Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
COVID-19 was recognized as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Nine days later in Brazil, community transmission was deemed ongoing, and following what was already being put in place in various affected countries, restrictive and physical distancing measures that varied in severity across the different states were adopted. Adherence to restrictive and physical distancing measures depends on the general acceptance of public health measures as well as communities’ financial leverage. This article aims to explore and discuss ethical facilitators and barriers (...) to the implementation of physical distancing measures within three dimensions: political, socio-economic, and scientific. Furthermore, we would like to discuss ways to ethically promote restrictive and physical distancing measures in a large and unequal country like Brazil. There is an urgent need for transparent, consistent, and inclusive communication with the public, respecting the most vulnerable populations and attempting to minimize the disproportionate burden on them. (shrink)
In Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought, King Pong Chiu discusses Thomé H. Fang and Tang Junyi, two of the most important Confucian thinkers in twentieth-century China, who appropriated aspects of the medieval Chinese Buddhist school of Huayan to develop a response to the challenges of ‘scientism’, the belief that quantitative natural science is the only valuable part of human learning and the only source of truth. -/- As Chiu argues, Fang’s and Tang’s selective appropriations of Huayan thought (...) paid heed to the hermeneutical importance of studying ancient texts in order to be more responsive to modern issues, and helped confirm the values of Confucianism under the challenge of ‘scientism’, a topic widely ignored in academia. (shrink)
The contributions of the Anthropology could be significant for the Penal Law as long as some epistemological criteria could be settled down. Today we lack of these criteria or are simple outlined. This article tries to outline some of these epistemological axes that would allow a better use of th..
This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, (...) Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study. (shrink)
Michel Foucault, no curso Em defesa da sociedade, explica a relação entre o biopoder e o racismo. Dentre as modalidades de racismo praticadas desde o século XIX, Foucault inclui o socialismo, sendo que neste há um racismo de tipo evolucionista, biológico, que funciona plenamente em relação aos doentes mentais, aos criminosos, aos adversários políticos etc., que foi necessário sempre que o socialismo teve de insistir no problema da luta contra o inimigo e da eliminação do adversário no interior da sociedade (...) capitalista, e apareceu porque foi a única maneira, nesse caso, de pensar uma razão para matar o adversário. Por outro lado, Maurice Merleau-Ponty publicou, em 1947, o livro Humanismo e Terror, no qual invoca o problema da violência praticada pela União Soviética, pondo em evidência a teoria e a prática da violência pelo regime comunista. Para Merleau-Ponty, quando se vive numa época em que a base tradicional de uma sociedade se destrói e o homem deve reconstruí-la e reconstruir também as relações humanas, a liberdade de cada um desaparece e a violência aparece. Isso seria como foi o princípio do comunismo, com Lênin. O que Merleau-Ponty questiona é se a violência praticada em 1947 pelo mesmo regime tem o mesmo sentido que tinha no leninismo. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar se há e quais são os pontos de toque entre a visão foucaultiana do racismo de Estado praticado pela URSS e a violência revolucionária identificada por Merleau-Ponty na mesma URSS. (shrink)
Zadie Smith’s latest novel, NW, presents a multiverse in which multiplicity is driven into homogeneization by the forces of those dominant discourses that attempt to suppress the category of the “Other.” This paper focuses on the development of the two female protagonists. Their opposing attitudes towards motherhood, together with their confrontation with their origins, bring to the fore the performativity found in the discourses of gender, sexuality, class, and race. Thus, this paper will explore authenticity and performativity in a contemporary (...) context, where patriarchal and neocolonial discourses still apply. (shrink)
Critical edition of Leon Battista Alberti's Encomion Sancti Thome Aquinatis, with introduction and ample indices. Latin and Italian text. Organizzazione dell'opera: Salvatore I. Camporeale, Alle origini della 'Teologia umanistica' nel primo '400. L'Encomion S. Thomae di Lorenzo Valla I. INTRODUZIONE: I testimoni manoscritti Le edizioni Le traduzioni Nota ecdotica Criteri di edizione Ultime considerazioni II. TAVOLE III. LAURENTII VALLE ENCOMION SANCTI THOME AQUINATIS IV. INDICI: Indice delle tavole Indice dei manoscritti Indice dei passi citati degli auctores Indice delle (...) opere di Lorenzo Valla Indice dei nomi e dei luoghi. (shrink)
This paper explores how the exercise of the ethics of ‘responsibility’ for health care advanced through ‘healthy ageing’ and ‘successful ageing’ narratives in Western countries animates an array of ‘authorities’, including the ‘anti-ageing medicine’ movement as a strategy to address the anxieties of growing old in Western societies and as a tool to exercise the ethos of ‘responsibility’. The choice of this type of authority as a source of guidance for self-constitution and the exercise of the ‘responsible self’, this paper (...) will argue, enables the enactment of a type of late modernity notion of citizenship for ageing individuals based on principles of agelessness, health, independence and consumption power. Through interviews with anti-ageing consumers, however, it is also possible to argue the existence of tensions and contradictions that such a rigid model of self-constitution in later life produces, and the potential forms of resistance and contestations that may emerge as a result. In this way the current ‘war on anti-ageing medicine’ (Vincent 2003) becomes also symptomatic of bigger ‘wars’ taking place not only between institutions competing for control over knowledge and management of ageing, but between those in favour and against the homogenisation of life under the language of universal science, reason and market rationality. (shrink)
Abuso sexual en la infancia es el libro escrito por María Beatriz Müller con el objetivo de dar una explicación del éxito judicial que ha tenido a lo largo de los años el Síndrome de Alienación Parental, propuesto por el médico Richar Gardner en la década de los 80. A lo largo de la lectura del libro se verá cómo la postulación de este supuesto síndrome en ámbitos médicos, psicológicos y judiciales, así como otras propuestas carentes de evidencia científica, (...) han generado un contexto claramente perverso en la prevención del abuso sexual, donde “todo se vuelve patas para arriba, no se cree en la palabra de y en los síntomas de los niños y las niñas, las madres protectoras son consideradas instigadoras y promotoras de mentiras, el abuso sexual queda invisibilizado, las víctimas se convierten en victimarios y el depredador en el “pobre padre que no puede ver a sus hijos””. Con este aterrador panorama de la situación actual de muchos países en relación con la prevención del abuso sexual de niños, niñas y adolescentes, la licenciada Müller realiza una exposición muy bien documentada y de fluida lectura sobre los distintos mitos, construcciones e injusticias alrededor de este tema. Para citar esta reseña / To cite this review / Para citar esta resenha Rosas-Jiménez CA. María Beatriz Müller. Abuso sexual en la infancia. Mitos, construcciones e injusticias: el éxito judicial del falso síndrome de alienación parental. Buenos Aires: Editorial Maipue, 2015. 192 p.. Pers Bioet. 2019;23:266-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5294/pebi.2019.23.2.8. (shrink)
The Brazilian ayahuasca religions, Santo Daime, Barquinha, and União do Vegetal, have increasingly sought formal recognition by government agencies in Brazil and other countries to guarantee their legal use of ayahuasca, which contains DMT, a substance that is listed. This article focuses on new alliances and rifts that have emerged between and among different ayahuasca groups as they have sought and in some cases achieved formal recognition and legitimacy at the state and national levels in Brazil and abroad. It presents (...) a historical overview of the origin of the main ayahuasca religions, and their connections to the Amazon region and the state of Acre in particular, where the political environment has facilitated petitions seeking the elevation of ayahuasca as cultural and historical heritage in Acre and Brazil. This process has resulted in the active selection of certain symbolic, cultural, and historical elements and subtle changes in the ways various ayahuasca groups represent themselves in the public sphere. It also resulted in the reconfiguration of political alliances and a recasting of the historical facts regarding origins. The article reflects on notions of origin, place, authenticity, and tradition throughout the ongoing transformation of ayahuasca from “dangerous drug” to state and national heritage. (shrink)
RESUMEN El talante filosófico de la confianza otorga un sello distintivo al pensamiento de Paul Ricoeur e irradia su filosofía hermenéutica y su ética. Como presuposición onto-an-tropológica, la confianza no aparece tematizada expresamente en su obra, pero se puede pesquisar en nociones éticas clave: solicitud y atestación, desarrolladas en Sí mismo como Otro y en la Filosofía de la Voluntad y otros textos. El objetivo del estudio es exhibir dicha confianza como suelo del dinamismo interno de su filosofía, cuyo presupuesto (...) ontológico-ético es la relación originaria del sí con el otro, expresada en el espíritu hermenéutico-esperanzador, inseparable de su carácter hermenéutico-crítico. ABSTRACT The philosophical spirit of trust gives a distinctive stamp to the thought of Paul Ricoeur and radiates his hermeneutical philosophy and ethics. As an onto-anthropological presupposition, trust does not appear expressly thematized in his work, but it can be investigated in key ethical notions: solicitude and attestation, developed in Himself as Other and in the Philosophy of Will and other texts. The aim of the study is to show this trust as the ground for the internal dynamism of his philosophy, whose ontological-ethical presupposition is the original relationship of the self with the other, expressed in the hermeneutical-hopeful spirit, inseparable from its hermeneutical-critical character. (shrink)
brazil has gone through a long process of colonization that still leaves violent marks in the ways of relating to quilombola communities, producing the devaluation of their cultures and knowledge. Through colonization, the lives of quilombola children and young people have become invisible in the face of scientific knowledge that uses European authors as a reference and the urban middle classes as a model. In this text, we present the results of an interventional research carried out between 2017 and 2019, (...) with about 30 children and young people living in a quilombola community in Cafuringa, in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ. We seek to understand how the experiences of childhood and youth are constituted from the relationships that children and young people establish with the territory, their uses and appropriations, and the modes of subjectification in the face of conflicts experienced in the community. Children take ownership of the territory through collective games held outdoors, in which they explore community spaces, and interact with the land, animals, plants and trees. For these children, these spaces can be "bewitched", "haunted", "sacred", and while fascinating, also generate fear. These ways of relating to the territory are in conflict with the agricultural produce and horse breeding farms, which consider the land as a business, and animals and plants as goods. The children's estrangement in encountering of the electric fence placed by the farm, which symbolizes the private use of the land, social inequalities, and the racial discrimination experienced in their daily lives, leads us to question the project of the overall “civilizing” project built into modernity. (shrink)
Nous nous référerons dans cet article à la mémoire de l’homme, incarné et historique, déterminé par les médiations spatio-temporelles et exposé aux dilemmes éthiques que doit affronter l’ipséité dans sa capacité d’accueillir l’autre telle que la définit Ricœur. Notre réflexion vise la mémoire inquiétée par des médiations propres à la condition existentielle et corporelle du soi moderne, dans un contexte d’ébullition culturelle et technologique. Un tel contexte a en effet des conséquences qui affectent aussi bien l’identité personnelle et collective, que (...) l’exercice des capacités du soi agissant et souffrant – et tout spécialement celui de sa mémoire. Nous examinerons la dimension tant réceptive que dynamique de la mémoire exposée aux fragilisations qui affectent l’identité narrative humaine, en déterminant ses pouvoirs qui laissent des traces au niveau de la conscience et du corps. Nous terminerons enfin notre réflexion par une analyse des effets volontaires et involontaires qui mettent en question la capacité même de la mémoire, en influant sur l’imagination et sur la réponse éthique du soi. (shrink)