1. Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
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    Non-symbolic arithmetic abilities and mathematics achievement in the first year of formal schooling.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2010 - Cognition 115 (3):394-406.
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    Children’s understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction.Camilla K. Gilmore & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):932-945.
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