A collection of six essays, including three previously unpublished papers entitled, "Methods of Philosophy," "The Nature of Value," and "The Metaphysical Concept of Space." The target in each case is the whole of technical philosophy; the thesis to be defended is the claim that its separate divisions represent no more than "linguistically contrived intellectual illusions." Along the way, it is argued that the traditional retreat from speculative metaphysics to philosophical analysis is to no avail, for it is claimed that since (...) all philosophy is of a piece, all its parts and methods stand or fall together. We are offered, therefore, the following dual thesis which is both surprising and unique: Philosophy is an ordered whole in structure and method, but the products of philosophical reflection embody nothing more than snares, delusions, and unproductive disputation.—C. V. (shrink)
Healthcare systems across the globe are struggling with increasing costs and worsening outcomes. This presents those responsible for overseeing healthcare with a challenge. Increasingly, policymakers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of the solution will be ‘Artificial Intelligence’ (AI) – particularly Machine Learning (ML). This argument stems not from the belief that all healthcare needs will soon be taken care of by “robot doctors.” Instead, it is an argument that rests on the classic (...) counterfactual definition of AI as an umbrella term for a range of techniques that can be used to make machines complete tasks in a way that would be considered intelligent were they to be completed by a human. Automation of this nature could offer great opportunities for the improvement of healthcare services and ultimately patients’ health by significantly improving human clinical capabilities in diagnosis, drug discovery, epidemiology, personalised medicine, and operational efficiency. However, if these AI solutions are to be embedded in clinical practice, then at least three issues need to be considered: the technical possibilities and limitations; the ethical, regulatory and legal framework; and the governance framework. In this article, we report on the results of a systematic analysis designed to provide a clear overview of the second of these elements: the ethical, regulatory and legal framework. We find that ethical issues arise at six levels of abstraction (individual, interpersonal, group, institutional, sectoral, and societal) and can be categorised as epistemic, normative, or overarching. We conclude by stressing how important it is that the ethical challenges raised by implementing AI in healthcare settings are tackled proactively rather than reactively and map the key considerations for policymakers to each of the ethical concerns highlighted. (shrink)
Hanson has set forth in a fascinating way the story of the discovery of the positron. He takes up in some detail the question concerning the symmetry of explaining and predicting, argues that certain features of microphysical theory cannot be accommodated to mechanical-type models, and defends his interpretation of the "Copenhagen" view of quantum theory. He shows how an adequate understanding of these matters makes possible a grasp of the significance of the concept of the positron, and in so doing, (...) illustrates the complex relationships in which physical theory stands to observation and experiment. Consequently, Hanson's book is another of the recent works in which an author refuses to construe the scientific enterprise as a sophisticated search for facts, where so-called theoretical entities serve as mere devices to make calculation easier. The book includes four appendices of a rather technical nature and 41 pages of notes on the text.--C. V. (shrink)
The current trend of some philosophers away from narrow sectarian interests and inconsequential intramural skirmishes is nowhere better evidenced than in this book of collected essays. The breadth of Professor Findlay's interest in philosophy is indicated by the inclusion of three important articles in ethics, "Morality by Convention," "The Justification of Attitudes," and "The Methodology of Normative Ethics," two essays in the philosophy of logic, and one paper in philosophical theology, the much discussed "disproof" of God's existence.--C. V.
A survey of the practices and problems of American teachers of philosophy, based upon nearly 350 answers to a comprehensive questionnaire covering courses, curriculum problems, class preparation, grading, professional ethics, and advancement. The report is liberally sprinkled with direct quotations.--V. C. C.
An examination of the role of the humanities in American college education, carried out with vigor and sound common sense. Mr. Greene's conclusions are familiar but not commonplace, and his defense of them is eloquent. --V. C. C.
Unlike many books of its kind, this collection of essays is more than a mere aggregate of papers loosely ordered around a set of common themes. In fact, for a work sensitive to the values inherent in the analytical tradition, it is surprisingly systematic, and strikes a happy balance between the products of the system-builders and the deliverances of those who are content to give us merely isolated insights. It embodies a sound knowledge of the history of philosophy, a sensitivity (...) to the contributions of the British philosophers since Bradley, and a desire to take science seriously without succumbing to the reductionism which so often characterized the contributions of the positivists. Throughout the papers the influence of Carnap, Kant and Wittgenstein is especially evident; and perhaps most characteristic are the repeated attempts to tread carefully, with their help, the sometimes narrow lines dividing realist and phenomenalist, realist and idealist, and realist and nominalist. Sellars is at pains to incorporate in his system the partial truths which always characterize conflicting philosophical alternatives. This book is well worth careful, critical study by philosophers of all persuasions.--C. V. (shrink)
An attempt to discover the most fundamental "logical" categories or principles of unity which lie at the basis and determine the structure of all reality. The three central principles or categories are "Wissen," "Wollen," and "Ichheit," from which it is clear that reality has a personal basis and that its fundamental structure is that of a self or person. The presentation is highly compressed and often obscure, but there is much in it that is suggestive.--V. C. C.
A collection of essays, German and English, including some not previously published. There are papers on ancient, medieval and modern philosophy as well as a number dealing with problems of contemporary interest, especially in the philosophy of religion. Frank's general position is strongly reminiscent of that of the Existenz philosophers who were his friends, and whom he influenced. A long "Appreciation" by the editor describes Frank's achievement and relates it to the milieu, intellectual and personal, out of which it grew.--V. (...) C. C. (shrink)
The author seeks, through an examination of the characters of Dostoevsky, to interpret the nature of man and his fate. A "Christian existentialist," he sees man's life as essentially tragic, torn between the "dialectical opposites," God and nature. Man's only hope for harmony and synthesis lies in the total "surrender of his autonomy to the demands of God." Sometimes obscure in meaning, the book contains nevertheless a number of interesting suggestions.--V. C. C.
A reprint edition of Russell's early work, based on his Cambridge dissertation, on the philosophical problems of geometry, first published in 1897. A helpful foreword by Morris Kline is new to this edition.--V. C. C.
A new edition, with additions and revisions, of a carefully argued, sometimes persuasive defense of reason, in the traditional, transcendent sense, primarily against the reductionist program of evolutionary naturalism. The book first appeared in 1930.--V. C. C.
The life and thought of the sixteenth-century Flemish humanist Justus Lipsius provide the author of this valuable monograph with a convenient point of departure for studying the development of Stoicism in the later Renaissance. Lipsius was the first scholar thoroughly to examine the original Greek as well as the later Roman sources of the Stoic ethical doctrines which owing to the influence of the Latin humanists, were so widespread in Renaissance thought. As a result of his researches, Lipsius recognized the (...) importance of, and revived interest in, the distinctive physical and metaphysical doctrines underlying Stoic ethical theory. It is upon Lipsius' formulation of these doctrines, and his struggle to reconcile them with their Christian counterparts, that Mr. Saunders concentrates his attention. The result is a lively and informative contribution to the understanding of Renaissance thought.--V. C. C. (shrink)
A hard-cover reprint of the first collection of Peirce's works, so tragically neglected during their author's lifetime. Cohen's selections comprise the Popular Science Monthly papers of 1877-78 and five of the Monist papers of 1891-93. The volume also includes an essay by Dewey on Peirce's pragmatism, still well worth reading.--V. C. C.
Thomas Szasz wrote over thirty books and several hundred articles, replete with mordant criticism of psychiatry. His works made him arguably one of the world's most recognized psychiatrists, albeit one of the most controversial. This book critically examines the legacy of a man who challenged the very concept of mental illness.