In JamesCampbell's new book on William James, the greatest hits are covered: stream of consciousness, radical empiricism, will to believe, moral equivalent of war, varieties of religious experience, pluralism, and an open universe. Seven great concepts and maybe another seventy lesser relatives are skillfully presented in an organized, patient, and scholarly style. Campbell's wit comes through, repeatedly referring to James as a psycholopher, neither quite psychologist nor philosopher. At times we find Campbell defending (...)James, for example against so many simplistic critiques of "The Will to Believe." Bertrand Russell doesn't get it, which still confirms why "The Will to Believe" is so badly needed. At other... (shrink)
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Jim Campbell's new book Experiencing William James: Belief in a Pluralistic World is one of the best philosophical examinations of all areas of William James' work through a close sympathetic attention to the James texts themselves. Campbell writes well and demonstrates a deep familiarity with James' corpus. Moreover, Campbell has a good command of the writings of James' interlocutors and venerable commentators. I recommend keeping a bookmark on the endnotes. They constitute an (...) entire bonus text, reminding me of James' own approach in Varieties of Religious Experience. They serve as a stage for diverse voices to state reactions and raise questions about the topics Campbell explores.To be sure, there are a... (shrink)
JamesCampbell's Understanding John Dewey represents the latest of his series of recent books, focused on the classical pragmatist tradition. In The Community Reconstructs. Campbell capably explored the meaning and relevance of pragmatic social thought, urging that the social pragmatists combined 'the inquiring and critical spirit of Peirce' with 'issues of general and direct human concern that interested James. Dewey is 'the most important figure of this movement' and the "primary figure' for the earlier book. (...) class='Hi'>Campbell now engages Dewey more fully. (shrink)
A prevailing issue in clinical research is the duty clinicians have to treat or prevent the progression of disease during a study that they are conducting. While all clinical researchers have a duty of care for the patients who participate in clinical research, intervening at the onset or progression of disease may skew results and have a negative impact on the scientific validity of a study. Extreme examples of failures to intervene can be found in the Tuskegee syphilis study and (...) in an attempt to determine if cervical smears were an accurate predictor of cancer, which was uncovered by the Cartwright Inquiry. However, the issue arises in all research where delay in intervention can cause harm. A current study in Singapore is investigating the significance of an ‘ultra-high risk’ state that may constitute the prodromal phase of psychosis. This project called ‘The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study’ is potentially contentious because it is recruiting young people who are identified as being ‘at risk’ of developing psychosis. In this paper, the decision to offer treatment to all participants as well as a fast track for those who are assessed to have developed serious mental illness into treatment is discussed. It is argued that this approach is ethically justified because of the duty of care that is owed to research participants, and suggests that the principle of equipoise may be used to guide intervention decisions in other clinical research protocols. (shrink)
Those familiar with the life and work of James Hayden Tufts tend to associate him with John Dewey, with whom he wrote both the 1908 and 1932 editions of _Ethics. _Yet as JamesCampbell here demonstrates, Tufts played a singular and important role in American philosophy from 1892, when he began teaching at the newly opened University of Chicago, until his retirement in 1930. During this period, he, along with Dewey and George Herbert Mead, was instrumental in (...) the birth of a new school of philosophy, the Chicago School, which developed a powerful and compelling social pragmatism. Campbell presents selected writings covering Tufts’s long and productive career. Arranged chronologically, they represent the full range of Tufts’s thought, from his concept of justice as the key value for harmonious community life to his views on religion and the question of evolution. A carefully annotated bibliography of all of Tufts’s writings completes the volume. (shrink)
Part I: History, Law, Language and Literature1.: Patrick P. O'Neill: The Irish role in the origins of the Old English alphabet: a re-assessment2.: Roy Flechner: An Insular tradition of ecclesiastical law: fifth to eighth century3.: Diarmuid Scully: Bede's Chronica Maiora: early Insular history in a universal context4.: Damian Bracken: Rome and the Isles: Ireland, England and the Rhetoric of Orthodoxy5.: Paul Russell: 'Ye shall know them by their names': names and identity among the Irish and the English6.: Juliet Mullins: Trouble (...) at the White House: Anglo-Irish relations and the cult of St Martin7.: Fiona Edmonds: The practicalities of communication between Northumbrian and Irish churches c.635-735Part II: Art History and Material Culture8.: Egon Wamers: Behind animals, plants and interlace: Salin's Style II on Christian objects9.: Susan Youngs: Anglo-Saxon, Irish and British relations: hanging-bowls reconsidered10.: Raghnall Ó Floinn: The Anglo-Saxon connection: Irish metalwork AD400-80011.: Ewan Campbell: Anglo-Saxon/Gaelic interaction in Scotland12.: David Griffiths: Sand-dunes and stray finds: evidence for pre-Viking trade?13.: Mark Redknap: Glitter in the dragon's lair: Irish and Anglo-Saxon metalwork from pre-Viking Wales 14.: David M. Wilson: Stylistic influences in early Manx sculpture15.: Tomás Ó Carragáin: Cemetery settlements and local churches in pre-Viking Ireland in light of comparisons with England and Wales16.: Jennifer O'Reilly: 'All that Peter stands for': the romanitas of the Codex Amiatinus reconsidered17.: Jane Hawkes: Studying early Christian sculpture in England and Ireland: the object of art history or archaeology?Part III: Addendum18.: Máire Ní Mhaonaigh: Of Saxons, a Viking and Normans: Colmán, Gerald and the monastery of Mayo. (shrink)
In The Community Reconstructs JamesCampbell explores the Pragmatists' contributions to American social thought, drawing upon the writings of William James, John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, James Hayden Tufts, and their various critics.
The original 1907 text of James' Pragmatism is accompanied with a series of critical essays from scholars including Moore and Russell. In the introduction Olin evaluates the strength of the criticisms made against James.
SummaryThe Gainj of highland Papua New Guinea do not use contraception but have a total fertility rate of only 4·3 live births per woman, one of the lowest ever recorded in a natural fertility setting. From an analysis of cross-sectional demographic and endocrinological data, the causes of low reproductive output have been identified in women of this population as: late menarche and marriage, a long interval between marriage and first birth, a high probability of widowhood at later reproductive ages, low (...) effective fecundability and prolonged lactational amenorrhoea. These are combined with near-universal marriage, a low prevalence of primary sterility and a pattern of onset of secondary sterility similar to that found in other populations. Of all the factors limiting fertility, by far the most important are those involved in birth spacing, especially lactational amenorrhoea. (shrink)
Fourteen philosophers share their experience teaching Peirce to undergraduates in a variety of settings and a variety of courses. The latter include introductory philosophy courses as well as upper-level courses in American philosophy, philosophy of religion, logic, philosophy of science, medieval philosophy, semiotics, metaphysics, etc., and even an upper-level course devoted entirely to Peirce. The project originates in a session devoted to teaching Peirce held at the 2007 annual meeting of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy. The session, (...) organized by JamesCampbell and Richard Hart, was co-sponsored by the American Association of Philosophy Teachers. (shrink)
James Beattie was appointed professor of moral philosophy and logic at Marischal College, Aberdeen, Scotland at the age of twenty-five. Though more fond of poetry than philosophy, he became part of the Scottish 'Common Sense' school of philosophy that included Thomas Reid and George Campbell. In 1770 Beattie published the work for which he is best known, An Essay on Truth, an abrasive attack on 'modern scepticism' in general, and on David Hume in particular, subsequently and despite Beattie's (...) attack, Scotland's most famous philosopher. The Essay was a great success, earning its author an honorary degree from Oxford and an audience with George III. Samuel Johnson declared in 1772 that 'We all love Beattie'. Hume, on the other hand, described the Essay as 'a horrible large lie in octavo', and dismissed its author as a 'bigotted silly Fellow'. Although Beattie is no match for Hume as a philosopher, the success of the Essay suggests that, unlike Hume, Beattie voices the characteristic assumptions, and anxieties, of his age. The first part of this selection—the first ever made from Beattie's prose writings—includes several key chapters from the Essay on Truth, along with extracts from all of Beattie's other works on moral philosophy. The topics treated include memory, the existence of God, the nature of virtue, and slavery. The second part of the selection is devoted to Beattie's contributions to literary criticism and aesthetics. Beattie's studies of poetry, music, taste, and the sublime are vital to the understanding of the literary culture out of which developed the early Romanticism of Wordsworth and Coleridge. (shrink)
SummaryThe effects of infant suckling patterns on the post-partum resumption of ovulation and on birth-spacing are investigated among the Gainj of highland New Guinea. Based on hormonal evidence, the median duration of lactational anovulation is 20·4 months, accounting for about 75% of the median interval between live birth and next successful conception. Throughout lactation, suckling episodes are short and frequent, the interval changing slowly over time, from 24 minutes in newborns to 80 minutes in 3-year olds. Maternal serum prolactin concentrations (...) decline in parallel with the changes in suckling patterns, approaching the level observed in non-nursing women by about 24 months post-partum. A path analysis indicates that the interval between suckling episodes is the principal determinant of maternal prolactin concentration, with time since parturition affecting prolactin secretion only in so far as it affects suckling frequency. The extremely prolonged contraceptive effect of breast-feeding in this population thus appears to be due to a slow decline in suckling frequency with time since parturition and absence of a decline over time in hypothalamic–pituitary responsiveness to the suckling stimulus. (shrink)