Results for 'Bridget Gabriella Haire'

932 found
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  1.  18
    Screening Children for Caries: An Ethical Dilemma in Nigeria.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Bridget Gabriella Haire, Abiola A. Adeniyi & Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo - 2018 - The New Bioethics 24 (2):135-149.
    Dental caries is the main oral health challenge for children in Nigeria. Concern about its negative impact makes screening for caries in children an attractive public health strategy. The ability to detect the preclinical phase of caries, the availability of screening tools with high accuracy, and the possibility of treatment before onset of clinical symptoms with significant cost and health benefits, makes it appropriate for screening. However in Nigeria, the poor availability of highly specific and sensitive screening tools, poor access (...)
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  2.  26
    Raising Rates of Childhood Vaccination: The Trade-Off Between Coercion and Trust.Bridget Haire, Paul Komesaroff, Rose Leontini & C. Raina MacIntyre - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (2):199-209.
    Vaccination is a highly effective public health strategy that provides protection to both individuals and communities from a range of infectious diseases. Governments monitor vaccination rates carefully, as widespread use of a vaccine within a population is required to extend protection to the general population through “herd immunity,” which is important for protecting infants who are not yet fully vaccinated and others who are unable to undergo vaccination for medical or other reasons. Australia is unique in employing financial incentives to (...)
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  3.  18
    How Good Is “Good Enough”? The Case for Varying Standards of Evidence According to Need for New Interventions in HIV Prevention.Bridget Haire, John Kaldor & Christopher Fc Jordens - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):21-30.
    In 2010, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of two different biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection had positive findings. However, despite ongoing very high levels of HIV infection in some countries and population groups, it has been made clear by regulatory authorities that the evidence remains insufficient to support either product being made available outside of research contexts in the developing world for at least two years. In addition, prevention trials in endemic areas will continue to test new interventions against placebo. (...)
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  4.  19
    Mind the Gap: An Empirical Study of Post‐Trial Access in HIV Biomedical Prevention Trials.Bridget Haire & Christopher Jordens - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):85-97.
    The principle of providing post-trial access for research participants to successful products of that research is widely accepted and has been enshrined in various declarations and guidelines. While recent ethical guidelines recognise that the responsibility to provide post-trial access extends to sponsors, regulators and government bodies as well as to researchers, it is the researchers who have the direct duty of care to participants. Researchers may thus need to act as advocates for trial participants, especially where government bodies, sponsors, and (...)
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  5.  56
    Ethical Considerations in Determining Standard of Prevention Packages for HIV Prevention Trials: Examining PrEP.Bridget Haire, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Catherine Hankins, Jeremy Sugarman, Sheena McCormack, Gita Ramjee & Mitchell Warren - 2013 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (2):87-94.
    The successful demonstration that antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can be used in diverse ways to reduce HIV acquisition or transmission risks – either taken as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by those who are uninfected or as early treatment for prevention (T4P) by those living with HIV – expands the armamentarium of existing HIV prevention tools. These findings have implications for the design of future HIV prevention research trials. With the advent of multiple effective HIV prevention tools, discussions about the ethics and the (...)
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  6.  28
    Ethics of ARV Based Prevention: Treatment‐as‐Prevention and PrEP.Bridget Haire & John M. Kaldor - 2013 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (2):63-69.
    Published data show that new HIV prevention strategies including treatment-as-prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using oral antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are highly, but not completely, effective if regimens are taken as directed. Consequently, their implementation may challenge norms around HIV prevention. Specific concerns include the potential for ARV-based prevention to reframe responsibility, erode beneficial sexual norms and waste resources. This paper explores what rights claims uninfected people can make for access to ARVs for prevention, and whether moral claims justify the provision (...)
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  7.  18
    Communities Need to Be Equal Partners in Determining Whether Research is Acceptable.Bridget G. Haire & John M. Kaldor - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):159-160.
    In many countries around the world, people who inject drugs remain at high risk of HIV acquisition not because effective forms of prevention are unknown, nor because they find effective prevention undesirable, but because those in charge, mainly politicians but also bureaucrats, find evidence-based practice politically unacceptable. The evidence for preventive efficacy of harm reduction strategies, most prominently needle and syringe programmes but also treatment programmes such as opiate substitution, is irrefutable.1 However, political responses to drug use issues are varied (...)
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  8.  4
    Benefit of HIV Molecular Surveillance is Unclear, but Risks to Prevention Norms Are Clear.Bridget Haire - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (10):47-49.
    Volume 20, Issue 10, October 2020, Page 47-49.
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  9.  8
    Treatment-as-Prevention Needs to Be Considered in the Just Allocation of HIV Drugs.Bridget Haire - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (12):48-50.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 12, Page 48-50, December 2011.
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  10.  14
    Ebola: What It Teaches Us About Medical Ethics. A Response to Angus Dawson.Bridget G. Haire & Morenike O. Folayan - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):59-60.
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  11.  12
    Ethics of Medical Care and Clinical Research: A Qualitative Study of Principal Investigators in Biomedical HIV Prevention Research.Bridget G. Haire - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):231-235.
    In clinical research there is a tension between the role of a doctor, who must serve the best interests of the patient, and the role of the researcher, who must produce knowledge that may not have any immediate benefits for the research participant. This tension is exacerbated in HIV research in low and middle income countries, which frequently uncovers comorbidities other than the condition under study. Some bioethicists argue that as the goals of medicine and those of research are distinct, (...)
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  12.  29
    Because We Can: Clashes of Perspective Over Researcher Obligation in the Failed Prep Trials.Bridget G. Haire - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (2):63-74.
    This article examines the relationship between bioethics and the therapeutic standards in HIV prevention research in the developing world, focusing on the closure of the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials in the early 2000s. I situate the PrEP trials in the historical context of the vertical transmission debates of the 1990s, where there was protracted debate over the use of placebos despite the existence of a proven intervention. I then discuss the dramatic improvement in the clinical management of HIV and the (...)
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  13.  83
    It’s Time: The Case for PrEP as an Active Comparator in HIV Biomedical Prevention Trials.Bridget Haire - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (2):239-249.
    In July 2012, based on evidence from two major trials, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of combined oral tenofovir/emtricitabine as pre-exposure prophylaxis for people at high risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP effectiveness is marred by poor adherence, however, even in trial populations, thus it is not a magic bullet for HIV prevention. It is, however, the most effective biomedical HIV prevention intervention available for people at high risk of HIV, particularly those who have receptive sex (...)
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  14.  16
    “Reasonable Availability” Criterion Remains Salient.Bridget Gabrielle Haire - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (6):19-21.
  15.  6
    Beyond Compliance Checking: A Situated Approach to Visual Research Ethics.Anthony Zwi, Christy Newman, Bridget Haire, Katherine Boydell, Jessica Botfield & Caroline Lenette - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (2):293-303.
    Visual research methods like photography and digital storytelling are increasingly used in health and social sciences research as participatory approaches that benefit participants, researchers, and audiences. Visual methods involve a number of additional ethical considerations such as using identifiable content and ownership of creative outputs. As such, ethics committees should use different assessment frameworks to consider research protocols with visual methods. Here, we outline the limitations of ethics committees in assessing projects with a visual focus and highlight the sparse knowledge (...)
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  16.  5
    HIV Transmission Law in the Age of Treatment-as-Prevention.Bridget Haire & John Kaldor - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (12):982-986.
  17.  15
    No Sex Please in Sexuality Research.Bridget Haire - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):43-44.
  18.  12
    Undue Inducement, or Unfair Exclusion: Considering a Case Study of Pregnancy in an HIV Prevention Trial.Bridget G. Haire & Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):829-830.
    In their recent paper‘Undue inducement: a case study in CAPRISA 008’, Mngadi et al conclude that a participant in an HIV prevention study who deliberately concealed her pregnancy was not ‘unduly induced’ to participate by the offer of an experimental product. This paper argues that while the authors’ conclusion is sound, the framing of this case study is consistent with the preoccupation in research ethics with the concept of undue inducement, coupled with a highly risk-averse attitude to pregnancy. We suggest (...)
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  19.  17
    Back to Basics in Clinical Research Ethics.Bridget Haire - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (3):48 – 49.
  20.  7
    Aspects of Disaster Research Ethics Applicable to Other Contexts.Bridget Haire - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):9-10.
    In his article ‘The Ebola Clinical Trials: a precedent for research ethics in disasters’, Philippe Calain constructs a compelling case as to why and how experiences from the recent Ebola epidemic should be used to develop a framework for disaster research ethics. In particular, Calain proposes a useful model for assessing whether or not an unproven intervention could be suitable for human use in a disaster context, and makes a powerful argument against the separation of patient care from research goals. (...)
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  21.  23
    Ethical Issues in Adolescents' Sexual and Reproductive Health Research in Nigeria.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Bridget Haire, Abigail Harrison, Morolake Odetoyingbo, Olawunmi Fatusi & Brandon Brown - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):191-198.
    There is increasing interest in the need to address the ethical dilemmas related to the engagement of adolescents in sexual and reproductive health research. Research projects, including those that address issues related to STIs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence, and mental health, must be designed and implemented to address the needs of adolescents. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand (...)
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  22.  3
    Prioritization of Healthcare Workers for Experimental Ebola Therapeutic Would Exacerbate Existing Inequalities.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan & Bridget Haire - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):113-114.
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  23.  11
    Beyond Compliance Checking: A Situated Approach to Visual Research Ethics.Caroline Lenette, Jessica R. Botfield, Katherine Boydell, Bridget Haire, Christy E. Newman & Anthony B. Zwi - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (2):293-303.
    Visual research methods like photography and digital storytelling are increasingly used in health and social sciences research as participatory approaches that benefit participants, researchers, and audiences. Visual methods involve a number of additional ethical considerations such as using identifiable content and ownership of creative outputs. As such, ethics committees should use different assessment frameworks to consider research protocols with visual methods. Here, we outline the limitations of ethics committees in assessing projects with a visual focus and highlight the sparse knowledge (...)
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  24.  20
    Ebola Vaccine Development Plan: Ethics, Concerns and Proposed Measures.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Aminu Yakubu, Bridget Haire & Kristin Peterson - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundThe global interest in developing therapies for Ebola infection management and its prevention is laudable. However the plan to conduct an emergency immunization program specifically for healthcare workers using experimental vaccines raises some ethical concerns. This paper shares perspectives on these concerns and suggests how some of them may best be addressed.DiscussionThe recruitment of healthcare workers for Ebola vaccine research has challenges. It could result in coercion of initially dissenting healthcare workers to assist in the management of EVD infected persons (...)
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  25.  21
    Debating Ethics in HIV Research: Gaps Between Policy and Practice in Nigeria.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Kristin Peterson, Bridget Haire, Brandon Brown, Kadiri Audu, Olumide Makanjuola, Babatunde Pelemo & Vicki Marsh - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):214-225.
    HIV prevention is a critical health issue in Nigeria; a country that has one of the worst HIV epidemic profiles in the world. With 270,000 new infections in 2012, Nigeria is a prime site for HIV prevention research. One effect of the HIV epidemic has been to revolutionalise ethical norms for the conduct of research: it is now considered unethical to design and implement HIV related studies without community engagement. Unfortunately, there is very little commensurate effort in building the capacity (...)
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  26.  2
    Illegal Abortion and Reproductive Injustice in the Pacific Islands: A Qualitative Analysis of Court Data.Kate Burry, Kristen Beek, Lisa Vallely, Heather Worth & Bridget Haire - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
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  27.  16
    Considerations for Community Engagement When Conducting Clinical Trials During Infectious Disease Emergencies in West Africa.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Dan Allman, Bridget Haire, Aminu Yakubu, Muhammed O. Afolabi & Joseph Cooper - 2019 - Developing World Bioethics 19 (2):96-105.
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  28.  8
    Considerations for Stakeholder Engagement and COVID‐19 Related Clinical Trials’ Conduct in Sub‐Saharan Africa.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Brandon Brown, Bridget Haire, Chinedum Peace Babalola & Nicaise Ndembi - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (1):44-50.
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  29.  1
    Illegal Abortion and Reproductive Injustice in the Pacific Islands: A Qualitative Analysis of Court Data.Kate Burry, Kristen Beek, Lisa Vallely, Heather Worth & Bridget Haire - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
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  30.  11
    Comparing Abduction and Retroduction in Peircean Pragmatism and Critical Realism.Bridget Ritz - 2020 - Journal of Critical Realism 19 (5):456-465.
    ABSTRACT Abduction as a method for sociological explanation is increasingly gaining interest, but questions remain as to what exactly it is and how it differs from other methods of inquiry. This paper compares abduction as conceived in Peircean pragmatism with the critical realist concept of retroduction. I argue that abduction in the Peircean sense and retroduction in the critical realist sense refer to different, but complementary, modes of inference. Abductive conclusions provide the starting point for retroductive inferences; the latter inform (...)
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  31.  22
    As Time Goes By: Anxiety Negatively Affects the Perceived Quality of Life in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes of Long Duration.Gabriella Martino, Antonino Catalano, Federica Bellone, Giuseppina Tiziana Russo, Carmelo Mario Vicario, Antonino Lasco, Maria Catena Quattropani & Nunziata Morabito - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  32.  3
    The Relationship Between Alexithymia and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.Gabriella Martino, Andrea Caputo, Carmelo M. Vicario, Antonino Catalano, Peter Schwarz & Maria C. Quattropani - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  33.  6
    Alexithymia and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.Gabriella Martino, Andrea Caputo, Peter Schwarz, Federica Bellone, Walter Fries, M. C. Quattropani & C. M. Vicario - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  34.  12
    Hair, Hormones, and Haunting: Race as a Ghost Variable in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.Brandon Kramer & Elizabeth Carlin - 2020 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 45 (5):779-803.
    In this paper, we examine how polycystic ovary syndrome is racialized in biomedical research. Drawing from Star’s seminal concept of triangulation, we analyze how the diagnostic criteria for PCOS combine two different biomarkers: body hair and testosterone. Hair and hormones are both haunted by their use in eugenic research, and as clinical measures, they can carry forward powerful narratives of biological difference. PCOS researchers circulate strong claims about racial difference in hirsutism as if they were established knowledge, sometimes calling for (...)
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  35.  5
    Editorial: Psychological Factors as Determinants of Medical Conditions.Gabriella Martino, Viviana Langher, Valentina Cazzato & Carmelo Mario Vicario - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  36.  59
    Teaching Ethics to Engineers: Ethical Decision Making Parallels the Engineering Design Process.Bridget Bero & Alana Kuhlman - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):597-605.
    In order to fulfill ABET requirements, Northern Arizona University’s Civil and Environmental engineering programs incorporate professional ethics in several of its engineering courses. This paper discusses an ethics module in a 3rd year engineering design course that focuses on the design process and technical writing. Engineering students early in their student careers generally possess good black/white critical thinking skills on technical issues. Engineering design is the first time students are exposed to “grey” or multiple possible solution technical problems. To identify (...)
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  37.  26
    Informal and Absolute Proofs: Some Remarks From a Gödelian Perspective.Gabriella Crocco - 2019 - Topoi 38 (3):561-575.
    After a brief discussion of Kreisel’s notion of informal rigour and Myhill’s notion of absolute proof, Gödel’s analysis of the subject is presented. It is shown how Gödel avoids the notion of informal proof because such a use would contradict one of the senses of “formal” that Gödel wants to preserve. This Gödelian notion of “formal” is directly tied to his notion of absolute proof and to the question of the general applicability of concepts, in a way that overcomes both (...)
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  38.  15
    The Ethics of Selective Mandatory Vaccination for COVID-19.Bridget M. Williams - 2022 - Public Health Ethics 15 (1):74-86.
    With evidence of vaccine hesitancy in several jurisdictions, the option of making COVID-19 vaccination mandatory requires consideration. In this paper I argue that it would be ethical to make the COVID-19 vaccination mandatory for older people who are at highest risk of severe disease, but if this were to occur, and while there is limited knowledge of the disease and vaccines, there are not likely to be sufficient grounds to mandate vaccination for those at lower risk. Mandating vaccination for those (...)
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  39.  21
    The Representation of Abstract Words: Why Emotion Matters.Stavroula-Thaleia Kousta, Gabriella Vigliocco, David P. Vinson, Mark Andrews & Elena Del Campo - 2011 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 140 (1):14-34.
  40.  47
    A Force-Theoretic Framework for Event Structure.Bridget Copley & Heidi Harley - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (2):103-158.
    We propose an account of dynamic predicates which draws on the notion of force, eliminating reference to events in the linguistic semantics. We treat dynamic predicates as predicates of forces, represented as functions from an initial situation to a final situation that occurs ceteris paribus, that is, if nothing external intervenes. The possibility that opposing forces might intervene to prevent the transition to a given final situation leads us to a novel analysis of non-culminating accomplishment predicates in a variety of (...)
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  41. Belief Merging and the Discursive Dilemma: An Argument-Based Account to Paradoxes of Judgment Aggregation.Gabriella Pigozzi - 2006 - Synthese 152 (2):285-298.
    The aggregation of individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective decision on the same propositions is called judgment aggregation. Literature in social choice and political theory has claimed that judgment aggregation raises serious concerns. For example, consider a set of premises and a conclusion where the latter is logically equivalent to the former. When majority voting is applied to some propositions it may give a different outcome than majority voting applied to another set of propositions. This problem is (...)
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  42.  25
    Burnout and Perceptions of Conscience Among Health Care Personnel: A Pilot Study.Gabriella Gustafsson, Sture Eriksson, Gunilla Strandberg & Astrid Norberg - 2010 - Nursing Ethics 17 (1):23-38.
    Although organizational and situational factors have been found to predict burnout, not everyone employed at the same workplace develops it, suggesting that becoming burnt out is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate perceptions of conscience, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity, social support and resilience among two groups of health care personnel from the same workplaces, one group on sick leave owing to medically assessed burnout (n = 20) and one group who showed no indications (...)
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  43.  10
    Solidarity and Community Engagement in Global Health Research.Bridget Pratt, Phaik Yeong Cheah & Vicki Marsh - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):43-56.
    Community engagement is gaining prominence in global health research. A number of ethical goals–spanning the instrumental, intrinsic, and transformative–have been ascribed to CE in global heal...
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  44.  7
    Justice and Public Participation in Universal Health Coverage: When is Tiered Coverage Unfair and Who Should Decide?Bridget Pratt - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (1):5-19.
    Universal health coverage is often implemented within countries through several national insurance schemes that collectively cover their populations. Yet the extent of services and benefits available can vary substantially between different schemes. This paper argues that these variations in coverage comprise tiering and then reviews different accounts of health and social justice that consider whether and when a tiered health system is fair. Using these accounts, it shows that the fairness of tiering can be determined by assessing whether differences in (...)
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  45.  4
    Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking.E. Gabriella Coleman - 2012 - Princeton University Press.
    Who are computer hackers? What is free software? And what does the emergence of a community dedicated to the production of free and open source software--and to hacking as a technical, aesthetic, and moral project--reveal about the values of contemporary liberalism? Exploring the rise and political significance of the free and open source software movement in the United States and Europe, Coding Freedom details the ethics behind hackers' devotion to F/OSS, the social codes that guide its production, and the political (...)
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  46.  2
    Divided Communities and Absent Voices: The Search for Autistic BIPOC Parent Blogs.Bridget Liang - 2022 - Studies in Social Justice 16 (2):447-469.
    Both autistic adults and families of autistic children rely heavily on blogs and other digital platforms to create community and gain experiential knowledge about autism, but research on autism blogs has failed to distinguish between the perspectives of autistic adults and neurotypical parent bloggers. Furthermore, intersections in the experiences of BIPOC autistics are rarely examined. Using a content analysis with a feminist Critical Disability Studies lens, I explore six autism parent blogs from diverse demographics: a white neurotypical father, a white (...)
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  47.  2
    Kurt Gödel Philosopher-Scientist.Gabriella Crocco & Eva-Maria Engelen (eds.) - 2016 - Marseille: Presses universitaires de Provence.
    This volume represents the beginning of a new stage of research in interpreting Kurt Gödel’s philosophy in relation to his scientific work. It is more than a collection of essays on Gödel. It is in fact the product of a long enduring international collaboration on Kurt Gödel’s Philosophical Notebooks (Max Phil). New and significant material has been made accessible to a group of experts, on which they rely for their articles. In addition to this, Gödel’s Nachlass is presented anew by (...)
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  48. The Brain and Educational Connections.Bridget Connor - 2014 - Upa.
    This book presents scientific research in psychology and education and identifies effective teaching practices that address the emotional, psychological, and social needs of children. This book is written for teachers, administrators, and those interested in giving children stimulating and nurturing environments that foster life-long learning.
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  49.  5
    Naming the Unnamable: A Comparison between W ANG Bi’s Commentary on the Laozi and Derrida’s Khōra.Gabriella Stanchina - 2020 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 19 (3):409-426.
    In this article, I compare WANG Bi’s 王弼 rendition of Dao 道 as the nameless, unfathomable root of language and the totality of beings, with Derrida’s analysis of the term khōra. Both cases include a text that presents itself as a commentary on another text, namely the Laozi 老子 for Wang Bi and Plato’s Timaeus for Derrida, whose matter is declared as elusive and ungraspable. I analyze the analogies between these two attempts to convey the unsayable, as well as the (...)
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  50.  33
    Facial Expression in Nonhuman Animals.Bridget M. Waller & Jérôme Micheletta - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):54-59.
    Many nonhuman animals produce facial expressions which sometimes bear clear resemblance to the facial expressions seen in humans. An understanding of this evolutionary continuity between species, and how this relates to social and ecological variables, can help elucidate the meaning, function, and evolution of facial expression. This aim, however, requires researchers to overcome the theoretical and methodological differences in how human and nonhuman facial expressions are approached. Here, we review the literature relating to nonhuman facial expressions and suggest future directions (...)
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