Results for 'Bj��rn Fors��n'

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  1.  48
    Reviewed Work(S): Lowness Properties and Randomness. Advances in Mathematics, Vol. 197 by André Nies; Lowness for the Class of Schnorr Random Reals. SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 35 by Bjørn Kjos-Hanssen; André Nies; Frank Stephan; Lowness for Kurtz Randomness. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 74 by Noam Greenberg; Joseph S. Miller; Randomness and Lowness Notions Via Open Covers. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, Vol. 163 by Laurent Bienvenu; Joseph S. Miller; Relativizations of Randomness and Genericity Notions. The Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society, Vol. 43 by Johanna N. Y. Franklin; Frank Stephan; Liang Yu; Randomness Notions and Partial Relativization. Israel Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 191 by George Barmpalias; Joseph S. Miller; André Nies. [REVIEW]Johanna N. Y. Franklin - forthcoming - Association for Symbolic Logic: The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
    Review by: Johanna N. Y. Franklin The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 19, Issue 1, Page 115-118, March 2013.
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  2.  12
    André Nies. Lowness Properties and Randomness. Advances in Mathematics, Vol. 197 , No. 1, Pp. 274–305. - Bjørn Kjos-Hanssen, André Nies, and Frank Stephan. Lowness for the Class of Schnorr Random Reals. SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 35 , No. 3, Pp. 647–657. - Noam Greenberg and Joseph S. Miller. Lowness for Kurtz Randomness. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 74 , No. 2, Pp. 665–678. - Laurent Bienvenu and Joseph S. Miller. Randomness and Lowness Notions Via Open Covers. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, Vol. 163 , No. 5, Pp. 506–518. - Johanna N. Y. Franklin, Frank Stephan, and Liang. Yu Relativizations of Randomness and Genericity Notions. The Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society, Vol. 43 , No. 4, Pp. 721–733. - George Barmpalias, Joseph S. Miller, and André Nies. Randomness Notions and Partial Relativization. Israel Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 191 , No. 2, Pp. 791–816. [REVIEW]Johanna N. Y. Franklin - 2013 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):115-118.
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  3.  14
    Kultur, privatliv og offentlighet: Religionens plass i det sekulariserte samfunnet.Bjørn Myskja, Rune Nydal & Berge Solberg - 2007 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):3-8.
    Den dominerende oppfatningen i den politiske og moralfilosofiske tenkningen de siste tiår har vært at religion ikke bør spille noen avgjørende politisk rolle i det moderne sekulariserte demokrati. Religion tilhører privatsfæren, og politiske avgjørelser må fattes på et felles grunnlag, uavhengig av livssyn. De mest sentrale tenkerne i vår tids politiske filosofi, John Rawls og Jürgen Habermas, har begge i tidlige arbeider gitt uttrykk for at dette er en oppfatning som vil få en allmenn, global tilslutning, for de ser modernisering (...)
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  4.  9
    Mat – teknologi, sikkerhet og rettferdighet.Bjørn Myskja, Rune Nydal & Berge Solberg - 2008 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):1-5.
    Mat er så mangt, som David Kaplan påpeker i innledningen til The Philosophy of Food, blant annet næring, natur, kultur, et sosialt gode, åndelighet, begjærsgjenstand og estetisk objekt. Ikke minst er det et politisk tema på så mange måter. Derfor inviterte vi til et temanummer om matens etikk, for det er lite som berører våre liv så sterkt og fundamentalt som mat. Det er et område som til alle tider har hatt tydelige etiske regler, både hva man kan og ikke (...)
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  5.  6
    Filosofiens rolle i det offentlige ordskifte.Bjørn Hofmann & Siri Granum Carson - 2018 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2:87-103.
    _Filosofi og etikk har fått en stadig større plass i det offentlige rom i Norge. 2017 ble et år der filosofer sørget for overskrifter i en rekke norske medier. En av sakene som fikk størst oppmerksomhet, var debatten om sorteringssamfunnet og Aksel Braanen Sterris påstand om at personer med Downs syndrom ikke kan leve fullverdige liv. Utsagnet skapte en voldsom debatt og kraftige reaksjoner. Temaet for debatten er interessant i seg selv, men den reiser også spørsmål om hvordan slike debatter (...)
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  6.  3
    Etiske Utfordringer Med Non-Invasive Prenatale Tester.Bjørn Hofmann - 2014 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):67-87.
    Analyser av cellefritt DNA fra foster i gravide kvinners blod gir nye muligheter innen fosterdiagnostikk: Testene er bedre enn eksisterende tester, de reduserer risikoen og er billigere. Flere land har tatt i bruk disse testene, og Helsedirektoratet i Norge har mottatt søknad om å ta i bruk en test som erstatter tidlig ultralyd og blodprøver. Likevel nøler norske myndigheter. Hvorfor gjør de det? Ett av svarene er at non-invasive prenatale tester fører med seg en rekke faglige og moralske spørsmål og (...)
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  7.  2
    An Intracortical Implantable Brain-Computer Interface for Telemetric Real-Time Recording and Manipulation of Neuronal Circuits for Closed-Loop Intervention.Hamed Zaer, Ashlesha Deshmukh, Dariusz Orlowski, Wei Fan, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Andreas Nørgaard Glud, Morten Bjørn Jensen, Esben Schjødt Worm, Slávka Lukacova, Trine Werenberg Mikkelsen, Lise Moberg Fitting, John R. Adler, M. Bret Schneider, Martin Snejbjerg Jensen, Quanhai Fu, Vinson Go, James Morizio, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen & Albrecht Stroh - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Recording and manipulating neuronal ensemble activity is a key requirement in advanced neuromodulatory and behavior studies. Devices capable of both recording and manipulating neuronal activity brain-computer interfaces should ideally operate un-tethered and allow chronic longitudinal manipulations in the freely moving animal. In this study, we designed a new intracortical BCI feasible of telemetric recording and stimulating local gray and white matter of visual neural circuit after irradiation exposure. To increase the translational reliance, we put forward a Göttingen minipig model. The (...)
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  8.  2
    Etiske Utfordringer Med Nyere Reproduksjonsteknologi.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2 (2):5-26.
    Moderne teknologi gir fantastiske muligheter for menneskelig formering. Mange som tidligere ikke kunne få barn, eller som fikk syke barn, kan nå hjelpes. Samtidig reiser mulighetene en rekke vanskelige moralske spørsmål, som ikke har enkle svar – ofte fordi de bunner i grunnleggende etiske motsetninger. Denne artikkelen gir en kort oversikt over de mulighetene som tre typer teknologier gir: assisterende, seleksjonsfremmende og egenskapsendrende teknologier. Deretter peker den på noen av de viktige moralske spørsmålene som disse teknologiene reiser i betydningen «Hvordan (...)
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  9.  1
    PGD-Ens Paradokser.Bjørn Hofmann - 2011 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2 (2):45-66.
    Bakgrunn: Preimplantasjonsgenetisk diagnostikk er en genetisk undersøkelse av befruktede egg før de settes inn i livmoren i forbindelse med assistert reproduksjon. Hensikten med PGD er å unngå at det fremtidige barnet får en alvorlig arvelig sykdom, og at par som på grunn av arvelig sykdom har vansker med å få barn, kan få avkom. PGD er kontroversielt og et sentralt tema for den pågående vurderingen og revisjonen av bioteknologiloven.Metode: Paradoksteori anvendes for å identifisere og analysere noen av kontroversene ved PGD. (...)
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  10.  2
    Bjørn Rabjerg, Robert Stern: On Knud E. Løgstrup’s “Humanism and Christianity”.Robert Stern & Bjørn Rabjerg - 2019 - Journal for the History of Modern Theology/Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschichte 26 (1):97-107.
    Dieser Beitrag bietet eine umfassende Diskussion des Textes “Humanismus und Christentum” des dänischen Philosophen und Theologen Knud E. Løgstrup. Er verortet den Text in seinem geistesgeschichtlichen Kontext und analysiert seine wichtigsten Argumente wie auch seine zentrale These, der zufolge Humanismus und Christentum einen entscheidenden Grundsatz teilen, insofern beide die Ethik als “stumm“ oder “unausgesprochen“ verstehen. Darüber hinaus wird dargelegt, wie Løgstrups Text zentrale Überlegungen in dessen späteren Publikationen, besonders in dem Hauptwerk Die ethische Forderung, vorwegnimmt.
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  11.  54
    Transparent Quantification Into Hyperintensional Objectual Attitudes.Bjørn Jespersen & Marie Duží - 2015 - Synthese 192 (3):635-677.
    We demonstrate how to validly quantify into hyperintensional contexts involving non-propositional attitudes like seeking, solving, calculating, worshipping, and wanting to become. We describe and apply a typed extensional logic of hyperintensions that preserves compositionality of meaning, referential transparency and substitutivity of identicals also in hyperintensional attitude contexts. We specify and prove rules for quantifying into hyperintensional contexts. These rules presuppose a rigorous method for substituting variables into hyperintensional contexts, and the method will be described. We prove the following. First, it (...)
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  12.  23
    Conscientious Objection to Intentional Killing: An Argument for Toleration.Bjørn K. Myskja & Morten Magelssen - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):82.
    In the debate on conscientious objection in healthcare, proponents of conscience rights often point to the imperative to protect the health professional’s moral integrity. Their opponents hold that the moral integrity argument alone can at most justify accommodation of conscientious objectors as a “moral courtesy”, as the argument is insufficient to establish a general moral right to accommodation, let alone a legal right. This text draws on political philosophy in order to argue for a legal right to accommodation. The moral (...)
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  13.  26
    First Among Equals: Co-Hyperintensionality for Structured Propositions.Bjørn Jespersen - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4483-4497.
    Theories of structured meanings are designed to generate fine-grained meanings, but they are also liable to overgenerate structures, thus drawing structural distinctions without a semantic difference. I recommend the proliferation of very fine-grained structures, so that we are able to draw any semantic distinctions we think we might need. But, in order to contain overgeneration, I argue we should insert some degree of individuation between logical equivalence and structural identity based on structural isomorphism. The idea amounts to forming an equivalence (...)
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  14.  19
    The New Holism: P4 Systems Medicine and the Medicalization of Health and Life Itself.Henrik Vogt, Bjørn Hofmann & Linn Getz - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):307-323.
    The emerging concept of systems medicine is at the vanguard of the post-genomic movement towards ‘precision medicine’. It is the medical application of systems biology, the biological study of wholes. Of particular interest, P4 systems medicine is currently promised as a revolutionary new biomedical approach that is holistic rather than reductionist. This article analyzes its concept of holism, both with regard to methods and conceptualization of health and disease. Rather than representing a medical holism associated with basic humanistic ideas, we (...)
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  15.  15
    Non-safety Assessments of Genome-Edited Organisms: Should They be Included in Regulation?Bjørn Kåre Myskja & Anne Ingeborg Myhr - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2601-2627.
    This article presents and evaluates arguments supporting that an approval procedure for genome-edited organisms for food or feed should include a broad assessment of societal, ethical and environmental concerns; so-called non-safety assessment. The core of analysis is the requirement of the Norwegian Gene Technology Act that the sustainability, ethical and societal impacts of a genetically modified organism should be assessed prior to regulatory approval of the novel products. The article gives an overview how this requirement has been implemented in the (...)
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  16. Liminality and the Modern: Living Through the in-Between.Bjørn Thomassen - 2014 - Routledge.
    Liminality and the Modern offers a comprehensive introduction to this concept, discussing its development and laying out a conceptual and experiential framework for thinking about change in terms of liminality. Applying this framework to questions surrounding the implosion of ‘non-spaces’, the analysis of major historical periods and the study of political revolution, the book also explores its possible uses in social science research and its implications for our understanding of the uncertainty and contingency of the liquid structures of modern society.
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  17.  9
    Looking for Trouble? Diagnostics Expanding Disease and Producing Patients.Bjørn Hofmann - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):978-982.
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  18.  71
    Recent Work on Structured Meaning and Propositional Unity.Bjørn Jespersen - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):620-630.
    Logical semantics includes once again structured meanings in its repertoire. The leading idea is that semantic and syntactic structure are more or less isomorphic. A key motive for reintroducing sensitivity to semantic structure is to obtain fine‐grained meanings, which are individuated more finely than in possible‐world semantics, namely up to necessary equivalence. Just getting the truth‐conditions right is deemed insufficient for a full semantic analysis of sentences. This paper surveys some of the most recent contributions to the program of structured (...)
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  19.  62
    Obesity as a Socially Defined Disease: Philosophical Considerations and Implications for Policy and Care.Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - Health Care Analysis 24 (1):86-100.
    Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result (...)
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  20. A New Logic of Technical Malfunction.Bjørn Jespersen & Massimiliano Carrara - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (3):547-581.
    Aim of the paper is to present a new logic of technical malfunction. The need for this logic is motivated by a simple-sounding philosophical question: Is a malfunctioning corkscrew, which fails to uncork bottles, nonetheless a corkscrew? Or in general terms, is a malfunctioning F, which fails to do what Fs do, nonetheless an F? We argue that ‘malfunctioning’ denotes the modifier Malfunctioning rather than a property, and that the answer depends on whether Malfunctioning is subsective or privative. If subsective, (...)
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  21.  69
    Should Propositions Proliferate?Bjørn Jespersen - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):243-251.
    Soames's cognitive propositions are strings of acts to be performed by an agent, such as predicating a property of an individual. King takes these structured propositions to task for proliferating too easily. King's objection is based on an example that purports to show that three of Soames's propositions are really just one proposition. I translate the informally stated propositions King attributes to Soames into the intensional λ-calculus. It turns out that they are all β-equivalent to the proposition King claims Soames's (...)
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  22.  26
    Fairness, Fast and Slow: A Review of Dual Process Models of Fairness.Bjørn Hallsson, Hartwig R. Siebner & Oliver J. Hulme - 2018 - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 89:49-60.
    Fairness, the notion that people deserve or have rights to certain resources or kinds of treatment, is a fundamental dimension of moral cognition. Drawing on recent evidence from economics, psychology, and neuroscience, we ask whether self-interest is always intuitive, requiring self-control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems underpinning fairness. We (...)
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  23.  77
    Limits to human enhancement: nature, disease, therapy or betterment?Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):56.
    New technologies facilitate the enhancement of a wide range of human dispositions, capacities, or abilities. While it is argued that we need to set limits to human enhancement, it is unclear where we should find resources to set such limits. Traditional routes for setting limits, such as referring to nature, the therapy-enhancement distinction, and the health-disease distinction, turn out to have some shortcomings. However, upon closer scrutiny the concept of enhancement is based on vague conceptions of what is to be (...)
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  24.  35
    Irony’s Commitment: Rorty’s Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity.Bjørn Torgrim Ramberg - 2014 - The European Legacy 19 (2):144-162.
    With Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity Richard Rorty tries to persuade us that a case for liberalism is better served by historical narrative than by philosophical theory. The liberal ironist is the complex protagonist of Rorty’s anti-foundationalist story. Why does Rorty think irony serves—rather than undermines—commitments to liberal democracy? I distinguish political from existential dimensions of irony, consider criticisms of Rorty’s ironist, and then draw on recent work by Lear to argue that Rorty’s ironist character nevertheless can be recast as an (...)
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  25.  14
    Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):413-429.
    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement. The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot (...)
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  26.  35
    Human Enhancement: Enhancing Health or Harnessing Happiness?Bjørn Hofmann - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (1):87-98.
    Human enhancement is ontologically, epistemologically, and ethically challenging and has stirred a wide range of scholarly and public debates. This article focuses on some conceptual issues with HE that have important ethical implications. In particular it scrutinizes how the concept of human enhancement relates to and challenges the concept of health. In order to do so, it addresses three specific questions: Q1. What do conceptions of HE say about health? Q2. Does HE challenge traditional conceptions of health? Q3. Do concepts (...)
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  27.  10
    Transparent quantification into hyperpropositional attitudes de dicto.Bjørn Jespersen & Marie Duží - 2022 - Linguistics and Philosophy 45 (5):1119-1164.
    We prove how to validly quantify into hyperpropositional contexts de dicto in Transparent Intensional Logic. Hyperpropositions are sentential meanings and attitude complements individuated more finely than up to logical equivalence. A hyperpropositional context de dicto is a context in which only co-hyperintensional propositions can be validly substituted. A de dicto attitude ascription is one that preserves the attributee’s perspective when one complement is substituted for another. Being an extensional logic of hyperintensions, Transparent Intensional Logic validates all the rules of extensional (...)
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  28. The Categorical Imperative and the Ethics of Trust.Bjørn K. Myskja - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (4):213-220.
    Trust can be understood as a precondition for a well-functioning society or as a way to handle complexities of living in a risk society, but also as a fundamental aspect of human morality. Interactions on the Internet pose some new challenges to issues of trust, especially connected to disembodiedness. Mistrust may be an important obstacle to Internet use, which is problematic as the Internet becomes a significant arena for political, social and commercial activities necessary for full participation in a liberal (...)
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  29.  48
    Quasi-Objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects.Bjørn Schiermer - 2011 - Theory, Culture and Society 28 (1):81-102.
    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of (...)
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  30.  8
    Personalized Medicine, Digital Technology and Trust: A Kantian Account.Bjørn K. Myskja & Kristin S. Steinsbekk - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):577-587.
    Trust relations in the health services have changed from asymmetrical paternalism to symmetrical autonomy-based participation, according to a common account. The promises of personalized medicine emphasizing empowerment of the individual through active participation in managing her health, disease and well-being, is characteristic of symmetrical trust. In the influential Kantian account of autonomy, active participation in management of own health is not only an opportunity, but an obligation. Personalized medicine is made possible by the digitalization of medicine with an ensuing increased (...)
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  31.  54
    Predication and Extensionalization.Bjørn Jespersen - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (5):479 - 499.
    In his 2000 book Logical Properties Colin McGinn argues that predicates denote properties rather than sets or individuals. I support the thesis, but show that it is vulnerable to a type-incongruity objection, if properties are (modelled as) functions, unless a device for extensionalizing properties is added. Alternatively, properties may be construed as primitive intensional entities, as in George Bealer. However, I object to Bealer’s construal of predication as a primitive operation inputting two primitive entities and outputting a third primitive entity. (...)
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  32. Naturalizing Idealizations: Pragmatism and the Interpretivist Strategy.Bjørn Ramberg - 2004 - Contemporary Pragmatism 1 (2):1-63.
    Following Quine, Davidson, and Dennett, I take mental states and linguistic meaning to be individuated with reference to interpretation. The regulative principle of ideal interpretation is to maximize rationality, and this accounts for the distinctiveness and autonomy of the vocabulary of agency. This rationality-maxim can accommodate empirical cognitive-psychological investigation into the nature and limitations of human mental processing. Interpretivism is explicitly anti-reductionist, but in the context of Rorty's neo-pragmatism provides a naturalized view of agents. The interpretivist strategy affords a less (...)
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  33.  58
    Explicit Intensionalization, Anti‐Actualism, and How Smith's Murderer Might Not Have Murdered Smith.Bjørn Jespersen - 2005 - Dialectica 59 (3):285–314.
    The purpose of this article is to provide a non‐contradictory interpretation of sentences such as “Smith's murderer might not have murdered Smith”. An anti‐actualist, two‐dimensional framework including partial functions provides the basis for my solution. I argue for two claims. The modal profile of the proposition expressed by “The F might not have been an F” is complex: at any world where there is a unique F the proposition is true; at any world without a unique F the proposition has (...)
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  34. Bariatric Surgery for Obese Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Moral Challenges. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):18.
    BackgroundBariatric surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread. However, the evidence is still scarce and of poor quality, and many of the patients are too young to consent. This poses a series of moral challenges, which have to be addressed both when considering bariatric surgery introduced as a health care service and when deciding for treatment for young individuals. A question based (Socratic) approach is applied to reveal underlying moral issues that can be relevant to an open and transparent (...)
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  35.  92
    Ethical Challenges with Welfare Technology: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):389-406.
    Demographical changes in high income counties will increase the need of health care services but reduce the number of people to provide them. Welfare technology is launched as an important measure to meet this challenge. As with all types of technologies we must explore its ethical challenges. A literature review reveals that welfare technology is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of technologies and there are few studies documenting their efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. Many kinds of welfare technology break (...)
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  36. Scientific Dishonesty—a Nationwide Survey of Doctoral Students in Norway.Bjørn Hofmann, Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Søren Holm - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):3-.
    Background: The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities.MethodAnonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results: 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%). 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed (...)
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  37. Iterated Privation and Positive Predication.Bjørn Jespersen, Massimiliano Carrara & Marie Duží - 2017 - Journal of Applied Logic 25:S48-S71.
    The standard rule of single privative modification replaces privative modifiers by Boolean negation. This rule is valid, for sure, but also simplistic. If an individual a instantiates the privatively modified property (MF) then it is true that a instantiates the property of not being an F, but the rule fails to express the fact that the properties (MF) and F have something in common. We replace Boolean negation by property negation, enabling us to operate on contrary rather than contradictory properties. (...)
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  38. On the Triad Disease, Illness and Sickness.Bjørn Hofmann - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (6):651 – 673.
    The point of departure for this article is a review of the discussion between Twaddle and Nordenfelt on the concepts of disease, illness, and sickness, and the objective is to investigate the fruitfulness of these concepts. It is argued that disease, illness, and sickness represent different perspectives on human ailment and that they can be applied to analyze both epistemic and normative challenges to modern medicine. In particular the analysis reveals epistemic and normative differences between the concepts. Furthermore, the article (...)
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  39.  39
    How Medical Technologies Shape the Experience of Illness.Bjørn Hofmann & Fredrik Svenaeus - unknown
    In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can form the experience of illness. First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers. Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases. Third, the technology can affect and change an already present illness experience. Fourth, therapeutic technologies may redefine our experiences of a (...)
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  40.  53
    Introduction: Primitivism Versus Reductionism About the Problem of the Unity of the Proposition.Manuel García-Carpintero & Bjørn Jespersen - 2019 - Synthese 196 (4):1209-1224.
    We present here the papers selected for the volume on the Unity of Propositions problems. After summarizing what the problems are, we locate them in a spectrum from those aiming to provide substantive, reductive explanations, to those with a more deflationary take on the problems.
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  41.  40
    Stuck in the Middle: The Many Moral Challenges With Bariatric Surgery.Bjørn Hofmann - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):3-11.
    Bariatric surgery is effective on short- and medium-term weight loss, reduction of comorbidities, and overall mortality. A large and increasing portion of the population is eligible for bariatric surgery, which increases instant health care costs. A review of the literature identifies a series of ethical challenges: unjust distribution of bariatric surgery, autonomy and informed consent, classification of obesity and selecting assessment endpoints, prejudice among health professionals, intervention in people's life-world, and medicalization of appearance. Bariatric surgery is particularly interesting because it (...)
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  42.  4
    Lori Gruen, Ed. Critical Terms for Animal Studies.Bjørn Kristensen - 2021 - Environmental Ethics 43 (3):285-286.
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  43.  22
    ‘You Are Inferior!’ Revisiting the Expressivist Argument.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (7):505-514.
    According to the expressivist argument the choice to use biotechnologies to prevent the birth of individuals with specific disabilities is an expression of disvalue for existing people with this disability. The argument has stirred a lively debate and has recently received renewed attention. This article starts with presenting the expressivist argument and its core elements. It then goes on to present and examine the counter-arguments before it addresses some aspects that have gained surprisingly little attention. The analysis demonstrates that the (...)
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  44.  6
    Lay Expertise: Why Involve the Public in Biobank Governance?Bjørn Myskja - 2007 - Genomics, Society and Policy 3 (1):1-16.
    Key to concerns about public involvement in technology governance is the concept of lay expertise, the idea that lay people possess some kind of special knowledge that neither trained experts in technology, ethics and social sciences nor professional politicians possess. There are at least four different meanings of “lay expert”: Lay people who are educated into quasi-experts on a particular issue or technology; Lay people who turn themselves into experts in order to challenge scientific experts; Lay people with particular knowledge (...)
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  45.  27
    The Overdiagnosis of What? On the Relationship Between the Concepts of Overdiagnosis, Disease, and Diagnosis.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):453-464.
    Overdiagnosis and disease are related concepts. Widened conceptions of disease increase overdiagnosis and vice versa. This is partly because there is a close and complex relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. In order to address the problems with overdiagnosis, we may benefit from a closer understanding this relationship. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to elucidate the relationship between disease and overdiagnosis. To do so, the article starts with scrutinizing how overdiagnosis can explain the expansion of the concept of disease. (...)
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  46.  4
    Can the Written Information to Research Subjects Be Improved?--An Empirical Study. E. Bjørn, P. Rossel & S. Holm - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):263-267.
    OBJECTIVES: To study whether linguistic analysis and changes in information leaflets can improve readability and understanding. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. Two information leaflets concerned with trials of drugs for conditions/diseases which are commonly known were modified, and the original was tested against the revised version. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 235 persons in the relevant age groups. MAIN MEASURES: Readability and understanding of contents. RESULTS: Both readability and understanding of contents was improved: readability with regard to both information leaflets and understanding with (...)
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  47.  50
    “The Moral Difference Between Intragenic and Transgenic Modification of Plants”.Bjørn K. Myskja - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (3):225-238.
    Public policy on the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has mainly been concerned with defining proper strategies of risk management. However, surveys and focus group interviews show that although lay people are concerned with risks, they also emphasize that genetic modification is ethically questionable in itself. Many people feel that this technology “tampers with nature” in an unacceptable manner. This is often identified as an objection to the crossing of species borders in producing transgenic organisms. Most scientists (...)
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  48.  16
    How to Draw the Line Between Health and Disease? Start with Suffering.Bjørn Hofmann - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (2):127-143.
    How can we draw the line between health and disease? This crucial question of demarcation has immense practical implications and has troubled scholars for ages. The question will be addressed in three steps. First, I will present an important contribution by Rogers and Walker who argue forcefully that no line can be drawn between health and disease. However, a closer analysis of their argument reveals that a line-drawing problem for disease-related features does not necessarily imply a line-drawing problem for disease (...)
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  49.  43
    Strategies for Radical Rorty.Bjørn T. Ramberg - 1993 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (sup1):223-246.
    (1993). Strategies for Radical Rorty (‘… but is it progress?’) Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 23, Supplementary Volume 19: New Essays on Metaphilosophy, pp. 223-246.
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  50.  51
    Reason and Religion in Rawls: Voegelin’s Challenge.Bjørn Thomassen - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (2):237-252.
    This article argues that we must abandon the still predominant view of modernity as based upon a separation between the secular and the religious - a “separation” which is allegedly now brought into question again in “postsecularity”. It is more meaningful to start from the premise that religion and politics have always co-existed in various fields of tension and will continue to do so. The question then concerns the natures and modalities of this tension, and how one can articulate a (...)
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