Results for 'By Alan Carter'

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  1.  64
    Morality and freedom.By Alan Carter - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):161–180.
    What might be termed 'the problem of morality' concerns how freedom-restricting principles may be justified, given that we value our freedom. Perhaps an answer can be found in freedom itself. For if the most obvious reason for rejecting moral demands is that they invade one's personal freedom, then the price of freedom from invasive demands that others would otherwise make may well require everyone accepting freedom in general, say, as a value that provides sufficient reason for adhering to principles that (...)
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  2.  68
    Can We Harm Furture People?Alan Carter - 2001 - Environmental Values 10 (4):429-454.
    It appears to have been established that it is not possible for us to harm distant future generations by failing to adopt long-range welfare policies which would conserve resources or limit pollution. By exploring a number of possible worlds, the present article shows, first, that the argument appears to be at least as telling against Aristotelian, rights-based and Rawlsian approaches as it seems to be against utilitarianism, but second, and most importantly, that it only holds if we fail to view (...)
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  3. Moral theory and global population.Alan Carter - 1999 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99 (3):289–313.
    Ascertaining the optimum global population raises not just substantive moral problems but also philosophical ones, too. In particular, serious problems arise for utilitarianism. For example, should one attempt to bring about the greatest total happiness or the highest level of average happiness? This article argues that neither approach on its own provides a satisfactory answer, and nor do rights-based or Rawlsian approaches, either. Instead, what is required is a multidimensional approach to moral questions—one which recognises the plurality of our values. (...)
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  4.  48
    Humean Nature.Alan Carter - 2000 - Environmental Values 9 (1):3-37.
    It has been argued that there is an irreconcilable difference between those advocating animal liberation or animal rights, on the one hand, and those preferring a wider environmental ethic, which includes concern for non-sentient life-forms and species preservation, on the other. In contrast, I argue that it is possible to provide foundations for both seemingly environmentalist positions by exploring some of the potential of a 'collective-projectivist' reading of Hume – one that seems more consistent with Hume's texts than other readings. (...)
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  5.  52
    Towards a Multidimensional, Environmentalist Ethic.Alan Carter - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (3):347-374.
    There has been a process of moral extensionism within environmental ethics from anthropocentrism, through zoocentrism, to ecocentrism. This article maps key elements of that process, and concludes that each of these ethical positions fails as a fully adequate, environmentalist ethic, and does so because of an implicit assumption that is common within normative theory. This notwithstanding, each position may well contribute a value. The problem that then arises is how to trade off those values against each other when they conflict. (...)
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  6. Some groundwork for a multidimensional axiology.Alan Carter - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 154 (3):389 - 408.
    By distinguishing between contributory values and overall value, and by arguing that contributory values are variable values insofar as they contribute diminishing marginal overall value, this article helps to establish the superiority of a certain kind of maximizing, value-pluralist axiology over both sufficientarianism and prioritarianism, as well as over all varieties of value-monism, including utilitarianism and pure egalitarianism.
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  7.  27
    ‘Self‐exploitation’ and Workers' Co‐operatives—or how the British Left get their concepts wrong.Alan Carter - 2008 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):195-200.
    ABSTRACT In this article I examine the concept ‘self‐exploitation’ and its use in criticising workers' co‐operatives. I argue that the concept is incoherent and that the kind of exploitation which members of workers' co‐ops actually face is ‘market‐exploitation’. Moreover, some of the criticisms of workers' co‐ops which are made by those who employ the confused concept ‘self‐exploitation’ are shown to be inapposite when ‘market‐exploitation’ is recognised to be the real problem. I conclude with a discussion of the reasons for the (...)
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  8.  68
    In defence of radical disobedience.Alan Carter - 1998 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (1):29–47.
    The article defends the forms of civil disobedience currently practised by environmental protesters. It reviews the justifications of civil disobedience by Dworkin, Rawls and Singer, and finds them more or less wanting. A new and more extensive justification is provided on the basis of our duties to prevent harm befalling future generations.
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  9. Inegalitarian Biocentric Consequentialism, the Minimax Implication and Multidimensional Value Theory: A Brief Proposal for a New Direction in Environmental Ethics.Alan Carter - 2005 - Utilitas 17 (1):62-84.
    Perhaps the most impressive environmental ethic developed to date in any detail is Robin Attfield's biocentric consequentialism. Indeed, on first study, it appears sufficiently impressive that, before presenting any alternative theoretical approach, one would first need to establish why one should not simply embrace Attfield's. After outlining a seemingly decisive flaw in his theory, and then criticizing his response to it, this article adumbrates a very different theoretical basis for an environmental ethic: namely, a value-pluralist one. In so doing, it (...)
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  10. Anarchism: some theoretical foundations.Alan Carter - 2011 - Journal of Political Ideologies 16 (3):245-264.
    This article considers two different, yet related, theoretical approaches that could be employed to ground the anarchist critique of Marxist-Leninist revolutionary practice, and thus of the state in general: the State-Primacy Theory and the Quadruplex Theory. The State-Primacy Theory appears to be consistent with several of Bakunin's claims about the state. However, the Quadruplex Theory might, in fact, turn out to be no less consistent with Bakunin's claims than the State-Primacy Theory. In addition, the Quadruplex Theory seems no less capable (...)
     
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  11.  60
    A Solution to the Purported Non-Transitivity of Normative Evaluation.Alan Carter - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy 112 (1):23-45.
    Derek Parfit presents his Mere Addition Paradox in order to demonstrate that it is extremely difficult to avoid the Repugnant Conclusion. And in order to avoid it, Parfit has embraced perfectionism. However, Stuart Rachels and Larry Temkin, taking their lead from Parfit, have concluded, instead, that the Repugnant Conclusion can be avoided by denying the axiom of transitivity with respect to the all-things-considered-better-than relation. But this seems to present a major challenge to how we evaluate normatively. In this article I (...)
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  12. A Defense of Egalitarianism.Alan Carter - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (2):269-302.
    Recently in this journal, Michael Huemer has attempted to refute egalitarianism. His strategy consists in: first, distinguishing between three possible worlds ; second, showing that the first world is equal in value to the second world; third, dividing the second and third worlds into two temporal segments each, then showing that none of the temporal segments possesses greater moral value than any other, thereby demonstrating that the second and third worlds as a whole are equal in value; and finally, concluding (...)
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  13. Evolution and the problem of altruism.Alan Carter - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 123 (3):213-230.
    Genuine altruism would appear to be incompatible with evolutionary theory. And yet altruistic behavior would seem to occur, at least on occasion. This article first considers a game-theoretical attempt at solving this seeming paradox, before considering agroup selectionist approach. Neither approach, as they stand, would seem to render genuine, as opposed to reciprocal, altruism compatible with the theory of evolution. The article concludes by offering an alternative game-theoretical solution to the problem of altruism.
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  14. Political liberalism and political compliance: Part 2 of the problem of political compliance in rawls’s theories of justice.Alan Carter - 2006 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (2):135-157.
    Three interlocking features appear to underpin Rawls’s justification of political compliance within the context of political liberalism: namely, a specific territory; a specific society; and a specific conception of what it is to be reasonable. When any one feature is subject to critical examination, while presupposing that the other two are acceptable, Rawls’s argument for political compliance may seem persuasive. But when all three features are critically examined together, his justification of political compliance within political liberalism can be seen to (...)
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  15.  52
    Game theory and decentralisation.Alan Carter - 1999 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (3):223–234.
    Whereas many environmentalists have traditionally argued in favour of small‐scale, decentralised communities as a solution to the environmental crises which we appear to face, some environmental political theorists have recently argued against decentralisation. In this article I first show that game theory seems, at first glance, to support the insistence by statists that decentralisation is highly impracticable. But, second, I then attempt to demonstrate that, on closer inspection, game theory actually provides considerable support for the decentralist case.
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  16. Biodiversity and all that jazz.Alan Carter - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 80 (1):58-75.
    This article considers several of the most famous arguments for our being under a moral obligation to preserve species, and finds them all wanting. The most promising argument for preserving all varieties of species might seem to be an aesthetic one. Unfortunately, the suggestion that the moral basis for the preservation of species should be construed as similar to the moral basis for the preservation of a work of art seems to presume (what are now widely regarded as) erroneous conceptualizations (...)
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  17.  19
    Infanticide and the Right to Life.Alan Carter - 1997 - Ratio 10 (1):1-9.
    Michael Tooley defends infanticide by analysing ‘A has a right to X’ as roughly synonymous with ‘If A desires X, then others are under a prima facie obligation to refrain from actions that would deprive him [or her] of it.’ An infant who cannot conceive of himself or herself as a continuing subject of experiences cannot desire to continue existing. Hence, on Tooley’s analysis, killing the infant is not impermissible, for it does not go against any of the infant’s desires. (...)
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  18. Infanticide and the right to life.Alan Carter - 1997 - Ratio 10 (1):1–9.
    Michael Tooley defends infanticide by analysing ‘A has a right to X’ as roughly synonymous with ‘If A desires X, then others are under a prima facie obligation to refrain from actions that would deprive him [or her] of it.’ An infant who cannot conceive of himself or herself as a continuing subject of experiences cannot desire to continue existing. Hence, on Tooley’s analysis, killing the infant is not impermissible, for it does not go against any of the infant’s desires. (...)
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  19.  14
    Biodiversity and All That Jazz.Alan Carter - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 80 (1):58-75.
    This article considers several of the most famous arguments for our being under a moral obligation to preserve species, and finds them all wanting. The most promising argument for preserving all varieties of species might seem to be an aesthetic one. Unfortunately, the suggestion that the moral basis for the preservation of species should be construed as similar to the moral basis for the preservation of a work of art seems to presume (what are now widely regarded as) erroneous conceptualizations (...)
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  20.  58
    The quest for an egalitarian metric.Alan Carter - 2004 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (1):94-113.
    For two decades, egalitarian analytical philosophers have sought to identify the metric to be employed in order to ascertain whether any distribution is equal or not. This essay provides a review of the seminal contributions to this debate by Amartya Sen, Ronald Dworkin, Richard Arneson and G.A. Cohen.
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  21.  7
    Books in review : Direct action and liberal democracy by April Carter. New York: Harper and row, 1973. Pp. 170. $9.00 hardcover; $3.25 paper. [REVIEW]Alan Ritter - 1974 - Political Theory 2 (3):354-355.
  22.  7
    Talking Books: Children's Authors Talk About the Craft, Creativity, and Process of Writing.James Carter - 1999 - Routledge.
    _Talking Books_ sets out to show how some of the leading children's authors of the day respond to these and other similar questions. The authors featured are _ Neil Ardley, Ian Beck, Helen Cresswell, Gillian Cross, Terry Deary, Berlie Doherty, Alan Durant, Brian Moses, Philip Pullman, Celia Rees, Norman Silver, Jacqueline Wilson, and Benjamin Zephaniah_. They discuss with great enthusiasm: *their childhood reading habits *how they came to be published *how they write on a daily basis *how a particular (...)
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  23. Indirect, Multidimensional Consequentialism.Alan Carter - 2014 - In Avram Hiller, Ramona Ilea & Leonard Kahn (eds.), Consequentialism and environmental ethics. Routledge. pp. 70-91.
  24. Is utilitarian morality necessarily too demanding.Alan Carter - 2009 - In T. D. J. Chappell (ed.), The Problem of Moral Demandingness. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  25. On Pascal's Wager, or why all bets are off.Alan Carter - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (198):22-27.
  26.  14
    XIII*—Moral Theory and Global Population.Alan Carter - 1999 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99 (1):289-314.
    Alan Carter; XIII*—Moral Theory and Global Population, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 99, Issue 1, 1 June 1999, Pages 289–314, https://doi.org/.
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  27. Value-pluralist egalitarianism.Alan Carter - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 99 (11):577-599.
  28.  29
    On Harming Others: A Response to Partridge.Alan Carter - 2002 - Environmental Values 11 (1):87-96.
    Response to Ernest Partridge's paper 'The Future - For Better or Worse' in this issue of Environmental Values.
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  29.  29
    Value-Pluralist Egalitarianism.Alan Carter - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 99 (11):577.
  30.  52
    A radical green political theory.Alan Carter (ed.) - 1999 - New York: Routledge.
    This volume analyzes authoritarian, reformist, Marxist and anarchist approaches to the environmental problem, exposing the relationships between environmental crises, economic structures and the role of the state.
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  31.  54
    Projectivism and the Last Person Argument.Alan Carter - 2004 - American Philosophical Quarterly 41 (1):51-62.
  32.  9
    On Pascal’s Wager.Alan Carter - 2001 - Philosophia Christi 3 (2):511-516.
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  33.  96
    The Method in Hobbes' Madness.Alan Carter - 1999 - Hobbes Studies 12 (1):72-89.
    Hobbes appears to subscribe to a form of the resolutive/compositive method not only as the appropriate means for understanding the natural world but also as the correct means for understanding the political world. However, the view that Hobbes adopts this methodology for understanding both 'bodies politic' and 'natural bodies' has been challenged in Tom Sorell's widely praised study of Hobbes' philosophy. In this article, I first rebut Sorell's challenge, and then consider several other objections which might be levelled against the (...)
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  34.  63
    A Distinction within Egalitarianism.Alan Carter - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy 108 (10):535-554.
  35.  68
    Animal rights and social relations.Alan Carter - 1995 - Res Publica 1 (2):213-220.
  36.  22
    A Radical Environmentalist Political Theory.Alan Carter - 1996 - Cogito 10 (3):209-219.
  37.  20
    A Radical Environmentalist Political Theory.Alan Carter - 1996 - Cogito 10 (3):209-219.
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  38.  12
    A‘Counterfactualist’Four‐Dimensional Theory of Power.Alan Carter - 1992 - Heythrop Journal 33 (2):192-203.
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  39. Deep ecology or social ecology?Alan Carter - 1995 - Heythrop Journal 36 (3):328–350.
  40.  10
    Deep Ecology or Social Ecology?Alan Carter - 1995 - Heythrop Journal 36 (3):328-350.
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  41.  9
    “Institutional Exploitation’and Workers'co‐Operatives ‐or How the British Left Persist in Getting Their Concepts Wrong.Alan Carter - 1992 - Heythrop Journal 33 (4):426-433.
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  42.  25
    Is the Wager Back On?Alan Carter - 2002 - Philosophia Christi 4 (2):493-500.
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  43.  18
    Knowledge and hyperbole.Alan Carter - 1995 - Heythrop Journal 36 (1):46–64.
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  44.  40
    Morality and Freedom.Alan Carter - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):161 - 180.
    What might be termed 'the problem of morality' concerns how freedom-restricting principles may be justified, given that we value our freedom. Perhaps an answer can be found in freedom itself. For if the most obvious reason for rejecting moral demands is that they invade one's personal freedom, then the price of freedom from invasive demands that others would otherwise make may well require everyone accepting freedom in general, say, as a value that provides sufficient reason for adhering to principles that (...)
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  45.  27
    Marx’s Communist Vision.Alan Carter - 1998 - Cogito 12 (2):125-129.
  46.  2
    Marx’s Communist Vision.Alan Carter - 1998 - Cogito 12 (2):125-129.
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  47.  36
    On individualism, collectivism and interrelationism.Alan Carter - 1990 - Heythrop Journal 31 (1):23–38.
  48.  1
    On Pascal’s Wager.Alan Carter - 2001 - Philosophia Christi 3 (2):511-516.
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  49. State–primacy and Third World Debt.Alan Carter - 1997 - Heythrop Journal 38 (3):300-314.
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  50.  8
    State–primacy and third world debt.Alan Carter - 1997 - Heythrop Journal 38 (3):300–314.
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