This study derives an improved model of managers' decision-making behavior regarding possibly failing projects. Instead of adopting cognitive moral development used by Rutledge and Karim (Accounting, Organization and Society 24, 173-184, 1999) this investigation uses the agency theory framework to consider individual moral philosophy for the improvement of decisions regarding possibly failing projects. This research hypothesizes that a manager with low relativism has a stronger tendency to discontinue a possibly failing project than one with high relativism when agency problem are (...) present or absent. Also, this study suggests that a manager with high idealism has a stronger tendency to discontinue a possibly failing project than one with low idealism. Through experiments this work finds that agency problem is a significant factor on decisions regarding possibly failing projects in all circumstances. This result is consistent with prior literature and shows agency problem universality. Next, the empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that a project manager with low relativism tends to discontinue a possibly failing project more than one with high relativism, showing that individual moral philosophy can partially mitigate the phenomenon of escalating managers' commitment. (shrink)
This study derives an improved model of managers’ decision-making behavior regarding possibly failing projects. Instead of adopting cognitive moral development used by Rutledge and Karim this investigation uses the agency theory framework to consider individual moral philosophy for the improvement of decisions regarding possibly failing projects. This research hypothesizes that a manager with low relativism has a stronger tendency to discontinue a possibly failing project than one with high relativism when agency problem are present or absent. Also, this study suggests (...) that a manager with high idealism has a stronger tendency to discontinue a possibly failing project than one with low idealism. Through experiments this work finds that agency problem is a significant factor on decisions regarding possibly failing projects in all circumstances. This result is consistent with prior literature and shows agency problem universality. Next, the empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that a project manager with low relativism tends to discontinue a possibly failing project more than one with high relativism, showing that individual moral philosophy can partially mitigate the phenomenon of escalating managers’ commitment. (shrink)
Within the same pathogen-stress framework as proposed by Fincher & Thornhill (F&T), we argue further that pathogen stress promotes matrilocal rather than patrilocal family ties which, in turn, slow down the process of modernity; and that pathogen stress promotes social learning or copying, including the adoption of foreign religions.
Deception is common in the marketplace where individuals pursue self-interests from their perspectives. Extant research suggests that perspective-taking, a cognitive process of putting oneself in other’s situation, increases consumers’ ethical tolerance for marketers’ deceptive behaviors. By contrast, the current research demonstrates that consumers who take the dishonest marketers’ perspective become less tolerant of deception when consumers’ moral self-awareness is high. This effect is driven by moral self-other differentiation as consumers contemplate deception from the marketers’ perspective: high awareness of the “moral (...) self” motivates consumers to distance themselves from the “immoral other.” The findings shed new light on how self-morality can vicariously shape social consideration in ethical judgments. (shrink)
Repeatedly performing a submaximal motor task for a prolonged period of time leads to muscle fatigue comprising a central and peripheral component, which demands a gradually increasing effort. However, the brain contribution to the enhancement of effort to cope with progressing fatigue lacks a complete understanding. The intermittent motor tasks closely resemble many activities of daily living, thus remaining physiologically relevant to study fatigue. The scope of this study is therefore to investigate the EEG-based brain activation patterns in healthy subjects (...) performing IMT until self-perceived exhaustion. Fourteen participants repeated elbow flexion contractions at 40% maximum voluntary contraction by following visual cues displayed on an oscilloscope screen until subjective exhaustion. Each contraction lasted ≈5 s with a 2-s rest between trials. The force, EEG, and surface EMG data were simultaneously collected. After preprocessing, we selected a subset of trials at the beginning, middle, and end of the study session representing brain activities germane to mild, moderate, and severe fatigue conditions, respectively, to compare and contrast the changes in the EEG time-frequency characteristics across the conditions. The outcome of channel- and source-level TF analyses reveals that the theta, alpha, and beta power spectral densities vary in proportion to fatigue levels in cortical motor areas. We observed a statistically significant change in the band-specific spectral power in relation to the graded fatigue from both the steady- and post-contraction EEG data. The findings would enhance our understanding on the etiology and physiology of voluntary motor-action-related fatigue and provide pointers to counteract the perception of muscle weakness and lack of motor endurance associated with ADL. The study outcome would help rationalize why certain patients experience exacerbated fatigue while carrying out mundane tasks, evaluate how clinical conditions such as neurological disorders and cancer treatment alter neural mechanisms underlying fatigue in future studies, and develop therapeutic strategies for restoring the patients' ability to participate in ADL by mitigating the central and muscle fatigue. (shrink)
Based on the expanded theory of planned behavior, this study first explores the configuration relationship between founder management and innovation by using the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Based on the theory of planned behavior, this study divides the behavior intention of founders into three categories: Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. Using fsQCA, we found that there are two ways to achieve high innovation input of enterprises. In combination with the two ways, the factors such as male and highly (...) educated founder, and large firm size can effectively increase the innovation input of firms, which is consistent with the three aspects of the behavioral intention of the theory of planned behavior, and it proves that the theory of planned behavior can effectively explain the configuration relation between the founder and firm innovation. In addition, this study finds that the innovation output is different from the innovation input, is dependent on the innovation ability of the firm itself, and is less influenced by the external environment. (shrink)
Solid-state processing of metal material is a very complex physical and chemical process, which is coupled by a series of variations including heat transfer, momentum transfer, mass transfer, and phase change. Applying three-dimensional finite element numerical method to the simulation of solid-state processing can perform analysis of metal material’s forging processes before production trial production, can obtain their relevant information such as material flow law, temperature field, and strain field under the minimum physical test conditions, thereby predicting metal material’s forming (...) defects and improving their forging quality. On the basis of summarizing and analyzing previous research works, this paper expounded the current status and significance of solid-state processing of metal materials, elaborated the development background, current status, and future challenges of 3D finite element numerical simulation, introduced the discrimination method and free surface solution method of numerical simulation calculation, conducted finite element model’s geometric assumptions, material selection, element division, model establishment, parameter selection, and initial and boundary condition determination, and simulated and analyzed rheological casting, remelting heating, thixoforming, and rotary piercing processes of metal materials. The results show that the 3D finite element numerical method can not only simulate various processes of flow field, temperature field, stress field, and microstructure in solid-state processing but also can provide a reliable basis for effectively obtaining a reasonable description and finding a more optimized design plan for metal material processing in a short time, which plays an important role in understanding and analyzing solid metal forming process, controlling and optimizing process parameters, guiding and mastering rheological casting, and secondary heating and rotary piercing of metal materials. (shrink)
Integrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in business is one of the great challenges facing firms today. Societal stakeholders require much more from the firm than pursuing profitability and growth. But these societal stakeholders often simply assume that increased societal expectations can easily be accommodated within efficiently run business operations, without much attention devoted to process issues. We build upon the core—periphery thesis to explore potential avenues for firms to add recurring CSR initiatives to their existing business practices. Based on (...) Siggelkow's (Admin Sei Quart 47: 125-159, 2002) analysis of organizational change, we conceptualize seven major patterns of CSR initiative adoption. We develop a new organizing framework showing how a firm can integrate CSR initiatives in business. Within the new framework, each of the seven patterns represents an idiosyncratic path through which recurring CSR initiatives can be included as practices into conventional operations. We also explore the nature of the resulting internal fit between recurring CSR initiatives and business practices. (shrink)
Adaptation can optimize information processing by allowing the visual system to always adjust to the environment. However, only a few studies have investigated how the visual system makes adjustments to repeatedly occurring changes in the input, still less about the related neural mechanism. Our previous study found that contrast adaptation attenuated after multiple daily sessions of repeated adaptation, which was explained by the habituation of either the adapter’s effective strength or the adaptation mechanisms. To examine the former hypothesis, in the (...) present study we used the frequency tagging technique to measure the adapter-elicited steady-state visual evoked potential amplitudes. Participants repeatedly adapted to the same contrast adapter in a top-up manner for six continuous days, which was called training of adaptation. The behavioral adaptation effect and SSVEP response to the trained adapter and an untrained control adapter were measured before and after training. The psychophysical results showed that the effect of adaptation in the trained condition significantly reduced after training, replicating our previous finding. Contradicting the prediction of the hypothesis that repeated adaptation attenuated the effective strength of the adapter, the SSVEP amplitude was unchanged after training, which was further confirmed by an equivalence test. Taken together, the results challenge the account of habituation of adapter in repeated adaptation, while leaving the account of habituation of adaptation mechanism to be tested. (shrink)
Contemporary bioethical issues are inherently cross-cultural and global in their scope. This is not surprising, as bioethical matters touch everyone in one way or another. Moral quandaries in health-care, life sciences, and biotechnology do not respect natural and human boundaries, the boundaries between and within nation-states, ethnicities, cultures, communities, and social groups. In addition, the simultaneously large-scale and intimate interactions between and within different cultures and civilizations and the rapid pace at which they change are phenomena that distinguish our times (...) from previous eras. Bioethics—as a particular domain of public discourse and an academic discipline—has thus been rapidly... (shrink)
A fractional-order locally active memristor is proposed in this paper. When driven by a bipolar periodic signal, the generated hysteresis loop with two intersections is pinched at the origin. The area of the hysteresis loop changes with the fractional order. Based on the fractional-order locally active memristor, a fractional-order memristive system is constructed. The stability analysis is carried out and the stability conditions for three equilibria are listed. The expression of the fractional order related to Hopf bifurcation is given. The (...) complex dynamical behaviors of Hopf bifurcation, period-doubling bifurcation, bistability and chaos are shown numerically. Furthermore, the bistability behaviors of the different fractional order are validated by the attraction basins in the initial value plane. As an alternative to validating our results, the fractional-order memristive system is implemented by utilizing Simulink of MATLAB. The research results clarify that the complex dynamical behaviors are attributed to two facts: one is the fractional order that affects the stability of the equilibria, and the other is the local activeness of the fractional-order memristor. (shrink)
Competition and diffusion of products are of great significance to companies. In this study, various true decoy strategies are constructed using different combinations of price and quality. This paper then analyzes the performance of strategies using different product competition and diffusion scenarios. The influences of neighbor nodes, reconnection probability, and herd mentality on decoy effects are explored. The results show that setting an appropriate true decoy can enhance the competitiveness of a target product to some extent. Conversely, an inappropriate decoy (...) strategy will play a negative role, encroaching on market share. In terms of effects, changes in neighbor nodes, reconnection probability, and herd mentality will not influence the direction of the evolution of a product for the same true decoy strategies. However, the speed of evolution will be affected. These findings provide a theoretical basis for enterprises taking action to enhance product competitiveness in the market. (shrink)
Higher education has a dual responsibility, both to the academy and to society at large, to effectively confront racism on campus. And yet, in the United States and perhaps elsewhere, it fails to effectively confront racism as the result of systemic flaws, expressed as organizational intransigence, even as new “supportive and protective” structures are created. Thus, the central question raised by the anonymized, composite narrative case study at the core of this paper is as follows: To what extent, if any, (...) do the familiar organizational structures of higher education, encompassing both leadership and management processes, reinforce or resist racism on campus? Consistent with other social science researchers, the authors believe that richly contextualized narrative cases help to bridge the world of ideas and conjecture and actual situations. We used an iterative process spanning three months for drawing our case, involving a back-and-forth communication of actual experiences involving campus racism. The resulting composite narrative provides a richly contextualized situation drawn from real life, while still preserving anonymity. We regarded this later aspect as crucial for making possible the close examination of an ethically challenging situation that might otherwise remain invisible due to sensitive information. Our analysis focused on campus responsiveness to the challenge of racism within a mechanistic organization, rooted in structuralism, versus an organic organization, rooted in post-structuralism. Four aspects of a more organic university design are identified as key to bringing about meaningful, ethically sound change within the academy: deep, reflective listening; a more horizontal, consensus-based leadership structure that empowers professionals at various ranks; freedom within a framework; and a broadly shared, continually reinforced focus on overarching principles, goals, and ideals. (shrink)
Given the absence of a theoretical formula to analyze the influence of parameters on the contact stress of cylindrical gear with arc tooth, an explicit mathematical model of cylindrical gear with arc tooth between the design parameters and the contact stress is established based on Kriging surrogate model. The parameters of the variation function of Kriging model are optimized by using the whale optimization algorithm, and the explicit mathematical model accuracy between the design parameters and the contact stress of the (...) gear is in turn optimized by the improved Kriging surrogate model. The influence of design parameters on the contact stress of cylindrical gear with arc tooth is analyzed based on the established mathematical model. The proposed algorithm was realized via the programming platform MATLAB; the simulation results indicate that the precision evaluation indexes, root mean square error, and the relative maximum absolute error ) of the proposed Kriging model are improved, in addition to the error range which is narrowed from to. As the tooth width, modulus, pressure angle, and tooth line radius increased, the contact stress of the cylindrical gear with arc tooth gear declined, which was negatively correlated with the design parameter. The amplitude of contact stress of the cylindrical gear with arc tooth was the largest due to the change of tooth radius, followed by the change of modulus, while the influence of tooth width was less. Finally, the influence of modulus-tooth line radius interaction and pressure angle-tooth line radius interaction on contact stress of cylindrical gear with arc tooth was significant. (shrink)
With the exploration of tight oil and gas, shallow-water deltaic reservoirs have been attracting more and more attention. The sedimentary architecture of a shallow-water delta shows distinctive differences with that of a deep-slope delta. These differences may be associated with the mechanism and characteristics of the deposition in the area where the sediments unloaded. Based on modern sedimentary research of the Poyang Lake in China, this paper focuses on the processes of river flow entering a lake with a low dip (...) angle. We conducted six sets of numerical simulations with different initial sedimentary flow velocities using Fluent software for analyzing the hydrodynamics and the sediment transportation in the shallow-water delta. We combined the simulation results with an analysis of the geomorphology of the Gangjiang Delta to reveal the deposition along the shoreline of the lacustrine shallow-water delta. The numerical simulation shows that the shallow-water delta is dominated by bed friction with an extensive hydrodynamical boundary layer. The bed shear stress, which varies with the changes in river flux, dominated the sediment transport and deposition at the shallow-water delta front, where the effluent flow mixes with lake water. The distributary channels show characteristics of repeatedly occurred erosion, scouring, filling, and reoccupation. We argue that the depositional characteristics are associated with the changes in bed shear stress controlled by variation of flow velocity. Mouth bars are less likely to grow to a reasonable scale because of the seasonal scouring of extreme floods. Moreover, the lake flow potentially reworks the mouth bars. Consequently, mouth bar deposits were difficult to preserve as hydrocarbon reservoirs in ancient shallow-water delta. (shrink)
The COVID-19 pandemic has pressed a pause button on global economic development, and induced significant mental health problems. In order to demonstrate the progressed relationship between the pandemic, economic slowdown, and mental health burden, we overviewed the global-level gross domestic product changes and mental problems variation since the outbreak of COVID-19, and reviewed comprehensively the specific sectors influenced by the pandemic, including international trade, worldwide travel, education system, healthcare system, and individual employment. We hope to provide timely evidence to help (...) with the promotion of policymakers’ effective strategies in mitigating economic losses induced by the pandemic; we suggest different governments or policy makers in different countries to share information and experience in dealing with COVID-19-induced economic slowdown and promote COVID-19 vaccine popularization plan to protect every individual worldwide against the coronavirus essentially; and we appeal international information share and collaboration to minimize stigmatization related to adverse mental consequences of COVID-19 and to increase mental health wellbeings of people all over the world. (shrink)
Based on the Chinese General Social Survey database, this article explores the relationship between income inequality and residents’ subjective well-being from the perspective of inequality of opportunity and inequality of effort. We find that inequality of opportunity has a negative impact on subjective well-being in China, where inequality of effort has a positive impact. Our empirical results are robust for changing the inequality indicators. In the sub-sample studies, consistent conclusions are obtained in rural areas, whereas in urban areas only inequality (...) of effort has a significant impact. The results of mechanism study show that inequality of opportunity decreases residents’ sense of fairness, and inequality of effort increases residents’ sense of fairness, thus affecting their subjective well-being. The results of this study provide a good response to the inconclusive research findings on the impact of income inequality on subjective well-being. (shrink)
This study provided a content analysis of studies aiming to disclose how artificial intelligence has been applied to the education sector and explore the potential research trends and challenges of AI in education. A total of 100 papers including 63 empirical papers and 37 analytic papers were selected from the education and educational research category of Social Sciences Citation Index database from 2010 to 2020. The content analysis showed that the research questions could be classified into development layer, application layer, (...) and integration layer. Moreover, four research trends, including Internet of Things, swarm intelligence, deep learning, and neuroscience, as well as an assessment of AI in education, were suggested for further investigation. However, we also proposed the challenges in education may be caused by AI with regard to inappropriate use of AI techniques, changing roles of teachers and students, as well as social and ethical issues. The results provide insights into an overview of the AI used for education domain, which helps to strengthen the theoretical foundation of AI in education and provides a promising channel for educators and AI engineers to carry out further collaborative research. (shrink)
The authors would like to correct a misspelling in the name of one of the authors due to a typographical error. The name should read Atur Turakhia, not Artur Turakhia. This does not change the conclusions or interpretations presented.
China in the post-Mao era was transformed by a veritable economic miracle and simultaneously underwent a series of radical époque-making changes in the Chinese ruling classes’ political and ideological approach to government. The continued rapid growth and the expansion of a consumer society have also contributed to the discrediting of those traditional values which for many years underpinned and fortified the force of communism. In addition to the demise of traditional values, the waning belief in Maoist ideology and the rise (...) of consumerism as the new ideological credo, there have also been transformations in some of the main pillars of Chinese society, in particular the family, as a result of a resurgence of social practices that were thought to belong to the past. The most widespread in contemporary China is the “bao ernai” phenomenon, or the taking of a second wife, which involves mainly businessmen and politicians, strictly related to the increase of corruption. The increasingly worrying proportions assumed in recent years by such practice, while risking to compromise the sustenance of the much exalted harmonious society, have favoured the emergence of a heated debate inside the Chinese society. (shrink)
In this paper, a four-dimensional memristor-based Colpitts system is reaped by employing an ideal memristor to substitute the exponential nonlinear term of original three-dimensional Colpitts oscillator model, from which the initials-dependent extreme multistability is exhibited by phase portraits and local basins of attraction. To explore dynamical mechanism, an equivalent 3-D dimensionality reduction model is built using the state variable mapping method, which allows the implicit initials of the 4-D memristor-based Colpitts system to be changed into the corresponding explicitly initials-related system (...) parameters of the 3-D dimensionality reduction model. The initials-related equilibria of the 3-D dimensionality reduction model are derived and their initials-related stabilities are discussed, upon which the dynamical mechanism is quantitatively explored. Furthermore, the initials-dependent extreme multistability is depicted by two-parameter plots and the coexistence of infinitely many attractors is demonstrated by phase portraits, which is confirmed by PSIM circuit simulations based on a physical circuit. (shrink)
This book discusses political change in the view of Confucian thought. This study focuses on the Book of Change, which is one of the nine basic books of Confucius School, and has dominated oriental thought in this field for more than three thousand years.
Why do some epistemic objects persist despite undergoing serious changes, while others go extinct in similar situations? Scientists have often been careless in deciding which epistemic objects to retain and which ones to eliminate; historians and philosophers of science have been on the whole much too unreflective in accepting the scientists’ decisions in this regard. Through a re-examination of the history of oxygen and phlogiston, I will illustrate the benefits to be gained from challenging and disturbing the commonly accepted continuities (...) and discontinuities in the lives of epistemic objects. I will also outline two key consequences of such re-thinking. First, a fresh view on the (dis)continuities in key epistemic objects is apt to lead to informative revisions in recognized periods and trends in the history of science. Second, recognizing sources of continuity leads to a sympathetic view on extinct objects, which in turn problematizes the common monistic tendency in science and philosophy; this epistemological reorientation allows room for more pluralism in scientific practice itself. (shrink)
Cyberloafing is prevalent in the workplace and research has increasingly focused on its antecedents. This study aims to extend the cyberloafing literature from the perspective of perceived overqualification among civil servants. Drawing on equity theory, we examined the effect of POQ on cyberloafing, along with the mediating role of harmonious passion on the POQ–cyberloafing relationship and the moderating role of the need for achievement on strengthening the link between POQ and harmonious passion. Using time-lagged data from a sample of 318 (...) civil servants in China, we found that POQ was positively related to cyberloafing; harmonious passion mediated this relationship; the need for achievement moderated the effect of POQ on harmonious passion as well as the indirect effect of POQ on cyberloafing via harmonious passion. Based on the findings, we discussed theoretical and managerial implications and provided future research avenues. (shrink)
This essay examines the relationship between climate change and human rights. It argues that climate change is unjust, in part, because it jeopardizes several core rights – including the right to life, the right to food and the right to health. It then argues that adopting a human rights framework has six implications for climate policies. To give some examples, it argues that this helps us to understand the concept of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (UNFCCC, Article 2). In addition to this, (...) it argues that if we adopt a human rights framework then any climate policies should also honour human rights, and so mitigation policies, for example, should not compromise people’s enjoyment of their human rights. A third implication, I argue, is that in addition to duties of mitigation and adaptation there will also be – if rights are violated – duties of compensation too. (shrink)
Climate change and justice are so closely associated that many people take it for granted that a global climate treaty should--indeed, must--directly address both issues together. But, in fact, this would be a serious mistake, one that, by dooming effective international limits on greenhouse gases, would actually make the world's poor and developing nations far worse off. This is the provocative and original argument of Climate Change Justice. Eric Posner and David Weisbach strongly favor both a climate change agreement and (...) efforts to improve economic justice. But they make a powerful case that the best--and possibly only--way to get an effective climate treaty is to exclude measures designed to redistribute wealth or address historical wrongs against underdeveloped countries. In clear language, Climate Change Justice proposes four basic principles for designing the only kind of climate treaty that will work--a forward-looking agreement that requires every country to make greenhouse--gas reductions but still makes every country better off in its own view. This kind of treaty has the best chance of actually controlling climate change and improving the welfare of people around the world. (shrink)
This study examines why and when negative workplace gossip promotes self-serving behaviors by the employees being targeted. Using conservation of resources theory, we find that targets tend to increase their political acts as a result of ego depletion triggered by negative gossip. We also show that sensitivity to interpersonal mistreatment and moral disengagement moderate this process. Specifically, we demonstrate that targets with high levels of sensitivity to interpersonal mistreatment are more likely to experience ego depletion, and that targets with high (...) levels of moral disengagement will find it easier to persuade themselves to engage in political acts. We conducted a three-wave time-lagged survey of 265 employees in Guangdong, China, to test our hypotheses. The results support our theoretical model and indicate that COR theory can be used to explain the impacts of negative workplace gossip. Alongside our important and timely theoretical contributions, we provide new perspectives on how managers can avoid or mitigate these political acts. (shrink)
IN "THE FUNCTION OF CONSCIOUSNESS ON MATTER", "CHINESE STUDIES IN PHILOSOPHY" 12 (1981) PAGES 38-54, YU CLAIMS THAT IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND HOW CONSCIOUSNESS CAN AFFECT THE PHYSICAL WORLD, TWO CATEGORIES OF MATTER MUST BE DISTINGUISHED. I ARGUE THAT YU'S DISTINCTION HAS NO EXPLANATORY FORCE AND, MOREOVER, IS AT ODDS WITH HIS MATERIALIST ASSUMPTIONS. I THEN SUGGEST OTHER STRATEGIES.
Climate Change and the Moral Agent examines the moral foundations of climate change and makes a case for collective action on climate change by appealing to moralized collective self-interest, collective ability to aid, and an expanded understanding of collective responsibility for harm.
Recently, Frauchiger and Renner proposed a Gedankenexperiment, which was claimed to be able to prove that quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself. Here we show that the conclusions of Frauchiger and Renner actually came from their incorrect description of some quantum states. With the correct description there will be no inconsistent results, no matter which quantum interpretation theory is used. Especially, the Copenhagen interpretation can satisfy all the three assumptions,, and of Frauchiger and Renner simultaneously, thus it (...) has no problem consistently describing the use of itself. (shrink)
Can quite different values be rationally weighed against one another? Can the value of one thing always be ranked as greater than, equal to, or less than the value of something else? If the answer to these questions is no, then in what areas do we find commensurability and comparability unavailable? And what are the implications for moral and legal decision making? In this book, some of the sharpest minds in philosophy struggle with these questions.
In this book, David Stump traces alternative conceptions of the a priori in the philosophy of science and defends a unique position in the current debates over conceptual change and the constitutive elements in science. Stump emphasizes the unique epistemological status of the constitutive elements of scientific theories, constitutive elements being the necessary preconditions that must be assumed in order to conduct a particular scientific inquiry. These constitutive elements, such as logic, mathematics, and even some fundamental laws of nature, were (...) once taken to be a priori knowledge but can change, thus leading to a dynamic or relative a priori. Stump critically examines developments in thinking about constitutive elements in science as a priori knowledge, from Kant’s fixed and absolute a priori to Quine’s holistic empiricism. By examining the relationship between conceptual change and the epistemological status of constitutive elements in science, Stump puts forward an argument that scientific revolutions can be explained and relativism can be avoided without resorting to universals or absolutes. (shrink)