Les seules preuves philosophiques de l’existence des substances séparées qui répondent aux exigences épistémologiques de Thomas sont des arguments aristotéliciens dont les conclusions, basées sur des prémisses d’une astronomie et une physique obsolètes, sont inacceptables. Thomas prit des distances à leur égard et, laissé sans alternative philosophique, proposa une série d’arguments théologiques dont la cohérence et valeur logique sont mis en question. Puisqu’il n’y a pas de preuve philosophique de l’existence des substances séparées, leur notion devrait être exclue du discours (...) philosophique. (shrink)
As the basis for this translation, Robb has used the Latin text of the Quaestiones de anima which he edited in 1968. Since both the English version and the Latin text are responsibilities of the same scholar, should the former be judged by the quality of the latter? This approach does not seem fair, especially since Robb did not present his original text as a critical edition, but rather as a "corrected" edition, designed to serve students of medieval philosophy until (...) the Leonine Commission published its definitive text. In fact Robb's edition achieved its goal very well, and has been an excellent tool for many studies of Thomas's anthropology. However, our analysis of the whole tradition of Quaestiones de anima has revealed two facts unknown to Robb: first, that the manuscript he used for his edition, although excellent, represents a late stage in the transmission of the text; and second, that the independent family, whose existence Robb was able to establish, is both larger than Robb thought and more authoritative than the university tradition. We hope to prove these points in the edition we are preparing for the Leonine Commission, which will differ from Robb's Latin text in many details. Given these conditions, we shall here limit ourselves to examining Robb's translation with respect to two questions: is it faithful to the text of Robb's Latin edition? and in what sense does it represent an improvement over this edition? (shrink)
Although language processing seems to resist age advancement, linguistic changes in aging are the reflection of systematic decline in cognitive and energy resources. However, aging does not affect language in a global way, being predominant a marked deterioration of production versus a relative maintenance of comprehension at various levels. This review provides updated information on the changes occurring in linguistic aging, focusing on lexical-semantic processing and the role of sociodemographic factors such as education, socioeconomic status and gender; In addition, a (...) brief approach to linguistic processing in the fourth age is attached. As a result, literature shows that lexical-semantic processing is asymmetric; older adults maintain their vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, however, they fail in tasks of access and lexical availability, with notable increase in events of the tip of the tongue associated with dependence on the psycholinguistic variables of the word. At the same time, the educational and socioeconomic level can influence lexical-semantic performance of the older adult, given its relation with the cognitive reserve and the greater elaboration of compensatory strategies. (shrink)
This paper presents two projects concerned with the application of natural language processing technology for improving communication between Public Administration and citizens. The first project, GIST,is concerned with automatic multilingual generation of instructional texts for form-filling. The second project, TAMIC, aims at providing an interface for interactive access to information, centered on natural language processing and supposed to be used by the clerk but with the active participation of the citizen.
Neste artigo apresentamos de forma breve uma teoria searliana de interpretação dos atos de fala. Mostramos através do exemplo das metáforas que, conforme proposta por Searle, a interpretação de atos de fala consistiria em reconhecer a intenção do falante. Esse processo se daria por meio do uso de regras convencionais da linguagem tanto pelo falante quanto pelo ouvinte. Contudo, as metáforas são um exemplo de que essa proposta de interpretação não é suficiente para descrever o processo pelo qual os agentes (...) interpretam atos de fala. Argumentamos que se deve acrescentar a esse processo a noção de regras estratégicas. Seguindo Peirce, duas regras estratégicas são oferecidas: o princípio da coerência e o princípio da economia. Parece também satisfatório acrescentar o princípio da não-contradição. Embora estudos empíricos não sejam definitivos sobre o tema da interpretação, em especial sobre metáforas, os resultados apontam para a aplicação de regras estratégicas na interpretação. Finalmente, é sugerido que se Searle está certo ao dizer que interpretação é o reconhecimento da intenção do falante, então a interpretação depende do uso de regras convencionais e do uso de regras estratégicas. (shrink)
A detailed outline is presented of several convergent points of view connecting the self-dual and anti-self-dual fields with their free data. This is done for the Maxwell and for linearized gravity as exemplifying the approaches. The Sparling equation provides one tool of great power and characterizes one approach. The twistor theory of Penrose yields another equally powerful point of view. The links between these two basic approaches given in this paper provide a unification that allows workers and others with interest (...) in this area to proceed more readily toward the goal of understanding the full nonlinear Einstein equations. (shrink)
In this note we give two new simple derivations of the “good-cut” equation, the equation which governs (complex) self-dual asymptotically flat gravitational fields. One of these derivations is remarkably simple, involving only a few lines. Our main point of interest, however, is in the second derivation. Though it is slightly more complicated, this method of derivation is almost certainly generalizable to cover real asymptotically flat space-times and thus lead to a generalization of the good-cut equation.
We report three experimental studies of reasoning with double conditionals, i.e. problems based on premises of the form: If A then B. If B then C. where A, B, and C, describe everyday events. We manipulated both the logical structure of the problems, using all four possible arrangements (or “figures” of their constituents, A, B, and C, and the believability of the two salient conditional conclusions that might follow from them, i.e. If A then C, or If C then A. (...) The experiments showed that with figures for which there was a valid conclusion, the participants more often, and more rapidly, drew the valid conclusion when it was believable than when it was unbelievable. With figures for which there were no valid conclusions, the participants tended to draw whichever of the two conclusions was believable. These results were predicted by the theory that reasoning depends on constructing mental models of the premises. (shrink)
Over recent years, the research community has been increasingly using preprint servers to share manuscripts that are not yet peer-reviewed. Even if it enables quick dissemination of research findings, this practice raises several challenges in publication ethics and integrity. In particular, preprints have become an important source of information for stakeholders interested in COVID19 research developments, including traditional media, social media, and policy makers. Despite caveats about their nature, many users can still confuse pre-prints with peer-reviewed manuscripts. If unconfirmed but (...) already widely shared first-draft results later prove wrong or misinterpreted, it can be very difficult to “unlearn” what we thought was true. Complexity further increases if unconfirmed findings have been used to inform guidelines. To help achieve a balance between early access to research findings and its negative consequences, we formulated five recommendations: consensus should be sought on a term clearer than ‘pre-print’, such as ‘Unrefereed manuscript’, “Manuscript awaiting peer review” or ‘’Non-reviewed manuscript”; Caveats about unrefereed manuscripts should be prominent on their first page, and each page should include a red watermark stating ‘Caution—Not Peer Reviewed’; pre-print authors should certify that their manuscript will be submitted to a peer-review journal, and should regularly update the manuscript status; high level consultations should be convened, to formulate clear principles and policies for the publication and dissemination of non-peer reviewed research results; in the longer term, an international initiative to certify servers that comply with good practices could be envisaged. (shrink)
The mental model theory predicts that reasoners normally represent what is true, but not what is false. One consequence is that reasoners should make "illusory" inferences, which are compelling but invalid. Three experiments confirmed the existence of such illusions based on disjunctions of disjunctions. They also established a successful antidote to them: Reasoners are much less likely to succumb to illusions if the inferences concern disjunctions of physical objects (alternative newspaper advertisements) rather disjunctions of the truth values of assertions. The (...) results shed light both on the cause of the illusions and on the current controversy among different theories of reasoning. (shrink)
8 March, now known as International Women’s Day, is a day for feminist claims where demonstrations are organized in over 150 countries, with the participation of millions of women all around the world. These demonstrations can be viewed as collective rituals and thus focus attention on the processes that facilitate different psychosocial effects. This work aims to explore the mechanisms involved in participation in the demonstrations of 8 March 2020, collective and ritualized feminist actions, and their correlates associated with personal (...) well-being and collective well-being, collective efficacy and collective growth, and behavioral intention to support the fight for women’s rights. To this end, a cross-cultural study was conducted with the participation of 2,854 people from countries in Latin America and Europe, with a retrospective correlational cross-sectional design and a convenience sample. Participants were divided between demonstration participants and non-demonstrators or followers who monitored participants through the media and social networks. Compared with non-demonstrators and with males, female and non-binary gender respondents had greater scores in mechanisms and criterion variables. Further random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that the perceived emotional synchrony was consistently associated with more proximal mechanisms, as well as with criterion variables. Finally, sequential moderation analyses showed that proposed mechanisms successfully mediated the effects of participation on every criterion variable. These results indicate that participation in 8M marches and demonstrations can be analyzed through the literature on collective rituals. As such, collective participation implies positive outcomes both individually and collectively, which are further reinforced through key psychological mechanisms, in line with a Durkheimian approach to collective rituals. (shrink)
We report three experimental studies of reasoning with double conditionals, i.e. problems based on premises of the form: If A then B. If B then C. where A, B, and C, describe everyday events. We manipulated both the logical structure of the problems, using all four possible arrangements (or ''figures" of their constituents, A, B, and C, and the believability of the two salient conditional conclusions that might follow from them, i.e. If A then C , or If C then (...) A . The experiments showed that with figures for which there was a valid conclusion, the participants more often, and more rapidly, drew the valid conclusion when it was believable than when it was unbelievable. With figures for which there were no valid conclusions, the participants tended to draw whichever of the two conclusions was believable. These results were predicted by the theory that reasoning depends on constructing mental models of the premises. (shrink)