 - Philosophy 96 (4):625-649.
    The feeling of being offended, as a moral emotion, plays a key role in issues such as slurs, the offense principle, ethics of humor, etc. However, no adequate theory of offense has been developed in the literature, and it remains unclear what questions such a theory should answer. This paper attempts to fill the gap by performing two tasks. The first task is to clarify and summarize the questions of offense into two kinds, the descriptive questions (e.g., what features differentiate (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  41. Presentist History for Pluralist Science.Hasok Chang - 2020 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (1):97-114.
    Building on my previous writings on presentism, pluralism, and “complementary science”, I develop an activist view of historiography. I begin by recognizing the inevitability of presentism. Our own purposes and perspectives do and should guide the production of our accounts of the past; like funerals, history-writing is for the living. There are different kinds of presentist history, depending on the historians’ purposes and perspectives. My particular inclination is pluralist. Science remembers its own history from a particular perspective, which views the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  42. Commitment, Reasons, and the Will.Ruth Chang - 2013 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume 8. Oxford University Press. pp. 74-113.
    This paper argues that there is a particular kind of ‘internal’ commitment typically made in the context of romantic love relationships that has striking meta-normative implications for how we understand the role of the will in practical normativity. Internal commitments cannot plausibly explain the reasons we have in committed relationships on the usual model – as triggering reasons that are already there, in the way that making a promise triggers a reason via a pre-existing norm of the form ‘If you (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  43. Operationalism.Hasok Chang - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  44. Against Constitutive Incommensurability or Buying and Selling Friends.Ruth Chang - 2001 - Noûs 35 (s1):33 - 60.
    Recently, some of the leading proponents of the view that there is widespread incommensurability among goods have suggested that the incommensurability of some goods is a constitutive feature of the goods themselves. So, for example, a friendship and a million dollars are incommensurable because it is part of what it is to be a friendship that it be incommensurable with money. According to these ‘constitutive incommensurabilists’ incommensurability follows from the very nature of certain goods. In this paper, I examine this (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  45. The Hidden History of Phlogiston: How Philosophical Failure Can Generate Historiographical Refinement.Hasok Chang - 2010 - Hyle 16 (2):47 - 79.
    Historians often feel that standard philosophical doctrines about the nature and development of science are not adequate for representing the real history of science. However, when philosophers of science fail to make sense of certain historical events, it is also possible that there is something wrong with the standard historical descriptions of those events, precluding any sensible explanation. If so, philosophical failure can be useful as a guide for improving historiography, and this constitutes a significant mode of productive interaction between (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  46. Hard Choices.Ruth Chang - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (1):1-21.
    What makes a choice hard? I discuss and criticize three common answers and then make a proposal of my own. Paradigmatic hard choices are not hard because of our ignorance, the incommensurability of values, or the incomparability of the alternatives. They are hard because the alternatives are on a par; they are comparable, but one is not better than the other, and yet nor are they equally good. So understood, hard choices open up a new way of thinking about what (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  47. Approximation, idealization, and laws of nature.Chang Liu - 1999 - Synthese 118 (2):229-256.
    Traditional theories construe approximate truth or truthlikeness as a measure of closeness to facts, singular facts, and idealization as an act of either assuming zero of otherwise very small differences from facts or imagining ideal conditions under which scientific laws are either approximately true or will be so when the conditions are relaxed. I first explain the serious but not insurmountable difficulties for the theories of approximation, and then argue that more serious and perhaps insurmountable difficulties for the theory of (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  48.  20
    Reorganization and plastic changes of the human brain associated with skill learning and expertise.Yongmin Chang - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  49.  69
    We Have Never Been Whiggish (About Phlogiston)1.Hasok Chang - 2009 - Centaurus 51 (4):239-264.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  50.  56
    How Historical Experiments Can Improve Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: The Cases of Boiling Water and Electrochemistry.Hasok Chang - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (3-4):317-341.
1 — 50 / 999