21 found
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  1. What are the obligations of pharmaceutical companies in a global health emergency?Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Allen Buchanan, Shuk Ying Chan, Cécile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa Herzog, R. J. Leland, Matthew S. McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Carla Saenz, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Govind Persad - 2021 - Lancet 398 (10304):1015.
    All parties involved in researching, developing, manufacturing, and distributing COVID-19 vaccines need guidance on their ethical obligations. We focus on pharmaceutical companies' obligations because their capacities to research, develop, manufacture, and distribute vaccines make them uniquely placed for stemming the pandemic. We argue that an ethical approach to COVID-19 vaccine production and distribution should satisfy four uncontroversial principles: optimising vaccine production, including development, testing, and manufacturing; fair distribution; sustainability; and accountability. All parties' obligations should be coordinated and mutually consistent. For (...)
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  2.  23
    Preparing ethical review systems for emergencies: next steps.Katharine Wright, Nic Aagaard, Amr Yusuf Ali, Caesar Atuire, Michael Campbell, Katherine Littler, Ahmed Mandil, Roli Mathur, Joseph Okeibunor, Andreas Reis, Maria Alexandra Ribeiro, Carla Saenz, Mamello Sekhoacha, Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki, Jerome Amir Singh & Ross Upshur - 2023 - BMC Medical Ethics 24 (1):1-6.
    Ethical review systems need to build on their experiences of COVID-19 research to enhance their preparedness for future pandemics. Recommendations from representatives from over twenty countries include: improving relationships across the research ecosystem; demonstrating willingness to reform and adapt systems and processes; and making the case robustly for better resourcing.
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  3. Fair domestic allocation of monkeypox virus countermeasures.Govind Persad, R. J. Leland, Trygve Ottersen, Henry S. Richardson, Carla Saenz, G. Owen Schaefer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2023 - Lancet Public Health 8 (5):e378–e382.
    Countermeasures for mpox (formerly known as monkeypox), primarily vaccines, have been in limited supply in many countries during outbreaks. Equitable allocation of scarce resources during public health emergencies is a complex challenge. Identifying the objectives and core values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures, using those values to provide guidance for priority groups and prioritisation tiers, and optimising allocation implementation are important. The fundamental values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures are: preventing death and illness; reducing the association between death (...)
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  4. Public Health Ethics: Cases Spanning the Globe.Drue H. Barrett, Gail Bolan, Angus Dawson, Leonard Ortmann, Andreas Reis & Carla Saenz (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
     
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  5. What is affordable health insurance?: The reasonable tradeoff account of affordability.Carla Saenz - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (4):pp. 401-414.
    The reform of the health care system will include a mandate: Individuals are required to purchase health insurance provided that affordable options are available. But what is affordable health insurance? Three accounts of affordability of health coverage have been advanced. The first two accounts are empirical. The third account is needs-based. All three accounts are inadequate. I propose a fourth, the reasonable tradeoff account, according to which individuals should only be required to make reasonable tradeoffs in order to pay for (...)
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  6. Virtue ethics and the selection of children with impairments: A reply to Rosalind McDougall.Carla Saenz - 2009 - Bioethics 24 (9):499-506.
    In ‘Parental Virtues: A New Way of Thinking about the Morality of Reproductive Actions’ Rosalind McDougall proposes a virtue-based framework to assess the morality of child selection. Applying the virtue-based account to the selection of children with impairments does not lead, according to McDougall, to an unequivocal answer to the morality of selecting impaired children. In ‘Impairment, Flourishing, and the Moral Nature of Parenthood,’ she also applies the virtue-based account to the discussion of child selection, and claims that couples with (...)
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  7.  11
    Equitable global allocation of monkeypox vaccines.G. Owen Schaefer, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Caesar A. Atuire, R. J. Leland, Govind Persad, Henry S. Richardson & Carla Saenz - 2023 - Vaccine 41 (48):7084-7088.
    With the world grappling with continued spread of monkeypox internationally, vaccines play a crucial role in mitigating the harms from infection and preventing spread. However, countries with the greatest need - particularly historically endemic countries with the highest monkeypox case-fatality rates - are not able to acquire scarce vaccines. This is unjust, and requires rectification through equitable allocation of vaccines globally. We propose applying the Fair Priority Model for such allocation, which emphasizes three key principles: 1) preventing harm; 2) prioritizing (...)
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  8. Three Case Studies in Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage.Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa Edejer, Kapiriri Lydia, Ole Frithjof Norheim, James Snowden, Olivier Basenya, Dorjsuren Bayarsaikhan, Ikram Chentaf, Nir Eyal, Amanda Folsom, Rozita Halina Tun Hussein, Cristian Morales, Florian Ostmann, Trygve Ottersen, Phusit Prakongsai & Carla Saenz - 2016 - Health and Human Rights 18 (2):11-22.
    The goal of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) can generally be realized only in stages. Moreover, resource, capacity and political constraints mean governments often face difficult trade-offs on the path to UHC. In a 2014 report, Making fair choices on the path to UHC, the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage articulated principles for making such trade-offs in an equitable manner. We present three case studies which illustrate how these principles can guide practical decision-making. These case studies (...)
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  9. Emergency care research ethics in low- and middle-income countries.Joseph Millum, Blythe Beecroft, Timothy C. Hardcastle, Jon Mark Hirshon, Adnan A. Hyder, Jennifer A. Newberry & Carla Saenz - 2019 - BMJ Global Health 4:e001260.
    A large proportion of the total global burden of disease is caused by emergency medical conditions. Emergency care research is essential to improving emergency medicine but this research can raise some distinctive ethical challenges, especially with regard to (1) standard of care and risk–benefit assessment; (2) blurring of the roles of clinician and researcher; (3) enrolment of populations with intersecting vulnerabilities; (4) fair participant selection; (5) quality of consent; and (6) community engagement. Despite the importance of research to improve emergency (...)
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  10. Un llamado ético a la inclusión de mujeres embarazadas en investigación: Reflexiones del Foro Global de Bioética en Investigación.Carla Saenz, Jackeline Alger, Juan Pablo Beca, José Belizán, María Luisa Cafferata, Julio Arturo Canario Guzman, Jesica Candanedo, Lissette Duque, Lester Figueroa, Ana Garcés, Lionel Gresh, Ida Cristina Gubert, Dirce Guilhem, Gabriela Guz, Gustavo Kaltwasser, Roxana Lescano, Florencia Luna, Alexandrina Cardelli, Ignacio Mastroleo, Irene Melamed, Agueda Muñoz del Carpio Toia, Ricardo Palacios, Gloria Palma, Sofía Salas, Xochitl Sandoval, Sergio Surugi de Siqueira, Hans Vásquez & Bertha Villela de Vega - 2017 - Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 41 (e13):1-2.
    El Foro Global de Bioética en Investigación (GFBR por sus siglas en inglés) se reunió el 3 y 4 de noviembre en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objetivo de discutir la ética de la investigación con mujeres embarazadas. El GFBR es una plataforma mundial que congrega a actores clave con el objetivo de promover la investigación realizada de manera ética, fortalecer la ética de la investigación en salud, particularmente en países de ingresos bajos y medios, y promover colaboración entre países (...)
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  11. Cómo tomar decisiones justas en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana, Carla Saenz, Alicia Yamin & Daniel Wikler - 2015 - Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO).
    La cobertura universal de salud está en el centro de la acción actual para fortalecer los sistemas de salud y mejorar el nivel y la distribución de la salud y los servicios de salud. Este documento es el informe fi nal del Grupo Consultivo de la OMS sobre la Equidad y Cobertura Universal de Salud. Aquí se abordan los temas clave de la justicia (fairness) y la equidad que surgen en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud. Por lo (...)
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  12.  92
    Separate Goals, Converging Priorities: On the Ethics of Treatment as Prevention.Florian Ostmann & Carla Saenz - 2013 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (2):57-62.
    Recent evidence confirming that the administration of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to HIV-infected persons may effectively reduce their risk of transmission has revived the discussion about priority setting in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The fact that the very same drugs can be used both for treatment purposes and for preventive purposes (Treatment as Prevention) has been seen as paradigm-shifting and taken to spark a new controversy: In a context of scarce resources, should the allocation of ARVs be prioritized based on the (...)
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  13.  56
    Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage: Applying Principles to Difficult Cases.Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T.-T. Edejer, Lydia Kapiriri, Ole Frithjof Norheim, James Snowden, Olivier Basenya, Dorjsuren Bayarsaikhan, Ikram Chentaf, Nir Eyal, Amanda Folsom, Rozita Halina Tun Hussein, Cristian Morales, Florian Ostmann, Trygve Ottersen, Phusit Prakongsai & Carla Saenz - 2017 - Health Systems and Reform 3 (4):1-12.
    Progress towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) requires making difficult trade-offs. In this journal, Dr. Margaret Chan, the WHO Director-General, has endorsed the principles for making such decisions put forward by the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and UHC. These principles include maximizing population health, priority for the worse off, and shielding people from health-related financial risks. But how should one apply these principles in particular cases and how should one adjudicate between them when their demands conflict? This paper by some (...)
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  14. Faire Des Choix Justes Pour Une Couverture Sanitaire Universelle.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Daniel Wikler, Alicia Yamin, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana & Carla Saenz - 2015 - World Health Organization.
    This report from the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage offers advice on how to make progress fairly towards universal health coverage.
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  15.  50
    Repertorio bibliográfico sobre Platón.Pedro Pablo Apolinario, Wilder Chanduví, Mariana Chu, Maribel Cuenca, Henry Galecio, Gabriel García, Rubén León, Julio Marchena, Bernardo Meza, Aurelio Miní, Víctor Montero, Gabriela Núñez, Martín Oyata, Raschid Rabí, Ernesto Reátegui, Rocío Reátegui, Carla Sáenz, Marco Sano, Gabriela Sarmiento, Camilo Thorne, Gabriela Trujillo, Ricardo Ugaz, Carmen Zavala, Ruth Zea & Mauricio Zeballos - 2000 - Estudios de Filosofía (Universidad de Antioquia) 4:119-159.
    Este repertorio registra los artículos sobre Platón que se encuentran en la Hemeroteca de la Biblioteca Central de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. El listado abarca las publicaciones existentes hasta el primer semestre del año 2000.
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  16.  5
    Research Ethics in Epidemics and Pandemics: A Casebook.Susan Bull, Michael Parker, Joseph Ali, Monique Jonas, Vasantha Muthuswamy, Carla Saenz, Maxwell J. Smith, Teck Chuan Voo, Katharine Wright & Jantina de Vries (eds.) - 2023 - Springer Verlag.
    This open access casebook addresses complex and important ethical challenges arising when health-related research in conducted in the context of epidemics and pandemics. This book provides contextually-rich real-world case studies illustrating research ethics issues encountered by researchers, ethics reviewers and regulators around the globe during the COVID-19 pandemic. The accompanying commentaries outline relevant conceptual approaches and ethical considerations. These promote understanding and reflection on relevant ethical issues, ethical approaches and competing considerations in a manner supporting thoughtful evaluation of their implications (...)
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    Ethics Review Challenges.Sarah Carracedo, Ana Palmero & Carla Saenz - 2023 - In Susan Bull, Michael Parker, Joseph Ali, Monique Jonas, Vasantha Muthuswamy, Carla Saenz, Maxwell J. Smith, Teck Chuan Voo, Katharine Wright & Jantina de Vries (eds.), Research Ethics in Epidemics and Pandemics: A Casebook. Springer Verlag. pp. 107-130.
    In the context of a public health emergency it is imperative to conduct research studies that will produce evidence rapidly while upholding ethical standards. The Ebola and Zika outbreaks highlighted the importance of devising agile processes for ethics review in emergencies, and international research ethics guidelines stress the duty to depart from standard processes for ethics review in emergency circumstances. However, before the COVID-19 pandemic it was not entirely clear what emergency procedures should look like. An additional challenge is that (...)
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  18.  51
    Affordability of health care: A gender-related problem and a gender-responsive solution.Carla Saenz - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):144-153.
    Evidence shows that women have greater difficulty than men in affording health care. But what is it to afford health care? According to the reasonable tradeoff account of affordability, individuals can afford health care if paying for it does not require them to make tradeoffs that are not reasonable—that is, if in order to pay for health care they do not have to sacrifice something as important as having one’s health covered. Unlike alternative accounts of affordability, which are empirically based (...)
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    Broadening the Scope of Moral Responsibility of Clinicians: What Medical Ethics Can Learn from Public Health Ethics.Carla Saenz - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):17-19.
    In “Self-Defeating Codes of Medical Ethics and How to Fix Them: Failures in COVID-19 Response and Beyond”, Alex London soundly argues that statements of the core ethical and professio...
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    Republicanism: An Unattractive Version of Liberalism.Carla Saenz - 2008 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 7 (2):267-285.
    Philip Pettit is the most important contemporany advocate of the republican tradition in political philosophy. He advances a concept of freedom as non-domination, and constrasts it with the liberal conception of freedom as non-interference. He claims that two features distinguish domination from interference: The capacity of interference , and the fact that the interference is arbitrary. I shall argue that Pettit´s republicanism is not sufficiently differente from liberalism, certainly not from John Rawls´s liberalism. The only relevant difference between republicanism and (...)
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  21.  17
    Republicanism: An Unattractive Version of Liberalism.Carla Saenz - 2010 - Ethic@: An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 7 (2):267–285.
    Philip Pettit is the most important contemporany advocate of the republican tradition in political philosophy. He advances a concept of freedom as non-domination, and constrasts it with the liberal conception of freedom as non-interference. He claims that two features distinguish domination from interference: (1) The capacity of interference ( as opposed to actual interference), and (2) the fact that the interference is arbitrary. I shall argue that Pettit´s republicanism is not sufficiently differente from liberalism, certainly not from John Rawls´s liberalism. (...)
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