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Bryan G. Norton [67]Bryan Norton [17]Bryan George Norton [1]
  1.  96
    Sustainability : A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management.Bryan G. Norton (ed.) - 2005 - University of Chicago Press.
    Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-226-595 19-6 (cloth : alk. paper) . A . 1. Environmental policy. 2. Environmental management — Decision making. 3. Interdisciplinary research. 4. Communication in science. 5. Sustainable ...
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  2. Toward Unity Among Environmentalists.Bryan G. Norton - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    The focus of Norton's book is the distinction between objectives and values in developing environmental policies. Norton argues that environmentalism is a coalition of many groups working toward common objectives, but unlike other social action movements the environmental coalition does not have shared moral principles.
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  3. Environmental ethics and weak anthropocentrism.Bryan G. Norton - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (2):131-148.
    The assumption that environmental ethics must be nonanthropocentric in order to be adequate is mistaken. There are two forms of anthropocentrism, weak and strong, and weak anthropocentrism is adequate to support an environmental ethic. Environmental ethics is, however, distinctive vis-a-vis standard British and American ethical systems because, in order to be adequate, it must be nonindividualistic.Environmental ethics involves decisions on two levels, one kind of which differs from usual decisions affecting individual fairness while the other does not. The latter, called (...)
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  4.  98
    Relational Values: A Unifying Idea in Environmental Ethics and Evaluation?Bryan Norton & Daniel Sanbeg - 2021 - Environmental Values 30 (6):695-714.
    There has been a recent spate of publications on how we should evaluate change to ecological systems, some of which have introduced the concept of 'relational values'. Environmental ethicists have, with a few exceptions, not engaged with this debate. We survey the literature on relational values, noting that most advocates of the concept introduce relational values as an additional type of value, in addition to 'instrumental' and 'intrinsic' values. In this paper, we explore the idea that all environmental values are (...)
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  5. Sustainability.Bryan Norton - 2007 - Environmental Values 16 (2):272-277.
     
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  6. Toward Unity Among Environmentalists.Bryan G. Norton - 1993 - Environmental Values 2 (3):271-274.
     
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  7.  13
    Linguistic Frameworks and Ontology: A Re-Examination of Carnap’s Metaphilosophy.Bryan G. Norton - 2019 - Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.
  8.  69
    Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism.Bryan G. Norton - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (2):131-148.
    The assumption that environmental ethics must be nonanthropocentric in order to be adequate is mistaken. There are two forms of anthropocentrism, weak and strong, and weak anthropocentrism is adequate to support an environmental ethic. Environmental ethics is, however, distinctive vis-a-vis standard British and American ethical systems because, in order to be adequate, it must be nonindividualistic.Environmental ethics involves decisions on two levels, one kind of which differs from usual decisions affecting individual fairness while the other does not. The latter, called (...)
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  9. Rethinking Appropriateness of Actions in Environmental Decisions: Connecting Interest and Identity Negotiation with Plural Valuation.Christopher M. Raymond, Paul Hirsch, Bryan Norton, Andrew Scott & Mark S. Reed - 2023 - Environmental Values 32 (6):739-764.
    Issues of interest, identity and values intertwine in environmental conflicts, creating challenges that cannot generally be overcome using rationalities grounded in generalised argumentation and abstraction. To address the growing need to engage interests and identities along with plural values in the conservation of biodiversity and ecological systems, we introduce the concept of ‘appropriateness of actions’ and ground it in a relational understanding of environmental ethics. A determination of appropriateness for actions comes from combining outputs from value elicitation with those of (...)
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  10. Epistemology and Environmental Values.Bryan G. Norton - 1992 - The Monist 75 (2):208-226.
    Gifford Pinchot, the first official U.S. Forester, wrote: “There are just two things on this material earth—people and natural resources.” This philosophy apparently implies that all things other than people have only instrumental value. Environmentalists, even professional foresters, today believe that Gifford Pinchot’s system of forest management is both theoretically and practically inadequate. A difficult, and central, problem in the theory of environmental management is therefore to characterize exactly how Pinchot went wrong. If we knew that, we would be well (...)
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  11. Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation Biology.Bryan G. Norton - 2002 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    This book examines from a multidisciplinary viewpoint the question of what we mean - what we should mean - by setting sustainability as a goal for environmental management. The author, trained as a philosopher of science and language, explores ways to break down the disciplinary barriers to communication and deliberation about environment policy, and to integrate science and evaluations into a more comprehensive environmental policy. Choosing sustainability as the keystone concept of environmental policy, the author explores what we can learn (...)
     
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  12.  38
    Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management.Robert Costanza & Bryan G. Norton - 1992
    Discusses managing the environment from philosophical, scientific, and political perspectives.
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  13.  68
    Why I am Not a Nonanthropocentrist: Callicott and the Failure of Monistic Inherentism.Bryan G. Norton - 1995 - Environmental Ethics 17 (4):341-358.
    I contrast two roles for environmental philosophers—“applied philosophy” and “practical philosophy”—and show that the strategy of applied philosophy encourages an axiological and monistic approach to theory building. I argue that the mission of applied philosophy, and the monistic theory defended by J. Baird Callicott, in particular, tends to separate philosophers and their problems from real management issues because applied philosophers and moral monists insist that theoretical exploration occurs independent of, and prior to, applications in particular situations. This separation of theory (...)
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  14.  12
    Toward Unity among Environmentalists.Mark Sagoff & Bryan G. Norton - 1993 - Hastings Center Report 23 (2):42.
    Book reviewed in this article: Toward Unity among Environmentalists. By Bryan G. Norton.
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  15.  66
    Conservation and Preservation.Bryan G. Norton - 1986 - Environmental Ethics 8 (3):195-220.
    Philosophers have paid little attention to the distinction between conservation and preservation, apparently because they have accepted John Passmore’s suggestion that conservationism is an expression of anthropocentric motives and that “true” preservationism is an expression of nonanthropocentric motives. Philosophers have therefore concentrated their efforts on this distinction in motives. This reduction,however, is insensitive to important nuances of environmentalist objectives: there are a wide variety of human reasons for preserving natural ecosystems and wild species. Preservationist policies represent a concem to protect (...)
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  16.  29
    Ethics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation.Bryan G. Norton, Michael Hutchins, Terry Maple & Elizabeth Stevens - 2012 - Smithsonian Institution.
    Ethics on the Ark presents a passionate, multivocal discussion—among zoo professionals, activists, conservation biologists, and philosophers—about the future of zoos and aquariums, the treatment of animals in captivity, and the question of whether the individual, the species, or the ecosystem is the most important focus in conservation efforts. Contributors represent all sides of the issues. Moving from the fundamental to the practical, from biodiversity to population regulation, from animal research to captive breeding, Ethics on the Ark represents an important gathering (...)
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  17.  49
    Sustainability, Human Welfare, and Ecosystem Health.Bryan Norton - 1992 - Environmental Values 1 (2):97-111.
    Two types of sustainability definitions are contrasted. ‘Social scientific’ definitions, such as that of the Brundtland Commission, treat sustainability as a relationship between present and future welfare of persons. These definitions differ from ‘ecological’ ones which explicitly require protection of ecological processes as a condition on sustainability. ‘Scientific contextualism’ does not follow mainstream economists in their efforts to express all effects as interchangeable units of individual welfare; it rather strives to express sensitivity to different types and scales of impacts that (...)
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  18. Environmental Values.Bryan G. Norton & Bruce Hannon - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (3):227-245.
    Several recent authors have recommended that “sense of place” should become an important concept in our evaluation of environmental policies. In this paper, we explore aspects of this concept, arguing that it may provide the basis for a new, “place-based” approach to environmental values. This approach is based on an empirical hypothesis that place orientation is a feature of all people’s experience of their environment. We argue that place orientation requires, in addition to a home perspective, a sense of the (...)
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  19.  99
    Environmental ethics and nonhuman rights.Bryan G. Norton - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (1):17-36.
    If environmentalists are to combat effectively the continuing environmental decay resulting from more and more intense human exploitation of nature, they need a plausible and coherent rationale for preserving sensitive areas and other species. This need is illustrated by reference to two examples of controversies concerning large public projects in wilderness areas. Analyses of costs and benefits to presently existing human beings and the utilitarian theory which supports such theories are inadequate to provide such a rationale, as other writers have (...)
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  20.  18
    Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Philosophy.Peder Anker, Per Ariansen, Alfred J. Ayer, Murray Bookchin, Baird Callicott, John Clark, Bill Devall, Fons Elders, Paul Feyerabend, Warwick Fox, William C. French, Harold Glasser, Ramachandra Guha, Patsy Hallen, Stephan Harding, Andrew Mclaughlin, Ivar Mysterud, Arne Naess, Bryan Norton, Val Plumwood, Peter Reed, Kirkpatrick Sale, Ariel Salleh, Karen Warren, Richard A. Watson, Jon Wetlesen & Michael E. Zimmerman (eds.) - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The volume documents, and makes an original contribution to, an astonishing period in twentieth-century philosophy—the progress of Arne Naess's ecophilosophy from its inception to the present. It includes Naess's most crucial polemics with leading thinkers, drawn from sources as diverse as scholarly articles, correspondence, TV interviews and unpublished exchanges. The book testifies to the skeptical and self-correcting aspects of Naess's vision, which has deepened and broadened to include third world and feminist perspectives. Philosophical Dialogues is an essential addition to the (...)
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  21. Ecology and opportunity: intergenerational equity and sustainable options.Bryan Norton - 1999 - In Andrew Dobson (ed.), Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 118--150.
     
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  22.  30
    Pragmatism, Adaptive Management, and Sustainability.Bryan G. Norton - 1999 - Environmental Values 8 (4):451-466.
    The pragmatic conception of truth, anticipated by Henry David Thoreau and developed by C.S. Peirce and subsequent pragmatists, is proposed as a useful analogy for characterising 'sustainability.' Peirce's definitions of 'truth' provides an attractive approach to sustainability because (a) it re-focuses discussions of truth and objectivity from a search for 'correspondence' to an 'external world' (the 'conform' approach) to a more forward-looking ('transform') approach; and (b) it emphasises the crucial role of an evolving, questioning community in the conduct of inquiry. (...)
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  23.  44
    Convergence, Noninstrumental Value and the Semantics of 'Love': Comment on McShane.Bryan G. Norton - 2008 - Environmental Values 17 (1):5 - 14.
    Katie McShane, while accepting my 'convergence hypothesis' (the view that anthropocentrists and nonanthropocentrists will tend to propose similar policies), argues that nonanthropocentrism is nevertheless superior because it allows conservationists to have a deeper emotional commitment to natural objects than can anthropocentrists. I question this reasoning on two bases. First, McShane assumes a philosophically tendentious distinction between intrinsic and instrumental value – a distinction that presupposes a dualistic worldview. Second, I question why McShane believes anthropocentrists – weak anthropocentrists, that is – (...)
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  24.  22
    Environmental Ethics and Nonhuman Rights.Bryan G. Norton - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (1):17-36.
    If environmentalists are to combat effectively the continuing environmental decay resulting from more and more intense human exploitation of nature, they need a plausible and coherent rationale for preserving sensitive areas and other species. This need is illustrated by reference to two examples of controversies concerning large public projects in wilderness areas. Analyses of costs and benefits to presently existing human beings and the utilitarian theory which supports such theories are inadequate to provide such a rationale, as other writers have (...)
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  25.  25
    Environmental Values.Bryan G. Norton & Bruce Hannon - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (3):227-245.
    Several recent authors have recommended that “sense of place” should become an important concept in our evaluation of environmental policies. In this paper, we explore aspects of this concept, arguing that it may provide the basis for a new, “place-based” approach to environmental values. This approach is based on an empirical hypothesis that place orientation is a feature of all people’s experience of their environment. We argue that place orientation requires, in addition to a home perspective, a sense of the (...)
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  26. Beyond positivist ecology: Toward an integrated ecological ethics.Bryan G. Norton - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):581-592.
    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an “ecological ethic” indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of “reflexive” ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for (...)
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  27.  28
    Convergence and contextualism: some clarifications and a reply to Steverson.Bryan G. Norton - 2009 - In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 87-100.
    The convergence hypothesis asserts that, if one takes the full range of human values—present and future—into account, one will choose a set of policies that can also be accepted by an advocate of a consistent and reasonable nonanthropocentrism. Brian Steverson has attacked this hypothesis from a surprising direction. He attributes to deep ecologists the position that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value, interprets this position to mean that no species could ever be allowed to go extinct, and proceeds to show that (...)
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  28. Philosophy and Geography Iii: Philosophies of Place.Philip Brey, Lee Caragata, James Dickinson, David Glidden, Sara Gottlieb, Bruce Hannon, Ian Howard, Jeff Malpas, Katya Mandoki, Jonathan Maskit, Bryan G. Norton, Roger Paden, David Roberts, Holmes Rolston Iii, Izhak Schnell, Jonathon M. Smith, David Wasserman & Mick Womersley (eds.) - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    A growing literature testifies to the persistence of place as an incorrigible aspect of human experience, identity, and morality. Place is a common ground for thought and action, a community of experienced particulars that avoids solipsism and universalism. It draws us into the philosophy of the ordinary, into familiarity as a form of knowledge, into the wisdom of proximity. Each of these essays offers a philosophy of place, and reminds us that such philosophies ultimately decide how we make, use, and (...)
     
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  29.  50
    What Leopold Learned from Darwin and Hadley: Comment on Callicott et al.Bryan G. Norton - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (1):7 - 16.
    This comment explains why the claims of Callicott et al. in their paper 'Was Aldo Leopold a Pragmatist?' (Environmental Values 18 (2009): 453—486) are incorrect. The arguments they make are shown to be based upon several misunderstandings. In addition, important contributions by Aldo Leopold to the philosophy of conservation are missed.
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  30.  78
    Convergence and Contextualism.Bryan G. Norton - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (1):87-100.
    The convergence hypothesis asserts that, if one takes the full range of human values—present and future—into account, one will choose a set of policies that can also be accepted by an advocate of a consistent and reasonable nonanthropocentrism. Brian Steverson has attacked this hypothesis from a surprising direction. He attributes to deep ecologists the position that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value, interprets this position to mean that no species could ever be allowed to go extinct, and proceeds to show that (...)
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  31.  28
    Economists' Preferences and the Preferences of Economists.Bryan G. Norton - 1994 - Environmental Values 3 (4):311 - 332.
    Economists, who adopt the principle of consumer sovereignty, treat preferences as unquestioned for the purposes of their analysis. They also represent preferences for future outcomes as having value in the present. It is shown that these two characteristics of neoclassical modelling rest on similar reasoning and are essential to achieve high aggregatability of preferences and values. But the meaning and broader implications of these characteristics vary according to the arguments given to support these methodological choices. The resulting ambiguities raise questions (...)
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  32.  25
    Environmental Values and Adaptive Management.Bryan G. Norton & Anne C. Steinemann - 2001 - Environmental Values 10 (4):473-506.
    The trend in environmental management toward more adaptive, community-based, and holistic approaches will require new approaches to environmental valuation. In this paper, we offer a new valuation approach, one that embodies the core principles of adaptive management, which is experimental, multi-scalar, and place-based. In addition, we use hierarchy theory to incorporate spatial and temporal variability of natural systems into a multi-scalar management model. Our approach results in the consideration of multiple values within community-based ecosystem management, rather than an attempt to (...)
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  33.  24
    On defining ‘ontology’.Bryan Norton - 1976 - Metaphilosophy 7 (2):102–115.
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  34.  13
    Convergence and Contextualism.Bryan G. Norton - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (1):87-100.
    The convergence hypothesis asserts that, if one takes the full range of human values—present and future—into account, one will choose a set of policies that can also be accepted by an advocate of a consistent and reasonable nonanthropocentrism. Brian Steverson has attacked this hypothesis from a surprising direction. He attributes to deep ecologists the position that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value, interprets this position to mean that no species could ever be allowed to go extinct, and proceeds to show that (...)
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  35.  89
    Environmental ethics and the rights of future generations.Bryan G. Norton - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (4):319-337.
    Do appeals to rights and/or interests of the members of future generations provide an adequate basis for an environmental ethic? Assuming that rights and interests are, semantically, individualistic concepts, I present an argument following Derek Parfit which shows that a policy of depletion may harm no existing individuals, present or future. Although this argument has, initially, an air of paradox, I showthat the argument has two intuitive analogues-the problem ofgenerating a morally justified and environmentally sound population policy and the problem (...)
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  36.  8
    On Defining ‘Ontology’.Bryan Norton - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 7 (2):102-115.
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  37. Democracy and the Claims of Nature: Critical Perspectives for a New Century.Wilson Carey McWilliams, Bob Pepperman Taylor, Bryan G. Norton, Robyn Eckersley, Joe Bowersox, J. Baird Callicott, Catriona Sandilands, John Barry, Andrew Light, Peter S. Wenz, Luis A. Vivanco, Tim Hayward, John O'Neill, Robert Paehlke, Timothy W. Luke, Robert Gottlieb & Charles T. Rubin (eds.) - 2002 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In Democracy and the Claims of Nature, the leading thinkers in the fields of environmental, political, and social theory come together to discuss the tensions and sympathies of democratic ideals and environmental values. The prominent contributors reflect upon where we stand in our understanding of the relationship between democracy and the claims of nature. Democracy and the Claims of Nature bridges the gap between the often competing ideals of the two fields, leading to a greater understanding of each for the (...)
     
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  38.  6
    Simondon and Novalis: Notes for a Romantic Mechanology.Bryan Norton - 2024 - Substance 53 (1):85-100.
    German Romanticism plays a central role in Gilbert Simondon's writings. In _Mode of Existence_, Simondon draws on Goethe and E. T. A. Hoffmann to illustrate the tragic consequences of failing to attend to the individuated relationship between landscape and tool. While Novalis is only mentioned in passing, his work presents the most radical form of what might be called Romantic mechanology. With the stated aim of achieving the ideal of perpetual motion, Novalis's poetics highlight the central role literary experimentation plays (...)
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  39.  42
    Objectivity, Intrinsicality and Sustainability: Comment on Nelson's 'Health and Disease as "Thick" Concepts in Ecosystemic Contexts'.Bryan Norton - 1995 - Environmental Values 4 (4):323 - 332.
    Ecosystem health, as James Nelson argues, must be understood as having both descriptive and normative content; it is in this sense a 'morally thick' concept. The health analogy refers (a) at the similarities between conservation ecology and medicine or plant pathology as normative sciences, and (b) to the ability of ecosystems to 'heal' themselves in the face of disturbances. Nelson, however, goes beyond these two aspects and argues that judgements of illness in ecosystems only support moral obligations to protect them (...)
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  40.  88
    Should environmentalists be organicists?Bryan G. Norton - 1993 - Topoi 12 (1):21-30.
  41.  45
    Thoreau’s Insect Analogies: Or Why Environmentalists Hate Mainstream Economists.Bryan G. Norton - 1991 - Environmental Ethics 13 (3):235-251.
    Thoreau believed that we can learn how to live by observing nature, a view that appeals to modem environmentalists. This doctrine is exemplified in Thoreau’s use of insect analogies to illustrate how humans, like butterflies, can be transformed from the “larval” stage, which relates to the physical world through consumption, to a “perfect” state in which consumption is less important, and in which freedom and contemplation are the ends of life. This transformational idea rests upon a theory of dynamic dualism (...)
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  42. Sustainability as the Multigenerational Public Interest.Bryan G. Norton - 2017 - In Stephen M. Gardiner & Allen Thompson (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    The concept of sustainability has become an important—and contested—term in politics prior to its being given a clear, academic meaning, resulting in disciplinary turf wars over defining the term. The conflict, with mainly economists on one side and ecologists and philosophers on the other, has centered on the difference between “strong” and “weak” sustainability. Weak sustainability requires only the protection of wealth across generations, while strong sustainability requires also the protection of ecophysical features of the environment. It is shown that (...)
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  43.  13
    Biodiversity: Its Meaning and Value.Bryan G. Norton - 2008 - In Sahorta Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell. pp. 368–389.
    This chapter contains section titled: What is Biological Diversity? The Definition Problem Two Models of Biodiversity Science and Management Understanding Biodiversity in Public Policy Discourse Identifying and Measuring Values Derived from Biological Diversity Conclusion References Further Reading.
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  44.  91
    The past and future of environmental ethics/ philosophy.Bryan G. Norton - 2007 - Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):134-136.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:The Past and Future of Environmental Ethics/PhilosophyBryan Norton (bio)About 15 years ago, at one of the first meetings of the group known as the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE) at American Philosophical Association (APA) meetings, I drew an analogy with the field of medical ethics, arguing that environmental ethicists should look beyond philosophy departments and seek liaisons with Schools of Forestry, Schools of Marine Science, and Environmental Studies (...)
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  45.  78
    Environmental Ethics and the Rights of Future Generations.Bryan G. Norton - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (4):319-337.
    Do appeals to rights and/or interests of the members of future generations provide an adequate basis for an environmental ethic? Assuming that rights and interests are, semantically, individualistic concepts, I present an argument following Derek Parfit which shows that a policy of depletion may harm no existing individuals, present or future. Although this argument has, initially, an air of paradox, I showthat the argument has two intuitive analogues-the problem ofgenerating a morally justified and environmentally sound population policy and the problem (...)
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  46. People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees: Basic Issues in Environmental Ethics.Donald Vandeveer, Christine Pierce & Bryan G. Norton - 1986 - The Personalist Forum 2 (1):73-78.
     
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  47.  59
    Ética ambiental y Antropocentrismo débil.Bryan G. Norton - 2020 - Humanitas Hodie 2 (2):h224.
    La suposición de que una ética ambiental adecuada debe ser no-antropocéntrica es errónea. Hay dos formas de antropocentrismo: débil y fuerte, y el primero es suficiente para mantener una ética ambien¬tal. Sin embargo, la ética ambiental sí difiere de los sistemas éticos británicos y norteamericanos en la medida en que, para ser adecuada, debe ser no-individualista. La ética ambiental contiene dos niveles de decisión: el primero refiere a las decisiones usuales que afectan la equidad individual, el segundo no tiene esta (...)
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  48.  26
    Environmental Philosophy at the Edges of Science.Bryan G. Norton - 2022 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 29:1-20.
    While environmental ethics has flourished and contributed to the discussion of environmental policy, other areas of philosophy (epistemology, for example), have been less in evidence in these discussions. In this paper, we explore a role for these neglected areas: they are best viewed as meta-level discussions of the conceptual and linguistic problems that arise as scientists develop models at the edges of scientific fields relevant to our understanding of environmental problems and possible solutions. The relevant fields, which might differ depending (...)
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  49. Convergence and divergence: the convergence hypothesis twenty years later.Bryan G. Norton - 2009 - In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
     
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  50.  67
    A reply to my critics.Bryan G. Norton - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):387-405.
    Critics of my book, Sustainability, have raised many objections which are addressed. In general, I emphasize that the book is an integrative work; it must be long and complex beause it attempts a comprehensive treatment of problems of communication, of evaluation, and of management action in environmental discourse. I explain that I depend upon the pragmatists and on work in the pragmatics of language because the current language of environmental policy discourse is inadequate to allow deliberative processes that can reach (...)
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