This paper examines the importance of aspirations as reference points in a multi-period decision-making context. After stating their personal aspiration level, 172 individuals made six sequential decisions among risky prospects as part of a choice experiment. The results show that individuals make different risky-choices in a multi-period compared to a single-period setting. In particular, individuals’ aspiration level is their main reference point during the early stages of decision-making, while their starting status (wealth level at the start of the experiment) becomes (...) the central reference point during the later stages of their multi-period decision-making. (shrink)
В монографии рассматриваются особенности формирования современной культуры, современного научного знания, методологии науки, научной картины мира, анализируются проблемы взаимосвязи экологической картины мира и коэволюционного развития природы и общества.
The humanitarian idea underlying this article is to attempt an epidemiological interpretation of the classic Hippocratic triad "Medicine consists of three elements: the disease, the patient and the doctor". In the XIII century, the Syrian doctor Abul-Faraj in his saying: "Look, there are three of us – you, me, and the disease. If you are on my side, it will be easier for the two of us to defeat her. But, if you go over to her side, I alone will (...) not be able to defeat you both" deciphered the magical meaning of these words. For centuries, the fundamental integrity of this formula has been an ethical and professional guarantee of the success of each patient's treatment and the prospect of building a personalized healthcare system. In this particular article, we have searched for new content of three key elements of the textbook aphorism in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. An understanding of the role of the doctor – "I" as the whole complex of efforts aimed at fighting the pandemic. Patient status "You" means the whole society during a pandemic, and even is as a long-term message for the physical, mental, social and geopolitical health of future generations. The meaning of "Disease" should be understood from the perspective of the problems of the entire health system and logistical ignorance, which has become an obstacle to achieving ethical integrity in managing epidemic challenges. The paper shows how adherence to the ethical principles of social responsibility, trust, and solidarity should become the moral accompaniment of the entire complex of sanitary, anti-epidemic, economic, legal, and social technologies that can ensure success in the fight against the pandemic and prevent the development of unjustified risks. (shrink)
The Brest Union of 1596 is a topic that has for many centuries aroused wide discussions both in the Ukrainian environment and among those of other cultures interested in the history and modern life of Ukraine. This landmark event in Ukrainian history is assessed from different points of view: from the position of a scientist who tries to be objective and rise above the "malice of the day", a politician who cannot avoid the dictates of a congregation, a church activist (...) who upholds the purity of the faith of adherents of a particular denomination., The “average bread consumer,” who ultimately has to reap its benefits. It is no wonder, then, that the range of assessments is also extremely broad, from unconditional acceptance to the categorical denial of everything related to church union. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the review and analysis of journalistic discourse from the perspective of its pragmatic characteristics. It has been suggested that any written text published on the pages of periodicals is a dialectical unity of language and media features, formed by three levels of mediaspeech: verbal text, the level of funds and the level of iconic graphic image is a part of a journalistic discourse. This type of discourse is related to the institutional discourse. In order to (...) identify characteristic features of journalistic discourse in the selected angle of study its definition is discussed, the notions of journalistic discourse and media text are divided, and on a material of modern German language the characteristics of the language code in the texts of journalistic discourse are identified. It is found that with the development of the theory of discourse, including journalistic discourse, the text is moving to the center of linguistic studies and it is analyzed in its interaction with the pragmatic factors. That linguistic pragmatics provides the basis for theoretical studies of the text as an appropriate discourse component and treats it as intentional communicative action, which is realized by means of appropriate lexical and morphological tools, terminology and grammar structures. The peculiar language of the text code is predetermined, first of all, communicative-pragmatic function performed by the analyzed text. (shrink)
Problems of functional style differentiation of modern literary language are considered and analyzed in the article. Taking into account the communicative and pragmatic function, various substyles and sublanguages formed as a result of practical language usage in society are singled out on the example of the scientific style.
The process of Slovak political tradition formation during the establishment of an independent state is discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to the authoritarian tendencies, which developed after the breakup of Czechoslovakia, atypical for Central and Eastern Europe character of political transformation and the establishment of the entire state power system are analyzed. A brief historical background of the evolution of ‘the Slovak question‘ and its influence on the development of the state is given. Authors highlight features of (...) the social structure of Slovakia, emphasizing the special mentality, greatly influenced on the formation of the political system of the state in historical perspective. It is also noted, that formation of political tradition in Slovakia at the end of the twentieth century was marked by constant struggle between coalition and the opposition, which led to increased political instability in 1995-1997, which contributed to the emergence of the political tendencies, called ‘Slovak way of transformation‘. This had an impact on the integration processes in the state, which in 1994 declared its desire to join the European Union. The authors conclude that as long as the disparate political forces were unable to find a compromise and to determine priority in order to improve life of society rather than their personal ambitions, the Slovak political life was in a state of stagnation. (shrink)
Purpose. The aim of this article is to analyse the essential features of religious faith as an existential-personalistic model of the formation of a person, his worldview orientations and activities. This requires a consistent solution of the following tasks: a) to focus on different approaches to understanding the phenomenon of "religious faith" ; b) to reveal the spiritual potential of religious faith, its capabilities in boundary situations. Theoretical basis. The author thinks that the interpretation of religious faith as confidence in (...) the invisible is unsatisfactory, one-sided and superficial. Religious faith is the existential, due to which a person overcomes the contradictions between finiteness and infinity. It is the construct of the human spirit, which makes its way into the transcendental realm. In this context, religious faith is a kind of criterion for the "growth" of the "human" in human, the criterion of his spirituality and humanity. Religious faith, being an integral part of human existence, gives it irrational dimensions, makes the possibility of impossible. The existential potential of religious faith serves as the "fulcrum" of a person, thanks to which he self-actualizes, self-fulfills and forms a certain worldview model. Originality. The author has proved that religious faith, which is the projective model of a person, turns out to be one of the possible ways to solve its existential problems, as it concerns not only the nature of the essential characteristics, the properties of the Divine itself but also the ultimate foundations of person in all the uniqueness and specificity of his being. Conclusions. Religious faith, acting as a factor in human activity, builds his value-worldview model of the world. Faith deals with the "ultimate" problems of human existence since it is of exceptional importance in solving life-meaning issues of human existence. The existential experience of the believer acquires the status of an event that opens up a field of new possibilities, a new spiritual experience. The accumulative effect of such experience forms the spiritual and value priorities of human existence, sets certain coordinates of his vital activity, due to which he self-determines, being in dialogue with the Absolute. Religious faith, unfolding as a permanent process of "search and finding" opens the "code" of transcendence, a new level of relations of the Human and Divine. (shrink)
Modern Christian religiosity as a whole, and in particular the Greek-Catholic way of expressing it, are all-round in the public consciousness. Religion is transformed as intensely as other components of the latter. That is why today it is relevant to analyze, on the one hand, the relation of existential and anthropocentric, and on the other - the pluralistic filling of modern Ukrainian Greek Catholicism and to find out the optimal degree of this relation.
The article investigates ways of actualization of mean field utterances used in modern German instructions considering the type of the text. The author determines and analyzes similarities and differences in linguistic means used in mean field utterances in the context of such text subtypes as instructions to household appliances, cosmetic products directions and prescribing information for pharmaceutical drugs use.
The article devoted to the analysis of advertising texts in terms of both diachrony and synchrony. Advertising texts relating to the texts of the mass media carry out several communicative and pragmatic functions in the modern society. Evolution of this type of text indicates that without advertising the successful activity of producers of goods and services in a market economy is unthinkable. On the extensive empirical material borrowed from the German press, various sub-types of advertising texts are established, a number (...) of both linguistic and non-linguistic means used in modern advertising for the realization of its purposes, including manipulative ones, are revealed. In order to achieve their goal, copywriters tend to appeal to a number of social values. Despite the fact that the main pragmatic purpose of advertising is updated with the help of morphological means, specific syntactic constructions, and lexical units, the non-verbal component plays a significant role in realizing the impact on recipients. Modern advertising occupies one of the leading places in the media, being the most mobile and dynamic texts. Since many linguistic and non-linguistic means are used in them for manipulative purposes, one can in some cases talk about so-called hidden advertising. The analysis showed that the main principle of constructing an advertising text is the tendency to the apparent simplicity of information delivery. However, in reality advertising is built on much more complex principles, which initially assume not to resort to an objective description of the product or service. It is established that the advertising texts are actively studied from the position of a number of modern scientific branches. They are not only medialinguistics and the sociology of mass communication, but also communicative linguistics, theories of discourse, psycho- and sociolinguistics. (shrink)
The study considers the development of methods for detecting anomalous network connections based on hybridization of computational intelligence methods. An analysis of approaches to detecting anomalies and abuses in computer networks. In the framework of this analysis, a classification of methods for detecting network attacks is proposed. The main results are reduced to the construction of multi-class models that increase the efficiency of the attack detection system, and can be used to build systems for classifying network parameters during the attack. (...) A model of an artificial immune system based on an evolutionary approach, an algorithm for genetic-competitive learning of the Kohonen network and a method of hierarchical hybridization of binary classifiers with the addition to the detection of anomalous network connections have been developed. The architecture of the network distributed attack detection system has been developed. The architecture of the attack detection system is two-tier: the first level provides the primary analysis of individual packets and network connections using signature analysis, the second level processes the processing of aggregate network data streams using adaptive classifiers. A signature analysis was performed to study network performance based on the Aho-Korasik and Boyer-Moore algorithms and their improved analogues were implemented using OpenMP and CUDA technologies. The architecture is presented and the main points of operation of the network attack generator are shown. A system for generating network attacks has been developed. This system consists of two components: an asynchronous transparent proxy server for TCP sessions and a frontend interface for a network attack generator. The results of the experiments confirmed that the functional and non-functional requirements, as well as the requirements for computing intelligent systems, are met for the developed attack detection system. (shrink)
The ecumenical movement originates from Protestant ecumenical initiatives, which resulted in world Christian conferences of the first half of the twentieth century. As Metropolitan Ilarion rightly pointed out, these conferences "stirred up the Christian thought and sent it to a combination of churches. The conferences have explained how this combination can now be ".
The structural-parametric synthesis of neural networks of deep learning, in particular convolutional neural networks used in image processing, is considered. The classification of modern architectures of convolutional neural networks is given. It is shown that almost every convolutional neural network, depending on its topology, has unique blocks that determine its essential features, Residual block, Inception module, ResNeXt block. It is stated the problem of structural-parametric synthesis of convolutional neural networks, for the solution of which it is proposed to use a (...) genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is used to effectively overcome a large search space: on the one hand, to generate possible topologies of the convolutional neural network, namely the choice of specific blocks and their locations in the structure of the convolutional neural network, and on the other hand to solve the problem of structural-parametric synthesis of convolutional neural network of selected topology. The most significant parameters of the convolutional neural network are determined. An encoding method is proposed that allows to repre- sent each network structure in the form of a string of fixed length in binary format. After that, several standard genetic operations were identified, i.e. selection, mutation and crossover, which eliminate weak individuals of the previous generation and use them to generate competitive ones. An example of solving this problem is given, a database of patients with thyroid disease was used as a training sample. (shrink)