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Burkhard Schafer
University of Edinburgh
  1. AI4People—an Ethical Framework for a Good AI Society: Opportunities, Risks, Principles, and Recommendations.Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, Monica Beltrametti, Raja Chatila, Patrice Chazerand, Virginia Dignum, Christoph Luetge, Robert Madelin, Ugo Pagallo, Francesca Rossi, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke & Effy Vayena - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (4):689-707.
    This article reports the findings of AI4People, an Atomium—EISMD initiative designed to lay the foundations for a “Good AI Society”. We introduce the core opportunities and risks of AI for society; present a synthesis of five ethical principles that should undergird its development and adoption; and offer 20 concrete recommendations—to assess, to develop, to incentivise, and to support good AI—which in some cases may be undertaken directly by national or supranational policy makers, while in others may be led by other (...)
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  2.  13
    Algorithmic Governance: Developing a Research Agenda Through the Power of Collective Intelligence.Kalpana Shankar, Burkhard Schafer, Niall O'Brolchain, Maria Helen Murphy, John Morison, Su-Ming Khoo, Muki Haklay, Heike Felzmann, Aisling De Paor, Anthony Behan, Rónán Kennedy, Chris Noone, Michael J. Hogan & John Danaher - 2017 - Big Data and Society 4 (2).
    We are living in an algorithmic age where mathematics and computer science are coming together in powerful new ways to influence, shape and guide our behaviour and the governance of our societies. As these algorithmic governance structures proliferate, it is vital that we ensure their effectiveness and legitimacy. That is, we need to ensure that they are an effective means for achieving a legitimate policy goal that are also procedurally fair, open and unbiased. But how can we ensure that algorithmic (...)
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  3.  66
    Key ethical challenges in the European Medical Information Framework.Luciano Floridi, Christoph Luetge, Ugo Pagallo, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, Effy Vayena, Janet Addison, Nigel Hughes, Nathan Lea, Caroline Sage, Bart Vannieuwenhuyse & Dipak Kalra - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):355-371.
    The European Medical Information Framework project, funded through the IMI programme, has designed and implemented a federated platform to connect health data from a variety of sources across Europe, to facilitate large scale clinical and life sciences research. It enables approved users to analyse securely multiple, diverse, data via a single portal, thereby mediating research opportunities across a large quantity of research data. EMIF developed a code of practice to ensure the privacy protection of data subjects, protect the interests of (...)
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  4.  17
    Arthur, George and the Mystery of the Missingmotive: Towards a Theory of Evidentiary Reasoning About Motives.Douglas Walton & Burkhard Schafer - manuscript
    International Commentary on Evidence, 2006 Vol. 4, Issue 2, 1-47 . [link to online version posted].
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  5.  1
    The Value of Mass-Digitised Cultural Heritage Content in Creative Contexts.Chris Speed, Pip Thornton, Michael Smyth, Burkhard Schafer, Briana Pegado, Inge Panneels, Nicola Osborne, Susan Lechelt, Ingi Helgason, Chris Elsden, Steven Drost, Stephen Coleman & Melissa Terras - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    How can digitised assets of Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums be reused to unlock new value? What are the implications of viewing large-scale cultural heritage data as an economic resource, to build new products and services upon? Drawing upon valuation studies, we reflect on both the theory and practicalities of using mass-digitised heritage content as an economic driver, stressing the need to consider the complexity of commercial-based outcomes within the context of cultural and creative industries. However, we also problematise the (...)
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  6.  36
    A Fourth Law of Robotics? Copyright and the Law and Ethics of Machine Co-Production.Burkhard Schafer, David Komuves, Jesus Manuel Niebla Zatarain & Laurence Diver - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (3):217-240.
    Jon Bing was not only a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence and law and the legal regulation of technology. He was also an accomplished author of fiction, with an oeuvre spanning from short stories and novels to theatre plays and even an opera. As reality catches up with the imagination of science fiction writers who have anticipated a world shared by humans and non-human intelligences of their creation, some of the copyright issues he has discussed in his academic (...)
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  7.  43
    Towards a Financial Fraud Ontology: A Legal Modelling Approach. [REVIEW]John Kingston, Burkhard Schafer & Wim Vandenberghe - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (4):419-446.
    This document discusses the status of research on detection and prevention of financial fraud undertaken as part of the IST European Commission funded FF POIROT (Financial Fraud Prevention Oriented Information Resources Using Ontology Technology) project. A first task has been the specification of the user requirements that define the functionality of the financial fraud ontology to be designed by the FF POIROT partners. It is claimed here that modeling fraudulent activity involves a mixture of law and facts as well as (...)
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  8.  22
    Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation.Colin Aitken, Amalia Amaya, Kevin D. Ashley, Carla Bagnoli, Giorgio Bongiovanni, Bartosz Brożek, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Samuele Chilovi, Marcello Di Bello, Jaap Hage, Kenneth Einar Himma, Lewis A. Kornhauser, Emiliano Lorini, Fabrizio Macagno, Andrei Marmor, J. J. Moreso, Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor, Burkhard Schafer, Chiara Valentini, Bart Verheij, Douglas Walton & Wojciech Załuski (eds.) - 2011 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
    This handbook offers a deep analysis of the main forms of legal reasoning and argumentation from both a logical-philosophical and legal perspective. These forms are covered in an exhaustive and critical fashion, and the handbook accordingly divides in three parts: the first one introduces and discusses the basic concepts of practical reasoning. The second one discusses the main general forms of reasoning and argumentation relevant for legal discourse. The third one looks at their application in law as well as at (...)
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  9.  9
    “I Am Spartacus”: Privacy Enhancing Technologies, Collaborative Obfuscation and Privacy as a Public Good.Zbigniew Kwecka, William Buchanan, Burkhard Schafer & Judith Rauhofer - 2014 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 22 (2):113-139.
    The paper introduces an approach to privacy enhancing technologies that sees privacy not merely as an individual right, but as a public good. This idea finds its correspondence in our approach to privacy protection through obfuscation, where everybody in a group takes a small privacy risk to protect the anonymity of fellow group members. We show how these ideas can be computationally realised in an Investigative Data Acquisition Platform. IDAP is an efficient symmetric Private Information Retrieval protocol optimised for the (...)
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  10.  16
    Form Follows Function Fails - as a Sociological Foundation of Comparative Law.Burkhard Schafer - 1999 - Social Epistemology 13 (2):113 – 128.
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  11. Law’s Fictions, Legal Fictions and Copyright Law.Jane Cornwell & Burkhard Schafer - 2015 - In William Twining & Maksymilian Del Mar (eds.), Legal Fictions in Theory and Practice. Springer Verlag.
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  12. Future Law: Emerging Technology, Regulation and Ethics.Lilian Edwards, Burkhard Schafer & Edina Harbinja (eds.) - 2020 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    How can law ethically regulate a future of fast-changing technologies? From recent inventions to science fiction, Future Law explores how law, ethics and regulation must respond to new technologies that challenge the boundaries of our ethics.
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  13. Twelve Angry Men or One Good Woman? Asymmetric Relations in Evidentiary Reasoning.Burkhard Schafer - 2008 - In Hendrik Kaptein (ed.), Legal Evidence and Proof: Statistics, Stories, Logic. Ashgate.
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  14.  23
    " I Am Spartacus"–Privacy Enhancing Technologies and Privacy as a Public Good.Zbigniew Kwecka, William J. Buchanan & Burkhard Schafer - forthcoming - Artificial Intelligence and Law.
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  15.  5
    D-Waste: Data Disposal as Challenge for Waste Management in the Internet of Things.Burkhard Schafer - 2014 - International Review of Information Ethics 22:101-107.
    Proliferation of data processing and data storage devices in the Internet of Things poses significant privacy risks. At the same time, faster and faster use-cycles and obsolescence of devices with electronic components causes environmental problems. Some of the solutions to the environmental challenges of e-waste include mandatory recycling schemes as well as informal second hand markets. However, the data security and privacy implications of these green policies are as yet badly understood. This paper argues that based on the experience with (...)
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  16.  18
    Leśniewski-Quantifiers and Modal Arguments in Legal Discourse.Burkhard Schäfer - 1998 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 6:133.
    Following an idea first proposed by Jerzy Wróblewski, this paperexamines the usefulness of formal logic for comparative legal analysis. Subject of the comparison are the doctrines of mistake and attempt in Germanand English criminal law. These doctrines are distinguished by the interaction of deontic, epistemic and alethic modalities. I propose a purely extensional logic which is based on Leśniewski’s substitutional interpretation ofquantification to analyse differences in the logical structure of the variouscriminal law doctrines.
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  17.  14
    Interagency Data Exchange, Privacy Protection and Governance Architecture for Information Sharing Across Domains.William J. Buchanan, Lu Fan, Omair Uthmani & Burkhard Schafer - forthcoming - Artificial Intelligence and Law.
  18.  15
    Emerging Legal Orders. Formalism and the Theory of Legal Integration.Burkhard Schäfer & Zenon Bankowski - 2003 - Ratio Juris 16 (4):486-505.