Results for 'Automation'

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  1.  97
    Automated Cars Meet Human Drivers: Responsible Human-Robot Coordination and the Ethics of Mixed Traffic.Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):335-344.
    In this paper, we discuss the ethics of automated driving. More specifically, we discuss responsible human-robot coordination within mixed traffic: i.e. traffic involving both automated cars and conventional human-driven cars. We do three main things. First, we explain key differences in robotic and human agency and expectation-forming mechanisms that are likely to give rise to compatibility-problems in mixed traffic, which may lead to crashes and accidents. Second, we identify three possible solution-strategies for achieving better human-robot coordination within mixed traffic. Third, (...)
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  2. Automation, Work and the Achievement Gap.John Danaher & Sven Nyholm - forthcoming - AI and Ethics.
    Rapid advances in AI-based automation have led to a number of existential and economic concerns. In particular, as automating technologies develop enhanced competency they seem to threaten the values associated with meaningful work. In this article, we focus on one such value: the value of achievement. We argue that achievement is a key part of what makes work meaningful and that advances in AI and automation give rise to a number achievement gaps in the workplace. This could limit (...)
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  3. Attributing Agency to Automated Systems: Reflections on Human–Robot Collaborations and Responsibility-Loci.Sven Nyholm - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1201-1219.
    Many ethicists writing about automated systems attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots. I argue that whereas it indeed (...)
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  4. Automation and Utopia: Human Flourishing in an Age Without Work.John Danaher - 2019 - Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Human obsolescence is imminent. We are living through an era in which our activity is becoming less and less relevant to our well-being and to the fate of our planet. This trend toward increased obsolescence is likely to continue in the future, and we must do our best to prepare ourselves and our societies for this reality. Far from being a cause for despair, this is in fact an opportunity for optimism. Harnessed in the right way, the technology that hastens (...)
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  5.  3
    Automated Reasoning in Normative Detachment Structures with Ideal Conditions.Tomer Libal & Matteo Pascucci - 2019 - In ICAIL 2019: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. ACM. pp. 63-72.
    In this article we introduce a logical structure for normative reasoning, called Normative Detachment Structure with Ideal Conditions, that can be used to represent the content of certain legal texts in a normalized way. The structure exploits the deductive properties of a system of bimodal logic able to distinguish between ideal and actual normative statements, as well as a novel formalization of conditional normative statements able to capture interesting cases of contrary-to-duty reasoning and to avoid deontic paradoxes. Furthermore, we illustrate (...)
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  6.  63
    Automated Vehicles and Transportation Justice.Shane Epting - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):389-403.
    Despite numerous ethical examinations of automated vehicles, philosophers have neglected to address how these technologies will affect vulnerable people. To account for this lacuna, researchers must analyze how driverless cars could hinder or help social justice. In addition to thinking through these aspects, scholars must also pay attention to the extensive moral dimensions of automated vehicles, including how they will affect the public, nonhumans, future generations, and culturally significant artifacts. If planners and engineers undertake this task, then they will have (...)
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  7. Automating Leibniz’s Theory of Concepts.Paul Edward Oppenheimer, Jesse Alama & Edward N. Zalta - 2015 - In Amy P. Felty & Aart Middeldorp (eds.), Automated Deduction – CADE 25: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Automated Deduction (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Volume 9195), Berlin: Springer. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 73-97.
    Our computational metaphysics group describes its use of automated reasoning tools to study Leibniz’s theory of concepts. We start with a reconstruction of Leibniz’s theory within the theory of abstract objects (henceforth ‘object theory’). Leibniz’s theory of concepts, under this reconstruction, has a non-modal algebra of concepts, a concept-containment theory of truth, and a modal metaphysics of complete individual concepts. We show how the object-theoretic reconstruction of these components of Leibniz’s theory can be represented for investigation by means of automated (...)
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  8.  28
    Do Automated Vehicles Face Moral Dilemmas? A Plea for a Political Approach.Javier Rodríguez-Alcázar, Lilian Bermejo-Luque & Alberto Molina-Pérez - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):811-832.
    How should automated vehicles react in emergency circumstances? Most research projects and scientific literature deal with this question from a moral perspective. In particular, it is customary to treat emergencies involving AVs as instances of moral dilemmas and to use the trolley problem as a framework to address such alleged dilemmas. Some critics have pointed out some shortcomings of this strategy and have urged to focus on mundane traffic situations instead of trolley cases involving AVs. Besides, these authors rightly point (...)
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  9. Automating Agential Reasoning: Proof-Calculi and Syntactic Decidability for STIT Logics.Tim Lyon & Kees van Berkel - 2019 - In M. Baldoni, M. Dastani, B. Liao, Y. Sakurai & R. Zalila Wenkstern (eds.), PRIMA 2019: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems. 93413 Cham, Germany: Springer. pp. 202-218.
    This work provides proof-search algorithms and automated counter-model extraction for a class of STIT logics. With this, we answer an open problem concerning syntactic decision procedures and cut-free calculi for STIT logics. A new class of cut-free complete labelled sequent calculi G3LdmL^m_n, for multi-agent STIT with at most n-many choices, is introduced. We refine the calculi G3LdmL^m_n through the use of propagation rules and demonstrate the admissibility of their structural rules, resulting in auxiliary calculi Ldm^m_nL. In the single-agent case, we (...)
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  10.  11
    Automation for the artisanal economy: enhancing the economic and environmental sustainability of crafting professions with human–machine collaboration.Ron Eglash, Lionel Robert, Audrey Bennett, Kwame Porter Robinson, Michael Lachney & William Babbitt - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):595-609.
    Artificial intelligence is poised to eliminate millions of jobs, from finance to truck driving. But artisanal products are valued precisely because of their human origins, and thus have some inherent “immunity” from AI job loss. At the same time, artisanal labor, combined with technology, could potentially help to democratize the economy, allowing independent, small-scale businesses to flourish. Could AI, robotics and related automation technologies enhance the economic viability and environmental sustainability of these beloved crafting professions, perhaps even expanding their (...)
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  11.  14
    The Automation of Philosophy or the Game of Induction.Anna Longo - 2021 - Philosophy Today 65 (2):289-303.
    In order to think of philosophy after automation, we have to ask if there is more in philosophy than the process of learning what philosophy is by inducing, from actual inferential practices, the future possible moves that are believed to produce philosophical truths. In the same way as the production of scientific hypothesis has been automated like a self-updating process which entails schemas of decisions and actions, philosophy itself, once conceived as a game where the truth of the statements (...)
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  12. The Automation of Science.Ross King, Rowland D., Oliver Jem, G. Stephen, Michael Young, Wayne Aubrey, Emma Byrne, Maria Liakata, Magdalena Markham, Pinar Pir, Larisa Soldatova, Sparkes N., Whelan Andrew, E. Kenneth & Amanda Clare - 2009 - Science 324 (5923):85-89.
    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over (...)
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  13.  15
    Automated Vehicles, Big Data and Public Health.David Shaw, Bernard Favrat & Bernice Elger - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):35-42.
    In this paper we focus on how automated vehicles can reduce the number of deaths and injuries in accident situations in order to protect public health. This is actually a problem not only of public health and ethics, but also of big data—not only in terms of all the different data that could be used to inform such decisions, but also in the sense of deciding how wide the scope of data should be. We identify three key different types of (...)
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  14. Measuring Automated Influence: Between Empirical Evidence and Ethical Values.Daniel Susser & Vincent Grimaldi - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society.
    Automated influence, delivered by digital targeting technologies such as targeted advertising, digital nudges, and recommender systems, has attracted significant interest from both empirical researchers, on one hand, and critical scholars and policymakers on the other. In this paper, we argue for closer integration of these efforts. Critical scholars and policymakers, who focus primarily on the social, ethical, and political effects of these technologies, need empirical evidence to substantiate and motivate their concerns. However, existing empirical research investigating the effectiveness of these (...)
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  15.  28
    On Automating Diagrammatic Proofs of Arithmetic Arguments.Mateja Jamnik, Alan Bundy & Ian Green - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (3):297-321.
    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by formal logical proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is often more clearly perceived in these proofs than in the corresponding algebraic proofs; they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are investigating and automating such diagrammatic reasoning about mathematical theorems. Concrete, rather than general diagrams (...)
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  16.  22
    Automated Patent Landscaping.Aaron Abood & Dave Feltenberger - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (2):103-125.
    Patent landscaping is the process of finding patents related to a particular topic. It is important for companies, investors, governments, and academics seeking to gauge innovation and assess risk. However, there is no broadly recognized best approach to landscaping. Frequently, patent landscaping is a bespoke human-driven process that relies heavily on complex queries over bibliographic patent databases. In this paper, we present Automated Patent Landscaping, an approach that jointly leverages human domain expertise, heuristics based on patent metadata, and machine learning (...)
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  17.  58
    Automated Remote Sensing with Near Infrared Reflectance Spectra: Carbonate Recognition.Joseph Ramsey, Peter Spirtes & Clark Glymour - unknown
    Reflectance spectroscopy is a standard tool for studying the mineral composition of rock and soil samples and for remote sensing of terrestrial and extraterrestrial surfaces. We describe research on automated methods of mineral identification from reflectance spectra and give evidence that a simple algorithm, adapted from a well-known search procedure for Bayes nets, identifies the most frequently occurring classes of carbonates with reliability equal to or greater than that of human experts. We compare the reliability of the procedure to the (...)
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  18. Automation, Basic Income and Merit.Katharina Nieswandt - forthcoming - In Keith Breen & Jean-Philippe Deranty (eds.), Whither Work? The Politics and Ethics of Contemporary Work.
    A recent wave of academic and popular publications say that utopia is within reach: Automation will progress to such an extent and include so many high-skill tasks that much human work will soon become superfluous. The gains from this highly automated economy, authors suggest, could be used to fund a universal basic income (UBI). Today's employees would live off the robots' products and spend their days on intrinsically valuable pursuits. I argue that this prediction is unlikely to come true. (...)
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  19.  20
    Developing Automated Deceptions and the Impact on Trust.Frances S. Grodzinsky, Keith W. Miller & Marty J. Wolf - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):91-105.
    As software developers design artificial agents , they often have to wrestle with complex issues, issues that have philosophical and ethical importance. This paper addresses two key questions at the intersection of philosophy and technology: What is deception? And when is it permissible for the developer of a computer artifact to be deceptive in the artifact’s development? While exploring these questions from the perspective of a software developer, we examine the relationship of deception and trust. Are developers using deception to (...)
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  20.  32
    Automation Et Avenir Humain.P. Mclaughlin - 1958 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 8:239-240.
    Is automation a glimpse of the future of humanity? Last year the question was gone into at meetings of the Catholic Association of French Thinkers. Persons with experience of automation in industry and scientific research were the main contributors, and the present volume gives the text of the papers and discussions.
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  21.  22
    Automated Legal Decision Systems in Practice: The Mirror of Reality. [REVIEW]Anja Oskamp & Maaike W. Tragter - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (4):291-322.
    Automated decision systems are often used to enforce legislation.As such, they have considerable regulating effects. These systemsregulate the behaviour of users and addressees mainly throughstandardization. This research classifies these systems intocategories according to which the regulating effects can bedescribed more clearly. Furthermore, this categorization resultsin a better understanding how problems encountered with atpresent can be avoided in the future. Many problems result fromthe way the development process has been organized. It turns outthe development process can be divided according to the (...)
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  22.  20
    Automation, Alteration.Jean-Luc Nancy & Daniel Ross - 2021 - Philosophy Today 65 (2):235-240.
    Is “philosophy after automation” a theme or a question? One might hesitate about this, because we may wonder whether or not it implies that philosophy could disappear after automation, or at least be subject to serious revision. Philosophy could be read as a historical movement towards self-determination [autodétermination] as well as the exposition of the limit of such a program of archi-autonomy. The Cartesian event is essentially ambivalent, and man alone in the world is undoubtedly also the one (...)
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  23.  1
    Semi-Automated Care: Video-Algorithmic Patient Monitoring and Surveillance in Care Settings.Piers M. Gooding & David M. Clifford - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (4):541-546.
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  24.  16
    POLITICS: Automated Ideological Reasoning.Jaime G. Carbonell - 1978 - Cognitive Science 2 (1):27-51.
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  25.  4
    Automated Facial Coding Software Outperforms People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral From Standardized Datasets.Peter Lewinski - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  26.  7
    Automated Proof-Searching for Strong Kleene Logic and its Binary Extensions Via Correspondence Analysis.Yaroslav Petrukhin & Vasilyi Shangin - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
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  27. What’s Wrong with Automated Influence.Claire Benn & Seth Lazar - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-24.
    Automated Influence is the use of AI to collect, integrate and analyse people's data in order to deliver targeted interventions that shape their behaviour. We consider three central objections against Automated Influence, focusing on privacy, exploitation, and manipulation, showing in each case how a structural version of that objection has more purchase than its interactional counterpart. By rejecting the interactional focus of 'AI Ethics', in favour of a more structural, political philosophy of AI, we show that the real problem with (...)
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  28.  3
    Automated Theorem-Proving in Non-Classical Logics.Paul B. Thistlewaite, Michael A. McRobbie & Robert K. Meyer - 1988 - Pitman Publishing.
  29.  90
    Automated Natural Deduction in Thinker.Francis Jeffry Pelletier - 1998 - Studia Logica 60 (1):3-43.
    Although resolution-based inference is perhaps the industry standard in automated theorem proving, there have always been systems that employed a different format. For example, the Logic Theorist of 1957 produced proofs by using an axiomatic system, and the proofs it generated would be considered legitimate axiomatic proofs; Wang’s systems of the late 1950’s employed a Gentzen-sequent proof strategy; Beth’s systems written about the same time employed his semantic tableaux method; and Prawitz’s systems of again about the same time are often (...)
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  30.  15
    An Automated System for Argument Invention in Law Using Argumentation and Heuristic Search Procedures.Douglas Walton - 2005 - Ratio Juris 18 (4):434-463.
    . A heuristic search procedure for inventing legal arguments is built on two tools already widely in use in argumentation. Argumentation schemes are forms of argument representing premise‐conclusion and inference structures of common types of arguments. Schemes especially useful in law represent defeasible arguments, like argument from expert opinion. Argument diagramming is a visualization tool used to display a chain of connected arguments linked together. One such tool, Araucaria, available free at , helps a user display an argument on the (...)
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  31.  1
    Automated Analysis of the US Presidential Elections Using Big Data and Network Analysis.Nello Cristianini, Giuseppe A. Veltri & Saatviga Sudhahar - 2015 - Big Data and Society 2 (1).
    The automated parsing of 130,213 news articles about the 2012 US presidential elections produces a network formed by the key political actors and issues, which were linked by relations of support and opposition. The nodes are formed by noun phrases and links by verbs, directly expressing the action of one node upon the other. This network is studied by applying insights from several theories and techniques, and by combining existing tools in an innovative way, including: graph partitioning, centrality, assortativity, hierarchy (...)
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  32.  21
    Automated Spectral Recomposition with Application in Stratigraphic Interpretation.Yihua Cai, Sergey Fomel & Hongliu Zeng - 2013 - Interpretation: SEG 1 (1):SA109-SA116.
    Analyzing seismic attributes in the frequency domain is helpful for reservoir characterization. To analyze the reservoir interval of interest in detail, it is important to capture the seismic response at each frequency subset. Spectral recomposition can be used to extract significant components from the seismic spectrum. We propose a separable nonlinear least-squares algorithm for spectral recomposition, which estimates linear and nonlinear parts automatically in separate steps. Our approach is applied to estimate fundamental signal parameters, peak frequencies, and amplitudes, with which (...)
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  33.  31
    Automated Epileptic Seizure Detection in Scalp EEG Based on Spatial-Temporal Complexity.Xinzhong Zhu, Huiying Xu, Jianmin Zhao & Jie Tian - 2017 - Complexity:1-8.
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  34. Automated Evaluation of Text and Discourse with Coh-Metrix.[author unknown] - 2014
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  35.  76
    Automating Gender: Postmodern Feminism in the Age of the Intelligent Machine.Judith Halberstam - 1991 - Feminist Studies 17 (3):439.
  36.  13
    Automation-Induced Complacency Potential: Development and Validation of a New Scale.Stephanie M. Merritt, Alicia Ako-Brew, William J. Bryant, Amy Staley, Michael McKenna, Austin Leone & Lei Shirase - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  37.  4
    Full Automation in its Infancy: The Situationist Avant-Garde Book Fin de Copenhague.Dominique Routhier - 2020 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 29 (60):48-71.
    This article discusses Fin de Copenhague, a Situationist book experiment from 1957 by Asger Jorn and Guy Debord. By way of a contextualizing archival study with special attention to Jorn’s contemporaneous book project Pour la forme, the article demonstrates that the Russian avant-garde book was a key influence if also a point of critical departure. On this reading, Fin de Copenhague marks a turn away from the unbridled technological optimism of the historical avant-garde. In its material implications and aesthetic choices, (...)
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  38.  51
    Ethics-based auditing of automated decision-making systems: nature, scope, and limitations.Jakob Mökander, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1–30.
    Important decisions that impact humans lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory outcomes, violate individual privacy, and undermine human self-determination. New governance mechanisms are thus needed that help organisations design and deploy ADMS in ways that are ethical, while enabling society to reap the full economic and social benefits of (...)
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  39.  66
    Automation, Labour Justice, and Equality.Denise Celentano - 2019 - Ethics and Social Welfare 13 (1):33-50.
  40.  33
    Automate or Innervate? The Role of Knowledge in Advanced Manufacturing Systems.J. Martin Corbett - 1989 - AI and Society 3 (3):198-208.
    This chapter examines the role of shopfloor knowledge in the operation of advanced manufacturing systems. Design trends towards full automation are contrasted with those toward hybrid, human-centred systems with particular emphasis on job design and the development and reproduction of knowledge. The chapter concludes with a short discussion of the problems inherent in hybrid design.
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  41.  15
    Automated Remote Sensing with Near Infrared Reflectance Spectra: Carbonate Recognition.Clark Glymour - manuscript
    Reflectance spectroscopy is a standard tool for studying the mineral composition of rock and soil samples and for remote sensing of terrestrial and extraterrestrial surfaces. We describe research on automated methods of mineral identification from reflectance spectra and give evidence that a simple algorithm, adapted from a well-known search procedure for Bayes nets, identifies the most frequently occurring classes of carbonates with reliability equal to or greater than that of human experts. We compare the reliability of the procedure to the (...)
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  42.  22
    Are Automated Vehicles Safer Than Manually Driven Cars?Lionel P. Robert - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (3):687-688.
    Are automated vehicles really safer than manually driven vehicles? If so, how would we know? Answering this question has spurred a contentious debate. Unfortunately, several issues make answering this question difficult for the foreseeable future. First, how do we measure safety? Second, how can we keep track of automated vehicle safety? Finally, how do we determine what is or what is not an AV? Until these questions are addressed, it will continue to be difficult to determine whether or when AVs (...)
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  43.  12
    The Automated Laplacean Demon: How ML Challenges Our Views on Prediction and Explanation.Sanja Srećković, Andrea Berber & Nenad Filipović - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-25.
    Certain characteristics make machine learning a powerful tool for processing large amounts of data, and also particularly unsuitable for explanatory purposes. There are worries that its increasing use in science may sideline the explanatory goals of research. We analyze the key characteristics of ML that might have implications for the future directions in scientific research: epistemic opacity and the ‘theory-agnostic’ modeling. These characteristics are further analyzed in a comparison of ML with the traditional statistical methods, in order to demonstrate what (...)
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  44.  4
    Automated Discovery Systems, Part 1: Historical Origins, Main Research Programs, and Methodological Foundations.Piotr Giza - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (1):e12800.
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 1, January 2022.
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  45.  4
    Automated Discovery Systems, Part 2: New Developments, Current Issues, and Philosophical Lessons in Machine Learning and Data Science.Piotr Giza - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (1):e12802.
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 1, January 2022.
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  46.  28
    Automated Discovery of Linear Feedback Models.Thomas Richardson - unknown
    The introduction of statistical models represented by directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) has proved fruitful in the construction of expert systems, in allowing efficient updating algorithms that take advantage of conditional independence relations (Pearl, 1988, Lauritzen et al. 1993), and in inferring causal structure from conditional independence relations (Spirtes and Glymour, 1991, Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines, 1993, Pearl and Verma, 1991, Cooper, 1992). As a framework for representing the combination of causal and statistical hypotheses, DAG models have shed light on a (...)
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  47.  26
    Automated Reference Resolution in Legal Texts.Oanh Thi Tran, Bach Xuan Ngo, Minh Le Nguyen & Akira Shimazu - 2014 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 22 (1):29-60.
    This paper investigates the task of reference resolution in the legal domain. This is a new interesting task in Legal Engineering research. The goal is to create a system which can automatically detect references and then extracts their referents. Previous work limits itself to detect and resolve references at the document targets. In this paper, we go a step further in trying to resolve references to sub-document targets. Referents extracted are the smallest fragments of texts in documents, rather than the (...)
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  48. Automated Discovery Systems and Scientific Realism.Piotr Giza - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):105-117.
    In the paper I explore the relations between a relatively new and quickly expanding branch of artificial intelligence –- the automated discovery systems –- and some new views advanced in the old debate over scientific realism. I focus my attention on one such system, GELL-MANN, designed in 1990 at Wichita State University. The program's task was to analyze elementary particle data available in 1964 and formulate an hypothesis (or hypotheses) about a `hidden', more simple structure of matter, or to put (...)
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  49. Why a Right to Explanation of Automated Decision-Making Does Not Exist in the General Data Protection Regulation.Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - International Data Privacy Law 1 (2):76-99.
    Since approval of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in 2016, it has been widely and repeatedly claimed that the GDPR will legally mandate a ‘right to explanation’ of all decisions made by automated or artificially intelligent algorithmic systems. This right to explanation is viewed as an ideal mechanism to enhance the accountability and transparency of automated decision-making. However, there are several reasons to doubt both the legal existence and the feasibility of such a right. In contrast to the (...)
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  50.  51
    Automation of Legal Sensemaking in E-Discovery.Christopher Hogan, Robert S. Bauer & Dan Brassil - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (4):431-457.
    Retrieval of relevant unstructured information from the ever-increasing textual communications of individuals and businesses has become a major barrier to effective litigation/defense, mergers/acquisitions, and regulatory compliance. Such e-discovery requires simultaneously high precision with high recall (high-P/R) and is therefore a prototype for many legal reasoning tasks. The requisite exhaustive information retrieval (IR) system must employ very different techniques than those applicable in the hyper-precise, consumer search task where insignificant recall is the accepted norm. We apply Russell, et al.’s cognitive task (...)
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