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Bartlomiej Swiatczak
Cambridge University
  1. Philosophy of immunology.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Alfred I. Tauber - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2020.
    Philosophy of immunology is a subfield of philosophy of biology dealing with ontological and epistemological issues related to the studies of the immune system. While speculative investigations and abstract analyses have always been part of immune theorizing, until recently philosophers have largely ignored immunology. Yet the implications for understanding the philosophical basis of organismal functions framed by immunity offer new perspectives on fundamental questions of biology and medicine. Developed in the context of history of medicine, theoretical biology, and medical anthropology, (...)
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  2. Struggle within: evolution and ecology of somatic cell populations.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2021 - Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 78 (21):6797-6806.
    The extent to which normal (nonmalignant) cells of the body can evolve through mutation and selection during the lifetime of the organism has been a major unresolved issue in evolutionary and developmental studies. On the one hand, stable multicellular individuality seems to depend on genetic homogeneity and suppression of evolutionary conflicts at the cellular level. On the other hand, the example of clonal selection of lymphocytes indicates that certain forms of somatic mutation and selection are concordant with the organism-level fitness. (...)
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  3. Genomic Stress Responses Drive Lymphocyte Evolvability: An Ancient and Ubiquitous Mechanism.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (10):2000032.
    Somatic diversification of antigen receptor genes depends on the activity of enzymes whose homologs participate in a mutagenic DNA repair in unicellular species. Indeed, by engaging error-prone polymerases, gap filling molecules and altered mismatch repair pathways, lymphocytes utilize conserved components of genomic stress response systems, which can already be found in bacteria and archaea. These ancient systems of mutagenesis and repair act to increase phenotypic diversity of microbial cell populations and operate to enhance their ability to produce fit variants during (...)
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  4.  64
    Immune balance: The development of the idea and its applications.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2014 - Journal of the History of Biology 47 (3):411-442.
    It has long been taken for granted that the immune system’s capacity to protect an individual from infection and disease depends on the power of the system to distinguish between self and nonself. However, accumulating data have undermined this fundamental concept. Evidence against the self/nonself discrimination model left researchers in need of a new overarching framework able to capture the immune system’s reactivity. Here, I highlight that along with the self/nonself model, another powerful representation of the immune system’s reactivity has (...)
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  5.  53
    Systemic features of immune recognition in the gut.Bartlomiej Swiatczak, Maria Rescigno & Irun Cohen - 2011 - Microbes and Infection 13:983-991.
    The immune system, to protect the body, must discriminate between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes and respond to them in different ways. How the mucosal immune system manages to make this distinction is poorly understood. We suggest here that the distinction between pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes is made by an integrated system rather than by single types of cells or single types of receptors; a systems biology approach is needed to understand immune recognition.
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  6. Conscious Representations: An Intractable Problem for the Computational Theory of Mind.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (1):19-32.
    Advocates of the computational theory of mind claim that the mind is a computer whose operations can be implemented by various computational systems. According to these philosophers, the mind is multiply realisable because—as they claim—thinking involves the manipulation of syntactically structured mental representations. Since syntactically structured representations can be made of different kinds of material while performing the same calculation, mental processes can also be implemented by different kinds of material. From this perspective, consciousness plays a minor role in mental (...)
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  7. PROTACs: The Future of Leukemia Therapeutics.Zubair Anwar, Muhammad Shahzad Ali, Antonio Galvano, Alessandro Perez, Maria La Mantia, Ihtisham Bukhari & Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2022 - Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 10:851087.
    The fight to find effective, long-lasting treatments for cancer has led many researchers to consider protein degrading entities. Recent developments in PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) have signified their potential as possible cancer therapies. PROTACs are small molecule, protein degraders that function by hijacking the built-in Ubiquitin-Proteasome pathway. This review mainly focuses on the general design and functioning of PROTACs as well as current advancements in the development of PROTACs as anticancer therapies. Particular emphasis is given to PROTACs designed against various (...)
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  8.  97
    Immunoglobulins and Antibodies: Conceptual Projections All the Way Down.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2022 - Constructivist Foundations 18 (1):85-86.
    Central to vaccination-induced responses, antibodies are suggested by Vaz to operate as observer-dependent entities that owe their status to categorization schemes of immunologists. Inspired by color research by Maturana, he argues that antibodies should be distinguished from immunoglobulins, which unlike the former can be considered as constituents of structural dynamics of an organism, products of millions of years of evolution. However, a deeper understanding of the historical roots of the concept of immunoglobulin and associated “languaging” and naming processes reveals that (...)
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  9.  15
    Evolution within the body: The rise and fall of somatic Darwinism in the late nineteenth century.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2023 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 45 (8):1-27.
    Originating in the work of Ernst Haeckel and Wilhelm Preyer, and advanced by a Prussian embryologist, Wilhelm Roux, the idea of struggle for existence between body parts helped to establish a framework, in which population cell dynamics rather than a predefined harmony guides adaptive changes in an organism. Intended to provide a causal-mechanical view of functional adjustments in body parts, this framework was also embraced later by early pioneers of immunology to address the question of vaccine effectiveness and pathogen resistance. (...)
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  10. Gut feelings of safety: Tolerance to the microbiota mediated by innate immune receptors.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Irun R. Cohen - 2015 - Microbiology and Immunology 59 (10):573-585.
    To enable microbial colonisation of the gut mucosa, the intestinal immune system must not only react to danger signals but also recognize cues that indicate safety. Safety recognition, paradoxically, is mediated by the same environmental sensors that are involved in signalling danger. Indeed, in addition to their well established role in inducing inflammation in response to stress signals, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and a variety of metabolic sensors also promote gut-microbiota symbiosis by responding to "microbial symbiosis factors", "resolution-associated molecular patterns", (...)
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  11. Holoimmunity Revisited.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Alfred I. Tauber - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800117.
    Commensal and pathogenic organisms employ camouflage and mimicry to mediate mutualistic interactions and predator escape. However, the immune mechanisms accounting for the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic bacterial populations are poorly understood. A promising hypothesis suggests that molecular mimicry, a condition in which different organisms share common antigens, is a mechanism of establishing tolerance between commensals and their hosts. On this view, certain bacteria may mimic the structural features of some of their host’s T-cell receptors (TCRs), namely those that survive (...)
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  12.  34
    How the interplay between antigen presenting cells and microbiota tunes host immune responses in the gut.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Maria Rescigno - 2012 - Seminars in Immunology 24 (1):43-49.
    Coordination of immune responses in the gut is a complex task. In order to fight pathogens and maintain a defined population of commensal microbes, the mucosal immune system has to coordinate information from the external (luminal) and internal (abluminal) environment and respond accordingly. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial cell types involved in this process as they integrate these signals and direct immunogenic or tolerogenic responses. Here, we review how various functions of DCs depend on microbial stimuli and how these stimuli (...)
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  13.  52
    Indeterminism in the Immune System: The Case of Somatic Hypermutation.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2011 - Paradigmi 1:49-65.
    One of the fundamental questions of life sciences is one of whether there are genuinely random biological processes. An affirmative or negative answer to this question may have important methodological consequences. It appears that a number of biological processes are explicitly classified as random. One of them is the so-called somatic hypermutation. However, closer analysis of somatic hypermutation reveals that it is not a genuinely random process. Somatic hypermutation is called random because the exact outcome of this process is difficult (...)
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  14.  25
    System odpornościowy, ja immunologiczne. Wprowadzenie.Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2012 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 3 (1).
    [Przekład] Pogląd głoszący, że układ odpornościowy rozróżnia to, co swoje, od tego, co obce, był jednym z centralnych założeń immunologii w drugiej połowie XX wieku. Pogląd ten miał wpływ na projekty eksperymentalne i interpretowanie danych. Jednakże w obliczu nowych dowodów empirycznych konieczny jest w immunologii nowy aparat konceptualny.
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  15. Understanding life through metaphors. [REVIEW]Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2022 - Metascience 2022:1-3.
    There is a deep-seated neopositivist view which regards the language of science as a neutral medium of communication, radically different from indirect symbolic forms of discourse characteristic of arts and humanities. But naturalists, like poets and social scientists, also draw on the dominant images in their culture to organize their thoughts and simplify complex concepts. By conceptualizing one thing in terms of another, metaphors in science not only aid mutual communication between researchers but also structure their understanding of experience and (...)
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  16.  20
    In search of organizing principles of the immune system: William E. Paul: Immunity. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2015, 289pp, $29.95. [REVIEW]Bartlomiej Swiatczak - 2016 - Metascience 25 (2):201-204.
    Immunity by William Paul is an overview of fundamental principles of immunology and their experimental basis. The book includes not only well- established facts about the immune system but also recent findings (the role of Th17 cells, regulatory T cells, inflammasomes, etc.), which are skillfully incorporated into the framework of immunological understanding. The presentation is clear and emotionally charged, which makes the reading of Immunity enjoyable. Despite the original intentions, though, the book may appear too challenging for a lay reader (...)
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