Results for 'Brett Mullins'

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Brett Mullins
Miami University, Ohio
  1.  60
    Higher-Order Evidence and the Dynamics of Self-Location: An Accuracy-Based Argument for Calibrationism.Brett Topey - manuscript
    The thesis that agents should calibrate their beliefs in the face of higher-order evidence—i.e., should adjust their first-order beliefs in response to evidence suggesting that the reasoning underlying those beliefs is faulty—is sometimes thought to be in tension with Bayesian approaches to belief update: in order to obey Bayesian norms, it's claimed, agents must remain steadfast in the face of higher-order evidence. But I argue that this claim is incorrect. In particular, I motivate a minimal constraint on a reasonable treatment (...)
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  2.  2
    Re-Engineering Humanity.Brett Frischmann & Evan Selinger - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Every day, new warnings emerge about artificial intelligence rebelling against us. All the while, a more immediate dilemma flies under the radar. Have forces been unleashed that are thrusting humanity down an ill-advised path, one that's increasingly making us behave like simple machines? In this wide-reaching, interdisciplinary book, Brett Frischmann and Evan Selinger examine what's happening to our lives as society embraces big data, predictive analytics, and smart environments. They explain how the goal of designing programmable worlds goes hand (...)
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  3.  48
    The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited.Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.) - 2011 - MIT Press.
    Drawing on recent advances in evolutionary biology, prominent scholars return to the question posed in a pathbreaking book: how evolution itself evolved.
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  4.  47
    Open Questions and Epistemic Necessity.Brett Sherman - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (273):819-840.
    Why can I not appropriately utter ‘It must be raining’ while standing outside in the rain, even though every world consistent with my knowledge is one in which it is raining? The common response to this problem is to hold that epistemic must, in addition to quantifying over epistemic possibilities, carries some additional evidential information concerning the source of one'S evidence. I argue that this is a mistake: epistemic modals are mere quantifiers over epistemic possibilities. My central claim is that (...)
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  5.  38
    Best Laid Plans: Idealization and the Rationality–Accuracy Bridge.Brett Topey - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Hilary Greaves and David Wallace argue that conditionalization maximizes expected accuracy and so is a rational requirement, but their argument presupposes a particular picture of the bridge between rationality and accuracy: the Best-Plan-to-Follow picture. And theorists such as Miriam Schoenfield and Robert Steel argue that it's possible to motivate an alternative picture—the Best-Plan-to-Make picture—that does not vindicate conditionalization. I show that these theorists are mistaken: it turns out that, if an update procedure maximizes expected accuracy on the Best-Plan-to-Follow picture, it's (...)
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  6. The Aloneness Argument Against Classical Theism.Joseph C. Schmid & R. T. Mullins - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-19.
    We argue that there is a conflict among classical theism's commitments to divine simplicity, divine creative freedom, and omniscience. We start by defining key terms for the debate related to classical theism. Then we articulate a new argument, the Aloneness Argument, aiming to establish a conflict among these attributes. In broad outline, the argument proceeds as follows. Under classical theism, it's possible that God exists without anything apart from Him. Any knowledge God has in such a world would be wholly (...)
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  7. Brett's History of Psychology.George Sidney Brett - 1953 - Cambridge: Mass., M.I.T. Press.
     
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  8. Reasoning with Heuristics.Brett Karlan - 2020 - Ratio 34 (2):100-108.
    Which rules should guide our reasoning? Human reasoners often use reasoning shortcuts, called heuristics, which function well in some contexts but lack the universality of reasoning rules like deductive implication or inference to the best explanation. Does it follow that human reasoning is hopelessly irrational? I argue: no. Heuristic reasoning often represents human reasoners reaching a local rational maximum, reasoning more accurately than if they try to implement more “ideal” rules of reasoning. I argue this is a genuine rational achievement. (...)
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  9. Lineage Explanations: Explaining How Biological Mechanisms Change: Articles.Brett Calcott - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):51-78.
    This paper describes a pattern of explanation prevalent in the biological sciences that I call a ‘lineage explanation’. The aim of these explanations is to make plausible certain trajectories of change through phenotypic space. They do this by laying out a series of stages, where each stage shows how some mechanism worked, and the differences between each adjacent stage demonstrates how one mechanism, through minor modifications, could be changed into another. These explanations are important, for though it is widely accepted (...)
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  10.  23
    Bridging the Gap Between Similarity and Causality: An Integrated Approach to Concepts.Corinne L. Bloch-Mullins - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (3):605-632.
    A growing consensus in the philosophy and psychology of concepts is that while theories such as the prototype, exemplar, and theory theories successfully account for some instances of concept formation and application, none of them successfully accounts for all such instances. I argue against this ‘new consensus’ and show that the problem is, in fact, more severe: the explanatory force of each of these theories is limited even with respect to the phenomena often cited to support it, as each fails (...)
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  11.  10
    Scientific Concepts as Forward-Looking: How Taxonomic Structure Facilitates Conceptual Development.Corinne L. Bloch-Mullins - 2020 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 14 (2):205-231.
    This paper examines the interplay between conceptual structure and the evolution of scientific concepts, arguing that concepts are fundamentally ‘forward-looking’ constructs. Drawing on empirical studies of similarity and categorization, I explicate the way in which the conceptual taxonomy highlights the ‘relevant respects’ for similarity judgments involved in categorization. I then propose that this taxonomy provides some of the cognitive underpinnings of the ongoing development of scientific concepts. I use the concept synapse to illustrate my proposal, showing how conceptual taxonomy both (...)
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  12.  78
    Children, Autonomy, and Care.Amy Mullin - 2007 - Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (4):536–553.
  13. Wimsatt and the Robustness Family: Review of Wimsatt’s Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings. [REVIEW]Brett Calcott - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):281-293.
    This review of Wimsatt’s book Re-engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings focuses on analysing his use of robustness, a central theme in the book. I outline a family of three distinct conceptions of robustness that appear in the book, and look at the different roles they play. I briefly examine what underwrites robustness, and suggest that further work is needed to clarify both the structure of robustness and the relation between it various conceptions.
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  14. Knowledge and Assumptions.Brett Sherman & Gilbert Harman - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 156 (1):131-140.
    When epistemologists talk about knowledge, the discussions traditionally include only a small class of other epistemic notions: belief, justification, probability, truth. In this paper, we propose that epistemologists should include an additional epistemic notion into the mix, namely the notion of assuming or taking for granted.
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  15.  80
    Trust, Social Norms, and Motherhood.Amy Mullin - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (3):316–330.
  16.  10
    Introduction: A Dynamic View of Evolution.Brett Calcottt & Kim Sterelny - 2011 - In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press. pp. 1--14.
    This book reviews some of life’s history. It suggests that one crucial feature of John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry’s The Major Transitions in Evolution is that it has a dynamic approach. In The Major Transitions in Evolution, Maynard Smith and Szathmáry bought a much more dynamic model to debates about the history of life. This book also shows that in the decade and more that has followed, the legacy of Maynard Smith and Szathmáry has been developed in important ways.
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  17.  99
    Realism, Reliability, and Epistemic Possibility: On Modally Interpreting the Benacerraf–Field Challenge.Brett Topey - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4415-4436.
    A Benacerraf–Field challenge is an argument intended to show that common realist theories of a given domain are untenable: such theories make it impossible to explain how we’ve arrived at the truth in that domain, and insofar as a theory makes our reliability in a domain inexplicable, we must either reject that theory or give up the relevant beliefs. But there’s no consensus about what would count here as a satisfactory explanation of our reliability. It’s sometimes suggested that giving such (...)
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  18.  43
    Causal Specificity and the Instructive–Permissive Distinction.Brett Calcott - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (4):481-505.
    I use some recent formal work on measuring causation to explore a suggestion by James Woodward: that the notion of causal specificity can clarify the distinction in biology between permissive and instructive causes. This distinction arises when a complex developmental process, such as the formation of an entire body part, can be triggered by a simple switch, such as the presence of particular protein. In such cases, the protein is said to merely induce or "permit" the developmental process, whilst the (...)
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  19.  45
    Conflicting Violations of Transitivity and Where They May Lead Us.Brett Day & Graham Loomes - 2010 - Theory and Decision 68 (1-2):233-242.
    The literature contains evidence from some studies of asymmetric patterns of choice cycles in the direction consistent with regret theory, and evidence from other studies of asymmetries in the opposite direction. This article reports an experiment showing that both patterns occur within the same sample of respondents operating in the same experimental environment. We discuss the implications for modelling behaviour in such environments.
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  20.  4
    The Architecture of Working Memory: Features From Multiple Remembered Objects Produce Parallel, Coactive Guidance of Attention in Visual Search.Brett Bahle, Daniel D. Thayer, J. Toby Mordkoff & Andrew Hollingworth - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
  21.  74
    Why How and Why Aren’T Enough: More Problems with Mayr’s Proximate-Ultimate Distinction.Brett Calcott - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):767-780.
    Like Laland et al., I think Mayr’s distinction is problematic, but I identify a further problem with it. I argue that Mayr’s distinction is a false dichotomy, and obscures an important question about evolutionary change. I show how this question, once revealed, sheds light on some debates in evo-devo that Laland et al.’s analysis cannot, and suggest that it provides a different view about how future integration between biological disciplines might proceed.
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  22.  56
    Carbon Metabolism: Global Capitalism, Climate Change, and the Biospheric Rift. [REVIEW]Brett Clark & Richard York - 2005 - Theory and Society 34 (4):391-428.
  23. Coin Flips, Credences and the Reflection Principle.Brett Topey - 2012 - Analysis 72 (3):478-488.
    One recent topic of debate in Bayesian epistemology has been the question of whether imprecise credences can be rational. I argue that one account of imprecise credences, the orthodox treatment as defended by James M. Joyce, is untenable. Despite Joyce’s claims to the contrary, a puzzle introduced by Roger White shows that the orthodox account, when paired with Bas C. van Fraassen’s Reflection Principle, can lead to inconsistent beliefs. Proponents of imprecise credences, then, must either provide a compelling reason to (...)
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  24.  24
    Signals That Make a Difference.Brett Calcott, Arnaud Pocheville & Paul Griffiths - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (1):233-258.
    Recent work by Brian Skyrms offers a very general way to think about how information flows and evolves in biological networks—from the way monkeys in a troop communicate to the way cells in a body coordinate their actions. A central feature of his account is a way to formally measure the quantity of information contained in the signals in these networks. In this article, we argue there is a tension between how Skyrms talks of signalling networks and his formal measure (...)
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  25. Moral Defects, Aesthetic Defects, and the Imagination.Amy Mullin - 2004 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (3):249–261.
  26.  19
    Broadening Our Field of View: The Role of Emotion Polyregulation.Brett Q. Ford, James J. Gross & June Gruber - 2019 - Emotion Review 11 (3):197-208.
    The field of emotion regulation has developed rapidly, and a number of emotion regulatory strategies have been identified. To date, empirical attention has focused on contrasting specific regulatio...
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  27.  28
    Precarity as a Political Concept, or, Fordism as Exception.Brett Neilson & Ned Rossiter - 2008 - Theory, Culture and Society 25 (7-8):51-72.
    In 2003, the concept of precarity emerged as the central organizing platform for a series of social struggles that would spread across the space of Europe. Four years later, almost as suddenly as the precarity movement appeared, so it would enter into crisis. To understand precarity as a political concept it is necessary to go beyond economistic approaches that see social conditions as determined by the mode of production. Such a move requires us to see Fordism as exception and precarity (...)
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  28.  15
    The Impact of Moral Intensity and Desire for Control on Scaling Decisions in Social Entrepreneurship.Brett R. Smith, Geoffrey M. Kistruck & Benedetto Cannatelli - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (4):677-689.
    While research has focused on why certain entrepreneurs elect to create innovative solutions to social problems, very little is known about why some social entrepreneurs choose to scale their solutions while others do not. Research on scaling has generally focused on organizational characteristics often overlooking factors at the individual level that may affect scaling decisions. Drawing on the multidimensional construct of moral intensity, we propose a theoretical model of ethical decision making to explain why a social entrepreneur’s perception of moral (...)
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  29.  11
    Similarity Reimagined.Corinne L. Bloch-Mullins - 2021 - Theoria 87 (1):31-68.
    Theoria, Volume 87, Issue 1, Page 31-68, February 2021.
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  30.  47
    Engineering and Evolvability.Brett Calcott - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):293-313.
    Comparing engineering to evolution typically involves adaptationist thinking, where well-designed artifacts are likened to well-adapted organisms, and the process of evolution is likened to the process of design. A quite different comparison is made when biologists focus on evolvability instead of adaptationism. Here, the idea is that complex integrated systems, whether evolved or engineered, share universal principles that affect the way they change over time. This shift from adaptationism to evolvability is a significant move for, as I argue, we can (...)
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  31.  38
    Biobanking, Consent, and Certificates of Confidentiality: Does the ANPRM Muddy the Water?Brett A. Williams & Leslie E. Wolf - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):440-453.
    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has proposed substantial changes to the current regulatory system governing human subjects research in its Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, entitled “Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing Burden, Delay, and Ambiguity for Investigators.” Some of the most significant proposed changes concern the use of biospecimens in research. Because research involving biological materials begins with an initial interaction with an individual, such research falls squarely within the human subjects (...)
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  32.  11
    Strategic Visual Imagery and Automatic Priming Effects in Pop-Out Visual Search.Brett A. Cochrane, Hanzhuang Zhu & Bruce Milliken - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 65:59-70.
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  33. Linguistic Convention and Worldly Fact: Prospects for a Naturalist Theory of the a Priori.Brett Topey - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (7):1725-1752.
    Truth by convention, once thought to be the foundation of a uniquely promising approach to explaining our access to the truth in nonempirical domains, is nowadays widely considered an absurdity. Its fall from grace has been due largely to the influence of an argument that can be sketched as follows: our linguistic conventions have the power to make it the case that a sentence expresses a particular proposition, but they can’t by themselves generate truth; whether a given proposition is true—and (...)
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  34.  77
    Constructing Contexts.Brett Sherman - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
    It is commonly held that the context with respect to which an indexical is interpreted is determined independently of the interpretation of the indexical. This view, which I call Context Realism, has explanatory significance: it is because the context is what it is that an indexical refers to what it does. In this paper, I provide an argument against Context Realism. I then develop an alternative that I call Context Constructivism, according to which indexicals are defined not in terms of (...)
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  35.  95
    Evolution and Special Creation.Ernan Mc Mullin - 1993 - Zygon 28 (3):299-335.
    The logical relationships between the ideas of evolution and of special creation are explored here in the context of a recent paper by Alvin Plantinga claiming that from the perspective of biblical religion it is more likely than not that God acted in a “special” way at certain crucial moments in the long process whereby life developed on earth. I argue against this thesis, asking first under what circumstances the Bible might be thought relevant to an issue of broadly scientific (...)
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  36.  76
    The Other Cooperation Problem: Generating Benefit.Brett Calcott - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):179-203.
    Understanding how cooperation evolves is central to explaining some core features of our biological world. Many important evolutionary events, such as the arrival of multicellularity or the origins of eusociality, are cooperative ventures between formerly solitary individuals. Explanations of the evolution of cooperation have primarily involved showing how cooperation can be maintained in the face of free-riding individuals whose success gradually undermines cooperation. In this paper I argue that there is a second, distinct, and less well explored, problem of cooperation (...)
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  37. Why Learning and Development Can Lead to Poorer Recognition Memory.Brett K. Hayes & Evan Heit - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (8):337-339.
  38. Everett's “Many-Worlds” Proposal.Brett Maynard Bevers - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):3-12.
    Hugh Everett III proposed that a quantum measurement can be treated as an interaction that correlates microscopic and macroscopic systems—particularly when the experimenter herself is included among those macroscopic systems. It has been difficult, however, to determine precisely what this proposal amounts to. Almost without exception, commentators have held that there are ambiguities in Everett’s theory of measurement that result from significant—even embarrassing—omissions. In the present paper, we resist the conclusion that Everett’s proposal is incomplete, and we develop a close (...)
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  39.  12
    Physicians Have a Responsibility to Meet the Health Care Needs of Society.Allan S. Brett - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):526-531.
    In one of the televised debates among Republican primary candidates for the 2012 U.S. presidential election, moderator Wolf Blitzer presented this hypothetical case to candidate Ron Paul:A healthy 30 year old young man has a good job, makes a good living, but decides — you know what — ‘I’m not going to spend 200 or 300 dollars a month for health insurance because I’m healthy, I don’t need it.’ But something terrible happens, all of a sudden he needs it. Who’s (...)
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  40.  29
    The Empire of Civilization: The Evolution of an Imperial Idea.Brett Bowden - 2009 - University of Chicago Press.
    From the Crusades to the colonial era to the global war on terror, this sweeping volume exposes “civilization” as a stage-managed account of history that ...
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  41.  15
    Legislated Ethics or Ethics Education?: Faculty Views in the Post-Enron Era.Jeri Mullins Beggs & Kathy Lund Dean - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (1):15-37.
    The tension between external forces for better ethics in organizations, represented by legislation such as the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX), and the call for internal forces represented by increased educational coverage, has never been as apparent. This study examines business school faculty attitudes about recent corporate ethics lapses, including opinions about root causes, potential solutions, and ethics coverage in their courses. In assessing root causes, faculty point to a failure of systems such as legal/professional and management (external) and declining personal values (...)
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  42. Signals That Make a Difference.Brett Calcott, Paul E. Griffiths & Arnaud Pocheville - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axx022.
    Recent work by Brian Skyrms offers a very general way to think about how information flows and evolves in biological networks — from the way monkeys in a troop communicate, to the way cells in a body coordinate their actions. A central feature of his account is a way to formally measure the quantity of information contained in the signals in these networks. In this paper, we argue there is a tension between how Skyrms talks of signalling networks and his (...)
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  43. Quinean Holism, Analyticity, and Diachronic Rational Norms.Brett Topey - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):3143-3171.
    I argue that Quinean naturalists’ holism-based arguments against analyticity and apriority are more difficult to resist than is generally supposed, for two reasons. First, although opponents of naturalism sometimes dismiss these arguments on the grounds that the holistic premises on which they depend are unacceptably radical, it turns out that the sort of holism required by these arguments is actually quite minimal. And second, although it’s true, as Grice and Strawson pointed out long ago, that these arguments can succeed only (...)
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  44.  44
    Culture Shapes Whether the Pursuit of Happiness Predicts Higher or Lower Well-Being.Brett Q. Ford, Julia O. Dmitrieva, Daniel Heller, Yulia Chentsova-Dutton, Igor Grossmann, Maya Tamir, Yukiko Uchida, Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Victoria A. Floerke, Meike Uhrig, Tatiana Bokhan & Iris B. Mauss - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (6):1053-1062.
  45.  39
    Foundational Questions About Concepts: Context‐Sensitivity and Embodiment.Corinne L. Bloch-Mullins - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (12):940-952.
    This review discusses recent work on foundational questions about concepts. The first of these questions is whether concepts are context-independent bodies of knowledge, or context-dependent constructs, created on the fly. The second question is whether concepts are abstract, amodal representations, or whether they are embedded within the sensory-motor system. I discuss these two questions in light of empirical data from psychology and neuroscience, as well as theoretical considerations, and examine their implications for theories of concepts.
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  46.  39
    The Development of Causal Categorization.Brett K. Hayes & Bob Rehder - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1102-1128.
    Two experiments examined the impact of causal relations between features on categorization in 5- to 6-year-old children and adults. Participants learned artificial categories containing instances with causally related features and noncausal features. They then selected the most likely category member from a series of novel test pairs. Classification patterns and logistic regression were used to diagnose the presence of independent effects of causal coherence, causal status, and relational centrality. Adult classification was driven primarily by coherence when causal links were deterministic (...)
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  47.  15
    Diagnosis and Therapy in The Anticipatory Corpse: A Second Opinion.Brett McCarty - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (6):621-641.
    In The Anticipatory Corpse, Jeffrey Bishop claims that modern medicine has lost formal and final causality as the dead body has become epistemologically normative, and that a singular focus on efficient and material causality has thoroughly distorted modern medical practice. Bishop implies that the renewal of medicine will require its housing in alternate social spaces. This essay critiques both Bishop’s diagnosis and therapy by arguing, first, that alternate social imaginaries, though perhaps marginalized, are already present within the practice of medicine. (...)
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  48.  41
    The Creation and Reuse of Information in Gene Regulatory Networks.Brett Calcott - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):879-890.
    Recent work on the evolution of signaling systems provides a novel way of thinking about genetic information, where information is passed between genes in a regulatory network. I use examples from evolutionary developmental biology to show how information can be created in these networks and how it can be reused to produce rapid phenotypic change.
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  49.  19
    The Microbiome Mediates Environmental Effects on Aging.Brett B. Finlay, Sven Pettersson, Melissa K. Melby & Thomas C. G. Bosch - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (10):1800257.
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  50.  60
    Private Selves, Public Identities: Reconsidering Identity Politics.Amy Mullin - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (2):204-207.
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