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Carl F. Cranor [30]Carl Cranor [11]Carl Forrest Cranor [1]
  1.  25
    Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law.Carl F. Cranor - 1993 - Oxford University Press, Usa.
    In this book, Carl Cranor utilizes material from ethics, philosophy of law, epidemiology, tort law, regulatory law, and risk assessment to argue that the evidentiary standards for science used in the law to control toxics ought to be ...
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  2.  49
    The Importance of What We Care About: Philosophical Essays.Carl F. Cranor - 1990 - Ethics 100 (4):886-887.
  3. Tragic Failures: How and Why We Are Harmed by Toxic Chemicals.Carl F. Cranor - 2017 - Oup Usa.
    A world awash in little understood chemicals tragically harms adults and children alike. Laws keep health agencies in the dark about toxicants, slow, well motivated research hampers protections, and strenuous vested opposition exacerbates the harm. How science is used in the tort law can facilitate or frustrate redress of harm. This book recommends better approaches.
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  4. Toxic Torts: Science, Law and the Possibility of Justice.Carl F. Cranor - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    The relationship between science, law and justice has become a pressing issue with US Supreme Court decisions beginning with Daubert v. Merrell-Dow Pharmaceutical. How courts review scientific testimony and its foundation before trial can substantially affect the possibility of justice for persons wrongfully injured by exposure to toxic substances. If courts do not review scientific testimony, they will deny one of the parties the possibility of justice. Even if courts review evidence well, the fact and perception of greater judicial scrutiny (...)
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  5.  71
    Some Moral Issues in Risk Assessment.Carl F. Cranor - 1990 - Ethics 101 (1):123-143.
  6.  89
    The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Type I and Type II Errors. [REVIEW]John Lemons, Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Carl Cranor - 1997 - Foundations of Science 2 (2):207-236.
    We provide examples of the extent and nature of environmental and human health problems and show why in the United States prevailing scientific and legal burden of proof requirements usually cannot be met because of the pervasiveness of scientific uncertainty. We also provide examples of how may assumptions, judgments, evaluations, and inferences in scientific methods are value-laden and that when this is not recognized results of studies will appear to be more factual and value-neutral than warranted. Further, we show that (...)
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  7.  75
    Toward a Theory of Respect for Persons.Carl Cranor - 1975 - American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (4):309 - 319.
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  8.  82
    Toward Understanding Aspects of the Precautionary Principle.Carl F. Cranor - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):259 – 279.
    The idea of a precautionary principle (or precautionary principles) is beginning to come to the wider attention of the environmental community, governmental agencies, regulatory agencies, and the regulated community. Different precautionary principles have not been specified in detail, and, of course, this is difficult to do. Yet some specification must be done in order to understand it better and, if it is to be used for specific action-guidance, to implement it. Moreover, it is important to understand more about the principle, (...)
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  9.  23
    Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology.Carl F. Cranor - 1986 - Ethics 96 (3):643-645.
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  10. Towards a Non-Consequentialist Approach to Acceptable Risks.Carl F. Cranor - 2007 - In Tim Lewens (ed.), Risk: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge. pp. 36--53.
     
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  11.  63
    Learning From the Law to Address Uncertainty in the Precautionary Principle.Carl F. Cranor - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):313-326.
    Environmentalists have advocated the Precautionary Principle (PP) to help guide public and private decisions about the environment. By contrast, industry and its spokesmen have opposed this. There is not one principle, but many that have been recommended for this purpose. Despite the attractiveness of a core idea in all versions of the principle—that decision-makers should take some precautionary steps to ensure that threats of serious and irreversible damage to the environment and public health do not materialize into harm—even one of (...)
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  12.  33
    On Respecting Human Beings as Persons.Carl F. Cranor - 1983 - Journal of Value Inquiry 17 (2):103-117.
  13.  39
    Legal Moralism Reconsidered.Carl F. Cranor - 1979 - Ethics 89 (2):147-164.
    In section i, I sketch the main arguments to date for legal moralism, And show the ways in which they are unpersuasive. In sections ii and iii, I sketch and evaluate a seemingly compelling argument, Dependent on the concept of wrongful conduct, For the weak thesis that the immorality of conduct is a reason, But not a sufficient reason for making it illegal. Despite the apparent persuasiveness of this argument, The particular conclusions of the legal moralist, That various non-Harmful immoralities (...)
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  14.  50
    The Science Veil Over Tort Law Policy: How Should Scientific Evidence Be Utilized in Toxic Tort Law? [REVIEW]Carl F. Cranor - 2005 - Law and Philosophy 24 (2):139 - 210.
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  15.  54
    Kant’s Respect-for-Persons Principle.Carl F. Cranor - 1980 - International Studies in Philosophy 12 (2):19-39.
  16.  71
    A Philosophy of Risk Assessment and the Law: A Case Study of the Role of Philosophy in Public Policy. [REVIEW]Carl F. Cranor - 1997 - Philosophical Studies 85 (2-3):135-162.
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  17. Are Genes Us?Carl Cranor & David Magnus - 1996 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (3):363.
     
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  18.  43
    Billy Budd and the Duty to Enforce the Law: A Sketch of Some of the Major Moral Issues.Carl Cranor - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:245-268.
    Herman Melville’s Billy Budd presents a classic example of a legal official legally required to enforce a law he believes or knows to be unjust. Although there has been considerable discussion of a citizen’s moral duty to obey unjust laws, there has been little consideration of a legalofficial’s duty to enforce unjust laws.In this paper I take the central moral dilemma of the novel -- a legal official’s moral duty to enforce a valid law of a legal system vs. his (...)
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  19. Different Conceptions of Food Labels and Acceptable Risks: Some Contingent/Institutional Considerations in Favor of Labeling.Carl Cranor - 2008 - In Paul Weirich (ed.), Labeling Genetically Modified Food: The Philosophical and Legal Debate. Oup Usa.
     
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  20.  20
    Justice, Respect, and Self-Respect.Carl F. Cranor - 1976 - Philosophy Research Archives 2:89-110.
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the respect-for- persons theory implicit in John Rawls's A Theory of Justice. It merits evaluation not only as a contemporary contribution to the respect-for-persons literature, but because it provides an essential premise in one of his arguments from publicity for his principles of justice.In sections I and II I discuss the meaning and justification of his respect principle. As it stands it seems unjustifiable. In section III I argue that since it is (...)
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  21. Timothy Childers Undertook His Graduate Studies at the London School, of Economics, and is Employed as a Researcher in the Department of Logic, Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. His Main Interests Center on the Foundations of Probability, with Applications to Methodology and Epistemology.Carl Cranor, Helena Eilstein & Adam Grobler - 1997 - Foundations of Science 2:397-399.
     
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  22.  25
    The Justification of Attitudes.Carl Cranor - 1978 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):21-33.
  23.  27
    Joint Causation, Torts, and Regulatory Law in Workplace Health Protections.Carl F. Cranor - 1985 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 2 (4):59-84.
  24.  24
    Kenneth R. Foster and Peter W. Huber, Judging Science: Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts:Judging Science: Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts.Carl F. Cranor - 2000 - Ethics 110 (4):829-832.
  25.  11
    Limitations on Respect-for-Persons Theories.Carl F. Cranor - 1982 - Tulane Studies in Philosophy 31:45-60.
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  26.  22
    Howard Margolis, Dealing with Risk: Why the Public and the Experts Disagree on Environmental Issues:Dealing with Risk: Why the Public and the Experts Disagree on Environmental Issues.Carl F. Cranor - 1998 - Ethics 108 (4):830-833.
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  27.  23
    Book Review:Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology. Ferdinand D. Schoeman. [REVIEW]Carl F. Cranor - 1986 - Ethics 96 (3):643-.
  28.  10
    Respect for the Law.Carl F. Cranor - 1976 - Philosophy Research Archives 2:522-544.
    The aim of this paper is to try to clarify the nature and justification of respect for the law. In section I, I try to clarify the nature of respect for a legal system and distinguish it from related concepts. In the next section, I consider problems justifying the attitude of respect toward a legal system. In section III, I discuss the extent to which one has duties to behave respectfully toward and to try to adopt an attitude of respect (...)
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  29.  16
    Daubert and the Acceptability of Legal Decisions.Carl F. Cranor - 2005 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 5:13-24.
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  30.  58
    Limitations on Respect-for-Persons Theories.Carl F. Cranor - 1982 - Tulane Studies in Philosophy 31:45-60.
  31.  21
    The Use of Empirical Evidence to Assess and Critique Judicial Decisions.Carl F. Cranor - 2007 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31 (1):1–24.
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  32.  8
    Billy Budd and the Duty to Enforce the Law: A Sketch of Some of the Major Moral Issues.Carl Cranor - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:245-268.
    Herman Melville’s Billy Budd presents a classic example of a legal official legally required to enforce a law he believes or knows to be unjust. Although there has been considerable discussion of a citizen’s moral duty to obey unjust laws, there has been little consideration of a legalofficial’s duty to enforce unjust laws.In this paper I take the central moral dilemma of the novel -- a legal official’s moral duty to enforce a valid law of a legal system vs. his (...)
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  33.  19
    Learning From the Law for Regulatory Science.Carl F. Cranor - 1995 - Law and Philosophy 14 (1):115 - 145.
  34.  9
    Legal Obligation.Carl Cranor - 1979 - Social Theory and Practice 5 (2):251-261.
  35.  10
    Oliver A. Johnson, 1923-2000.Carl F. Cranor - 2001 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 75 (2):116 - 118.
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  36.  6
    The Justification of Attitudes.Carl Cranor - 1978 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):21-33.
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  37.  43
    Scientific and Legal Standards of Statistical Evidence in Toxic Tort and Discrimination Suits.Carl Cranor & Kurt Nutting - 1990 - Law and Philosophy 9 (2):115 - 156.
    Many legal disputes turn on scientific, especially statistical, evidence. Traditionally scientists have accepted only that statistical evidence which satisfies a 95 percent (or 99 percent) rule — that is, only evidence which has less than five percent (or one percent) probability of resulting from chance.The rationale for this rule is the reluctance of scientists to accept anything less than the best-supported new knowledge. The rule reflects the internal needs of scientific practice. However, when uncritically adopted as a rule for admitting (...)
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  38.  30
    Bibliographical Essay / the Hart‐Devlin Debate.Carl F. Cranor - 1983 - Criminal Justice Ethics 2 (1):59-65.
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  39.  17
    Some Public Policy Problems with the Science of Carcinogen Risk Assessment.Carl F. Cranor - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:467 - 488.
    Government agencies and private risk assessors use (quasi) scientific risk assessment procedures to try to estimate or predict risk to human health or the environment that might result from exposure to toxic substances in order to take steps to prevent such risks from arising or to eliminate the risks if they already exist. In this paper I discuss several ways in which the "science" of carcinogen risk assessment differs from ordinary scientific enterprises. I also consider several ways in which normative (...)
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  40.  21
    Collective and Individual Duties to Protect the Environment.Carl F. Cranor - 1985 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 2 (2):243-259.
    Many environmental harms are produced by the consequences of too many people doing acts which taken together have collective bad consequences, e.g. overuse of an underground aquifer or acid rain 'killing' a lake. If such acts are wrong, what should a conscientious moral agent do in such circumstances? Examples of such harms have the general feature that they are produced by individual acts, which taken by themselves may be innocent and morally permissible, but which have disastrous consequences when too many (...)
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  41.  6
    Empirically and Institutionally Rich Legal and Moral Philosophy.Carl F. Cranor - 1999 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 23 (1):286–311.