Results for 'Artificial Intelligence'

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  1. Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits.James H. Fetzer - 1990 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    1. WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? One of the fascinating aspects of the field of artificial intelligence (AI) is that the precise nature of its subject ..
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  2. Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea.John Haugeland - 1985 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    The idea that human thinking and machine computing are "radically the same" provides the central theme for this marvelously lucid and witty book on...
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  3.  43
    Responsible Artificial Intelligence: How to Develop and Use Ai in a Responsible Way.Virginia Dignum - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    In this book, the author examines the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence systems as they integrate and replace traditional social structures in new sociocognitive-technological environments. She discusses issues related to the integrity of researchers, technologists, and manufacturers as they design, construct, use, and manage artificially intelligent systems; formalisms for reasoning about moral decisions as part of the behavior of artificial autonomous systems such as agents and robots; and design methodologies for social agents based on societal, moral, and (...)
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  4. Artificial Intelligence—A Personal View.David Marr - 1977 - Artificial Intelligence 9 (September):37-48.
  5. Can Artificial Intelligence Make Art?Elzė Sigutė Mikalonytė & Markus Kneer - 2022 - ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interactions.
    In two experiments (total N=693) we explored whether people are willing to consider paintings made by AI-driven robots as art, and robots as artists. Across the two experiments, we manipulated three factors: (i) agent type (AI-driven robot v. human agent), (ii) behavior type (intentional creation of a painting v. accidental creation), and (iii) object type (abstract v. representational painting). We found that people judge robot paintings and human painting as art to roughly the same extent. However, people are much less (...)
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  6. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question of whether (...)
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  7. Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction.B. Jack Copeland - 1993 - Cambridge: Blackwell.
    Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding.There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. (...)
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  8.  10
    Artificial Intelligence: What Everyone Needs to Know.Jerry Kaplan - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Over the coming decades, Artificial Intelligence will profoundly impact the way we live, work, wage war, play, seek a mate, educate our young, and care for our elderly. It is likely to greatly increase our aggregate wealth, but it will also upend our labor markets, reshuffle our social order, and strain our private and public institutions. Eventually it may alter how we see our place in the universe, as machines pursue goals independent of their creators and outperform us (...)
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  9.  54
    The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Margaret A. Boden (ed.) - 1990 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    This interdisciplinary collection of classical and contemporary readings provides a clear and comprehensive guide to the many hotly-debated philosophical issues at the heart of artificial intelligence.
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  10.  18
    Logics for Artificial Intelligence.Raymond Turner - 1984 - New York, NY, USA: Ellis Horwood.
    In Logics for Artificial Intelligence, Raymond Turner leads us on a whirl-wind tour of nonstandard logics and their general applications to Al and computer science.
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  11. Artificial Intelligence and the ‘Good Society’: The US, EU, and UK Approach.Corinne Cath, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):505-528.
    In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence. In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a ‘good AI society’. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: the development of (...)
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  12. Artificial Intelligence and Robot Responsibilities: Innovating Beyond Rights.Hutan Ashrafian - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):317-326.
    The enduring innovations in artificial intelligence and robotics offer the promised capacity of computer consciousness, sentience and rationality. The development of these advanced technologies have been considered to merit rights, however these can only be ascribed in the context of commensurate responsibilities and duties. This represents the discernable next-step for evolution in this field. Addressing these needs requires attention to the philosophical perspectives of moral responsibility for artificial intelligence and robotics. A contrast to the moral status (...)
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  13.  5
    Artificial Intelligence in Local Governments: Perceptions of City Managers on Prospects, Constraints and Choices.Tan Yigitcanlar, Duzgun Agdas & Kenan Degirmenci - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    Highly sophisticated capabilities of artificial intelligence have skyrocketed its popularity across many industry sectors globally. The public sector is one of these. Many cities around the world are trying to position themselves as leaders of urban innovation through the development and deployment of AI systems. Likewise, increasing numbers of local government agencies are attempting to utilise AI technologies in their operations to deliver policy and generate efficiencies in highly uncertain and complex urban environments. While the popularity of AI (...)
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  14.  8
    Artificial Intelligence and Human Enhancement: Affirmative and Critical Approaches in the Humanities.Herta Nagl-Docekal & Waldemar Zacharasiewicz (eds.) - 2022 - De Gruyter.
    Seit 2014 erscheinen die Bände der renommierten Wiener Reihe bei De Gruyter. Das äußere Layout der Bände wurde modernisiert, inhaltlich und personell jedoch ist das Profil der seit mehr als zwei Jahrzehnten erscheinenden Buchreihe von Kontinuität geprägt. Die Bände sind jeweils einer aktuellen philosophischen Fragestellung gewidmet. Eine internationale Autorenschaft und die Veröffentlichung fremdsprachiger Beiträge sind Elemente des Programms. Die Reihe will dazu beitragen, dogmatische Abgrenzungen zwischen philosophischen Schulen und Traditionen abzubauen.
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  15. Artificial Intelligence, Responsibility Attribution, and a Relational Justification of Explainability.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2051-2068.
    This paper discusses the problem of responsibility attribution raised by the use of artificial intelligence technologies. It is assumed that only humans can be responsible agents; yet this alone already raises many issues, which are discussed starting from two Aristotelian conditions for responsibility. Next to the well-known problem of many hands, the issue of “many things” is identified and the temporal dimension is emphasized when it comes to the control condition. Special attention is given to the epistemic condition, (...)
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  16. Artificial Intelligence and Patient-Centered Decision-Making.Jens Christian Bjerring & Jacob Busch - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):349-371.
    Advanced AI systems are rapidly making their way into medical research and practice, and, arguably, it is only a matter of time before they will surpass human practitioners in terms of accuracy, reliability, and knowledge. If this is true, practitioners will have a prima facie epistemic and professional obligation to align their medical verdicts with those of advanced AI systems. However, in light of their complexity, these AI systems will often function as black boxes: the details of their contents, calculations, (...)
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  17.  8
    Artificial Intelligence: The Case Against.Rainer Born (ed.) - 1987 - St Martin's Press.
    The purpose of this book, originally published in 1987, was to contribute to the advance of artificial intelligence by clarifying and removing the major sources of philosophical confusion at the time which continued to preoccupy scientists and thereby impede research. Unlike the vast majority of philosophical critiques of AI, however, each of the authors in this volume has made a serious attempt to come to terms with the scientific theories that have been developed, rather than attacking superficial 'straw (...)
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  18. Trusting Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity is a Double-Edged Sword.Mariarosaria Taddeo, Tom McCutcheon & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32:1-15.
    Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for cybersecurity tasks are attracting greater attention from the private and the public sectors. Estimates indicate that the market for AI in cybersecurity will grow from US$1 billion in 2016 to a US$34.8 billion net worth by 2025. The latest national cybersecurity and defence strategies of several governments explicitly mention AI capabilities. At the same time, initiatives to define new standards and certification procedures to elicit users’ trust in AI are emerging on a (...)
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  19.  52
    Algorithmic Political Bias in Artificial Intelligence Systems.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-23.
    Some artificial intelligence systems can display algorithmic bias, i.e. they may produce outputs that unfairly discriminate against people based on their social identity. Much research on this topic focuses on algorithmic bias that disadvantages people based on their gender or racial identity. The related ethical problems are significant and well known. Algorithmic bias against other aspects of people’s social identity, for instance, their political orientation, remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that algorithmic bias against people’s political orientation can (...)
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  20.  65
    Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction.Jack Copeland - 1993 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding. There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and (...)
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  21. Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Foreseeable Threats and Solutions.Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):89-120.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated markets. However, because AIC is still a relatively young (...)
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  22.  15
    The Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence.Keith Frankish & William M. Ramsey (eds.) - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Artificial intelligence, or AI, is a cross-disciplinary approach to understanding, modeling, and creating intelligence of various forms. It is a critical branch of cognitive science, and its influence is increasingly being felt in other areas, including the humanities. AI applications are transforming the way we interact with each other and with our environment, and work in artificially modeling intelligence is offering new insights into the human mind and revealing new forms mentality can take. This volume of (...)
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  23. Mind Design: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence.John Haugeland (ed.) - 1981 - MIT Press.
    Semantic Engines: An Introduction to Mind Design, John C. Haugeland; Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry: Symbols and Search, Alan Newell and Herbert A. Simon; Complexity and the Study of Artificial and Human Intelligence, Zenon Pylyshyn; A Framework for Representing Knowledge, Marvin Minsky; Artificial Intelligence---A Personal View, David Marr; Artificial Intelligence Meets Natural Stupidity, Drew McDermott; From Micro-Worlds to Knowledge Representation: AI at an Impasse, Hubert L. Dreyfus; Reductionism and the Nature of Psychology, Hilary Putnam; (...)
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  24. Beneficial Artificial Intelligence Coordination by Means of a Value Sensitive Design Approach.Steven Umbrello - 2019 - Big Data and Cognitive Computing 3 (1):5.
    This paper argues that the Value Sensitive Design (VSD) methodology provides a principled approach to embedding common values in to AI systems both early and throughout the design process. To do so, it draws on an important case study: the evidence and final report of the UK Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence. This empirical investigation shows that the different and often disparate stakeholder groups that are implicated in AI design and use share some common values that can be (...)
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  25.  66
    Artificial intelligence, transparency, and public decision-making.Karl de Fine Licht & Jenny de Fine Licht - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (4):917-926.
    The increasing use of Artificial Intelligence for making decisions in public affairs has sparked a lively debate on the benefits and potential harms of self-learning technologies, ranging from the hopes of fully informed and objectively taken decisions to fear for the destruction of mankind. To prevent the negative outcomes and to achieve accountable systems, many have argued that we need to open up the “black box” of AI decision-making and make it more transparent. Whereas this debate has primarily (...)
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  26.  4
    Artificial Intelligence In Psychology: Interdisciplinary Essays.Margaret A. Boden - 1989 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    This collection of Margaret Boden's essays written between 1982 and 1988 focuses on the relevance of artificial intelligence to psychology.
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  27.  56
    Artificial Intelligence, Social Media and Depression. A New Concept of Health-Related Digital Autonomy.Sebastian Laacke, Regina Mueller, Georg Schomerus & Sabine Salloch - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (7):4-20.
    The development of artificial intelligence in medicine raises fundamental ethical issues. As one example, AI systems in the field of mental health successfully detect signs of mental disorders...
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  28. Artificial Intelligence and the Notion of Person and Work in the Social Teachings of the Church.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri -
    Today’s capitalist economy has forced the human person to seek work as a means of survival, by so doing stripping from work its value as a good intrinsically connected to the nature and dignity of the human person. Modern science and technology has been a fundamental tool in the advancement and sustainability of this orientation of capitalist economy. Hence, the advancement in the research in Artificial intelligence (AI), is not only redefining the meaning of work but more so (...)
     
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  29. Artificial Intelligence, Mind and the Scholastics’ Notion of Intellectus.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri - manuscript
    For the philosopher, the most critical and fundamental question in the project of Artificial Intelligence is the question of intelligence or cognition in general. From the beginning of the research in “thinking Machining”, or Artificial Intelligence as it later became known, the key question is: What makes a thing intelligent or what constitutes intelligence? Since, intelligence, is a fundamental activity of the mind, the question, has been: Whether the mind is a computer or (...)
     
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  30.  7
    Rebooting Ai: Building Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust.Gary Marcus & Ernest Davis - 2019 - Vintage.
    Two leaders in the field offer a compelling analysis of the current state of the art and reveal the steps we must take to achieve a truly robust artificial intelligence. Despite the hype surrounding AI, creating an intelligence that rivals or exceeds human levels is far more complicated than we have been led to believe. Professors Gary Marcus and Ernest Davis have spent their careers at the forefront of AI research and have witnessed some of the greatest (...)
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  31.  80
    Artificial Intelligence Meets Natural Stupidity.Drew McDermott - 1981 - In J. Haugel (ed.), Mind Design. MIT Press. pp. 5-18.
  32.  98
    Artificial Intelligence as a Socratic Assistant for Moral Enhancement.Francisco Lara & Jan Deckers - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):275-287.
    The moral enhancement of human beings is a constant theme in the history of humanity. Today, faced with the threats of a new, globalised world, concern over this matter is more pressing. For this reason, the use of biotechnology to make human beings more moral has been considered. However, this approach is dangerous and very controversial. The purpose of this article is to argue that the use of another new technology, AI, would be preferable to achieve this goal. Whilst several (...)
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  33. Regulate Artificial Intelligence to Avert Cyber Arms Race.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Nature 556 (7701):296-298.
    This paper argues that there is an urgent need for an international doctrine for cyberspace skirmishes before they escalate into conventional warfare.
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  34. Artificial Intelligence, Deepfakes and a Future of Ectypes.Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (3):317-321.
    AI, especially in the case of Deepfakes, has the capacity to undermine our confidence in the original, genuine, authentic nature of what we see and hear. And yet digital technologies, in the form of databases and other detection tools also make it easier to spot forgeries and to establish the authenticity of a work. Using the notion of ectypes, this paper discusses current conceptions of authenticity and reproduction and examines how, in the future, these might be adapted for use in (...)
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  35. Artificial Intelligence and its Natural Limits.Karl D. Stephan & Gyula Klima - 2021 - AI and Society (1):9-18.
    An argument with roots in ancient Greek philosophy claims that only humans are capable of a certain class of thought termed conceptual, as opposed to perceptual thought, which is common to humans, the higher animals, and some machines. We outline the most detailed modern version of this argument due to Mortimer Adler, who in the 1960s argued for the uniqueness of the human power of conceptual thought. He also admitted that if conceptual thought were ever manifested by machines, such an (...)
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  36. Artificial Intelligence and Black‐Box Medical Decisions: Accuracy Versus Explainability.Alex John London - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (1):15-21.
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  37.  29
    Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man.Martin Atkinson - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (116):278.
  38. The Chinese Approach to Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of Policy, Ethics, and Regulation.Huw Roberts, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Vincent Wang & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):59–⁠77.
    In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence, entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’. This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan industry, and to emerge as the driving force in defining ethical norms and standards for AI. Several reports have analysed specific aspects of China’s AI policies or have assessed the country’s technical capabilities. Instead, in this (...)
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  39.  65
    Artificial intelligence and the value of transparency.Joel Walmsley - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):585-595.
    Some recent developments in Artificial Intelligence—especially the use of machine learning systems, trained on big data sets and deployed in socially significant and ethically weighty contexts—have led to a number of calls for “transparency”. This paper explores the epistemological and ethical dimensions of that concept, as well as surveying and taxonomising the variety of ways in which it has been invoked in recent discussions. Whilst “outward” forms of transparency may be straightforwardly achieved, what I call “functional” transparency about (...)
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  40.  16
    Government Use of Artificial Intelligence in New Zealand.Colin Gavighan, Ali Knott, James Maclaurin, John Zerilli & Joy Liddicoat - 2019 - The New Zealand Law Foundation.
    Final Report on Phase 1 of the New Zealand Law Foundation’s Artificial Intelligence and Law in New Zealand Project.
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  41.  46
    Artificial Intelligence Ethics Guidelines for Developers and Users: Clarifying Their Content and Normative Implications.Mark Ryan & Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2021 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 19 (1):61-86.
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is clearly illustrate this convergence and the prescriptive recommendations that such documents entail. There is a significant amount of research into the ethical consequences of artificial intelligence. This is reflected by many outputs across academia, policy and the media. Many of these outputs aim to provide guidance to particular stakeholder groups. It has recently been shown that there is a large degree of convergence in terms of the principles upon which these guidance (...)
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  42.  1
    Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man.Margaret A. Boden - 1977 - New York: Branch Line.
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  43. Artificial Intelligence as a Means to Moral Enhancement.Michał Klincewicz - 2016 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 48 (1):171-187.
    This paper critically assesses the possibility of moral enhancement with ambient intelligence technologies and artificial intelligence presented in Savulescu and Maslen (2015). The main problem with their proposal is that it is not robust enough to play a normative role in users’ behavior. A more promising approach, and the one presented in the paper, relies on an artifi-cial moral reasoning engine, which is designed to present its users with moral arguments grounded in first-order normative theories, such as (...)
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  44. African Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Maximize Utility.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Beatrice Dedaa Okyere-Manu (ed.), African Values, Ethics, and Technology: Questions, Issues, and Approaches. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 55-72.
    Insofar as artificial intelligence is to be used to guide automated systems in their interactions with humans, the dominant view is probably that it would be appropriate to programme them to maximize (expected) utility. According to utilitarianism, which is a characteristically western conception of moral reason, machines should be programmed to do whatever they could in a given circumstance to produce in the long run the highest net balance of what is good for human beings minus what is (...)
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    Artificial Intelligences as Extended Minds. Why Not?Gianfranco Pellegrino & Mirko Daniel Garasic - 2020 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 11 (2):150-168.
    : Artificial intelligences and robots increasingly mimic human mental powers and intelligent behaviour. However, many authors claim that ascribing human mental powers to them is both conceptually mistaken and morally dangerous. This article defends the view that artificial intelligences can have human-like mental powers, by claiming that both human and artificial minds can be seen as extended minds – along the lines of Chalmers and Clark’s view of mind and cognition. The main idea of this article is (...)
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  46.  90
    Artificial Intelligence, Values, and Alignment.Iason Gabriel - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):411-437.
    This paper looks at philosophical questions that arise in the context of AI alignment. It defends three propositions. First, normative and technical aspects of the AI alignment problem are interrelated, creating space for productive engagement between people working in both domains. Second, it is important to be clear about the goal of alignment. There are significant differences between AI that aligns with instructions, intentions, revealed preferences, ideal preferences, interests and values. A principle-based approach to AI alignment, which combines these elements (...)
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  47. Future Progress in Artificial Intelligence: A Survey of Expert Opinion.Vincent C. Müller & Nick Bostrom - 2016 - In Vincent Müller (ed.), Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence. Springer. pp. 553-571.
    There is, in some quarters, concern about high–level machine intelligence and superintelligent AI coming up in a few decades, bringing with it significant risks for humanity. In other quarters, these issues are ignored or considered science fiction. We wanted to clarify what the distribution of opinions actually is, what probability the best experts currently assign to high–level machine intelligence coming up within a particular time–frame, which risks they see with that development, and how fast they see these developing. (...)
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  48. The AI Gambit — Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Combat Climate Change: Opportunities, Challenges, and Recommendations.Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsamados, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - In Vodafone Institute for Society and Communications.
    In this article we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change and it contribute to combating the climate crisis effectively. However, the development of AI also raises two sets of problems when considering climate change: the possible exacerbation of social and ethical challenges already associated with AI, (...)
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  49. Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.Vincent C. Müller - 2020 - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto, Cal.: CSLI, Stanford University. pp. 1-70.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are digital technologies that will have significant impact on the development of humanity in the near future. They have raised fundamental questions about what we should do with these systems, what the systems themselves should do, what risks they involve, and how we can control these. - After the Introduction to the field (§1), the main themes (§2) of this article are: Ethical issues that arise with AI systems as objects, i.e., tools made (...)
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  50.  13
    Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence.Todd C. Moody - 1993 - Prentice-Hall.
    An exploration of the important philosophical issues and concerns related to artificial intelligence. The book focuses on the philosphical, rather than the technical or technological aspects of artificial intelligence.
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