Results for 'Arthur B. LaFrance'

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  1. In defense of representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Cognitive Psychology 40 (2):138--171.
    The computational paradigm, which has dominated psychology and artificial intelligence since the cognitive revolution, has been a source of intense debate. Recently, several cognitive scientists have argued against this paradigm, not by objecting to computation, but rather by objecting to the notion of representation. Our analysis of these objections reveals that it is not the notion of representation per se that is causing the problem, but rather specific properties of representations as they are used in various psychological theories. Our analysis (...)
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  2. Knowledge representation.Arthur B. Markman - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  3.  12
    Constraints on analogical inference.Arthur B. Markman - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (4):373-418.
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  4.  48
    Nonintentional similarity processing.Arthur B. Markman & Dedre Gentner - 2005 - In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 107--137.
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  5.  4
    Darwin's Use of Analogical Reasoning in Theory Construction.Arthur B. Millman & Carol L. Smith - 1997 - Metaphor and Symbol 12 (3):159-187.
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  6.  29
    Are dynamical systems the answer?Arthur B. Markman - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):50-51.
    The proposed model is put forward as a template for the dynamical systems approach to embodied cognition. In order to extend this view to cognitive processing in general, however, two limitations must be overcome. First, it must be demonstrated that sensorimotor coordination of the type evident in the A-not-B error is typical of other aspects of cognition. Second, the explanatory utility of dynamical systems models must be clarified.
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  7.  33
    Enthymemes: Body and Soul.Arthur B. Miller & John D. Bee - 1972 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 5 (4):201 - 214.
    This essay argues that the affective component inherent in the enthymeme is the essence of aristotle's concept of the enthymeme as practical reasoning. 'affective component' refers to emotions and feelings. The three proofs of the thesis are the etymology of 'enthymeme', Aristotle's works on human action and practical wisdom, And aristotle's rhetoric. These sources show the inherent relation between enthymemes and phronesis, Or practical reasoning, Not nous, Or abstract intellect.
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  8.  16
    The Plausibility of Research Programs.Arthur B. Millman - 1976 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:140 - 148.
    Although, when first introduced, Copernicus's theory considered as a whole was not superior to the Ptolemaic theory according to any of the usual criteria for comparing theories and determining their acceptability, it did have features which provided the early Copernicans with good reasons for entertaining it and trying to develop it further. These features are discussed and then three plausibility considerations which seem to be operative in this case are formulated.
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  9. Whither structured representation?Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):626-627.
    The perceptual symbol system view assumes that perceptual representations have a role-argument structure. A role-argument structure is often incorporated into amodal symbol systems in order to explain conceptual functions like abstraction and rule use. The power of perceptual symbol systems to support conceptual functions is likewise rooted in its use of structure. On Barsalou's account, this capacity to use structure (in the form of frames) must be innate.
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  10.  29
    Critical Thinking Attitudes: A Framework for the Issues.Arthur B. Millman - 1988 - Informal Logic 10 (1).
  11.  1
    Les hauts taux tuent tous Les totaux.Arthur B. Laffer - 1996 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 7 (1):103-112.
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  12.  3
    Les Hauts Taux Tuent Tous les Totaux.Arthur B. Laffer - 1996 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 7 (1):103-112.
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  13.  50
    Culture and individual differences.Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Eric Taylor - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):831-831.
    Tests of economic theory often focus on choice outcomes and find significant individual differences in these outcomes. This variability may mask universal psychological processes that lead to different choices because of differences across cultures in the information people have available when making decisions. On this view, decision making research within and across cultures must focus on the processes underlying choice.
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  14.  67
    Digging beneath rules and similarity.Arthur B. Markman, Sergey Blok, Kyungil Kim, Levi Larkey, Lisa R. Narvaez, C. Hunt Stilwell & Eric Taylor - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):29-30.
    Pothos suggests dispensing with the distinction between rules and similarity, without defining what is meant by either term. We agree that there are problems with the distinction between rules and similarity, but believe these will be solved only by exploring the representations and processes underlying cases purported to involve rules and similarity.
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  15.  6
    Human Consciousness.Arthur B. Cody - 1994 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 37:117.
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  16. Something old, Something new: Extending the classical view of representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (12):470-475.
    Representation is a central part of models in cognitive science, but recently this idea has come under attack. Researchers advocating perceptual symbol systems, situated action, embodied cognition, and dynamical systems have argued against central assumptions of the classical representational approach to mind. We review the core assumptions of the dominant view of representation and the four suggested alternatives. We argue that representation should remain a core part of cognitive science, but that the insights from these alternative approaches must be incorporated (...)
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  17.  27
    An amicus for the defense: Relational reasoning magnifies the behavioral differences between humans and nonhumans.Arthur B. Markman & C. Hunt Stilwell - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):142-142.
    Relational representation abilities are a crucial cognitive difference between human and nonhuman animals. We argue that relational reasoning and representation supports the development of culture that increases in complexity. Thus, these abilities are a force that magnifies the apparent difference in cognitive abilities between humans and nonhumans.
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  18.  17
    Analogical inferences are central to analogy.Arthur B. Markman & Jeffrey P. Laux - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):390-391.
    It is important to take a developmental approach to the problem of analogy. One limitation of this approach, however, is that it does not deal with the complexity of making analogical inferences. There are a few key principles of analogical inference that are not well captured by the analogical relational priming (ARP) model.
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  19.  14
    A Tribute to Larry Erlbaum.Arthur B. Markman - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (1):1-1.
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  20.  11
    Boundary conditions and the need for multiple forms of representation.Arthur B. Markman & Takashi Yamauchi - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):477-478.
    Multidimensional space representations like those posited in Edelman's target article are not sufficient to capture all similarity phenomena. We discuss phenomena that are compatible with models of similarity that assume structured relational representations. An adequate model of similarity and perception will require multiple approaches to representation.
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  21.  33
    Can developmental psychology provide a blueprint for the study of adult cognition?Arthur B. Markman - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):140-141.
    In order to develop sophisticated models of the core domains of knowledge that support complex cognitive processing in infants and children, developmental psychologists have mapped out the content of these knowledge domains. This research strategy may provide a blueprint for advancing research on adult cognitive processing. I illustrate this suggestion with examples from analogical reasoning and decision making.
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  22.  9
    Choice output and choice processing: An analogy to similarity.Arthur B. Markman - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):423-424.
    The target article suggests that many practices of experimental economists are preferable to those used by psychologists studying judgment and decision making. The advantages of the psychological approach become clear when the focus of research shifts from choice output to choice processes. I illustrate this point with an example from research on similarity comparisons.
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  23.  15
    Cognitive systems optimize energy rather than information.Arthur B. Markman & A. Ross Otto - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):207-207.
  24. Decision making.Arthur B. Markman & Douglas L. Medin - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
     
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  25.  10
    Editorial Statement.Arthur B. Markman - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (1):1-2.
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  26. From goal-activation to action: how does preference and use of knowledge intervene?Arthur B. Markman, C. Miguel Brendl & Kyungil Kim - 2009 - In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press.
     
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  27.  41
    Money and motivational activation.Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Jon Rein - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):190-190.
    Different aspects of people's interactions with money are best conceptualized using the drug and tool theories. The key question is when these models of money are most likely to guide behavior. We suggest that the Drug Theory characterizes motivationally active uses of money and that the Tool Theory characterizes behavior in motivationally cool situations. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  28.  16
    One alignment mechanism or many?Arthur B. Markman, Kyungil Kim, Levi B. Larkey, Lisa Narvaez & C. Hunt Stilwell - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):204-205.
    Pickering & Garrod (P&G) suggest that communicators synchronize their processing at a number of linguistic levels. Whereas their explanation suggests that representations are being compared across individuals, there must be some representation of all conversation participants in each participant's head. At the level of the situation model, it is important to maintain separate representations for each participant. At other levels, it seems less crucial to have a separate representation for each participant. This analysis suggests that different mechanisms may synchronize representations (...)
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  29. Subject Index to Volume 30.Arthur B. Markman, Thomas T. Hills, Michael P. Kaschak, Jenny R. Saffran, Jarrod Moss, Kenneth Kotovsky, Jonathan Cagan, Louise Connell, Mark T. Keane & Joyca Pw Lacroix - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30:1129-1132.
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  30. The bRaIn.Arthur B. Markman - 2009 - In John Symons Paco Calvo (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. Routledge. pp. 373.
     
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  31.  17
    The limitations of unification.Arthur B. Markman - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):33-34.
    There are two roadblocks to using game theory as a unified theory of the behavioral sciences. First, there may not be a single explanatory framework suitable for explaining psychological processing. Second, even if there is such a framework, game theory is too limited, because it focuses selectively on decision making to the exclusion of other crucial cognitive processes. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  32.  15
    Where are nature's joints? Finding the mechanisms underlying categorization.Arthur B. Markman - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):220-221.
    Machery argues that concepts are too heterogeneous to be a natural kind. I argue that the book does not go far enough. Theories of concepts assume that the task of categorizing warrants a unique set of cognitive constructs. Instead, cognitive science must look across tasks to find a fundamental set of cognitive mechanisms.
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  33.  8
    Roots: Molecular basis of biological regulation: Origins from feedback inhibition and allostery.Arthur B. Pardee - 1985 - Bioessays 2 (1):37-40.
    One observes regulation at every biological level. Organisms, cells, and biochemical processes operate efficiently, normally wasting neither material nor energy, and adjusting their functions to external influences. Nature evidently has evolved mechanisms specifically dedicated to regulation at many levels. What is the molecular basis of this control?In the 1950s these molecular control mechanisms began to be explored seriously. The discoveries of feedback inhibition of enzyme activity were important because they gave an initial example of how regulation is achieved at the (...)
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  34.  12
    Roots: Molecular basis of gene expression: Origins from the Pajama experiment.Arthur B. Pardee - 1985 - Bioessays 2 (2):86-89.
    The Pajama (Pardee, Jacob, Monod) experiment provided a breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated. Today, twenty‐five years later it provides a paradigm for thinking about problems of gene expression, such as growth regulation and differentiation. From this experiment emerged entities such as repressors, regulatory genes, the operon as a group of jointly controlled genes, and messenger RNA.
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  35. Platnauer, Maurice: The Life and Reign of the Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus.Arthur B. Boak - 1919 - Classical Weekly 13:79-80.
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  36.  55
    Falsification and grünbaum's Duhemian theses.Arthur B. Millman - 1990 - Synthese 82 (1):23 - 52.
    This paper is a detailed critical study of Adolf Grünbaum's work on the Duhemian thesis. I show that (a) Grünbaum's geometrical counterexample to the (D1) subthesis is unsuccessful, even with minimal claims made for what the counterexample is supposed to show, and (b) the (D2) subthesis is not a reasonable one (and cannot correctly be attributed to Duhem). The paper concludes with an argument about the relation between the Duhemian thesis, concerning component hypotheses of a scientific theory, and the view (...)
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  37.  54
    Can a single action have many different descriptions?Arthur B. Cody - 1967 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 10 (1-4):164 – 180.
    To say that a single human action can be given different descriptions is to imply that the contrast between action and description is intelligible. There are several ways in which such a contrast is easily understood, but those ways do not meet philosophers? needs. They have said that the descriptions are all true, thereby excluding that interpretation in which no more than one description could be true. They have emphasized the word ?different?, therefore that interpretation in which the descriptions are (...)
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  38.  59
    Consciousness: Of David Chalmers and other philosophers of mind.Arthur B. Cody - 1997 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):379 – 405.
    On reading David Chalmers's book, The Conscious Mind (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), one is struck by the author's efforts to meet the difficulties and obscurities in understanding the human mind, as indeed most other philosophers have, by hazarding theories. Such undertakings rest on two broad, usually unexamined, assumptions. One is that we have direct access to our conscious minds such that pronouncements about it and its contents are descriptive. The other is that our actions have causal explanations which (...)
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  39.  30
    Darwin and Dennett: Still two mysteries.Arthur B. Cody - 1996 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 39 (3 & 4):427 – 457.
  40.  20
    Hannay's consciousness.Arthur B. Cody - 1994 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):117-132.
  41.  43
    Informational darwinism.Arthur B. Cody - 2000 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 43 (2):167 – 179.
    The Theory of Evolution has, since Darwin, been sustained by contributions from many sciences, most especially from molecular biology. Philosophers, like biologists and the man in the street, have accepted the idea that the contemporary form of evolutionary theory has arrived at a convincing and final structure. As it now stands, natural selection is thought to work through the information-handling mechanism of the DNA molecule. Variation in the genome?s constructive message is achieved through random errors of processing called mutations. How (...)
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  42.  26
    On the difference it makes.Arthur B. Cody - 1969 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 12 (1-4):394 – 405.
    Man's belief in God is often contrasted with man's disbelief, Atheism; but the nature of human belief is contrastable with the nature of the belief of demons. A point of contrast lies in the consequences of the different sort of reasons men and demons must be understood to have. One consequence has to do with the vision of the world, seeing the world as God's creation, which men are expected to achieve and demons are not. The logic of the ?seeing (...)
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  43.  8
    Reply to Mr. Dowling.Arthur B. Cody - 1967 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 10:449.
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  44.  10
    Sharpe paratactics.Arthur B. Cody - 1992 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 35 (2):249 – 269.
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  45. Thinking in language.Arthur B. Cody - 1967 - Torino,: Edizioni di Filosofia.
  46. Thinking in Language.Arthur B. Cody - 1966 - Filosofia 17 (4):606.
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  47.  33
    The onslaught of mental states.Arthur B. Cody - 1998 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):89 – 97.
    The causal theory of action had suffered from inattention or linguistically motivated rejection until it was revived in 1963 by Donald Davidson. Since then the causal theory has had a continuing acceptance without having had an inspection of its assumptions. There are reasons to suspect that the theory is as unfounded as it is undoubted. Those reasons are reviewed here which have to do with the definitive moment when states such as beliefs and desires must change character to become causal (...)
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  48.  50
    Words, you, and me.Arthur B. Cody - 2002 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 45 (3):277 – 293.
    It is tempting to explicate the mastery of language, as many philosophers have, with how we come to learn language. Interpreting how we come to learn a language necessarily involves saying what the mind's relevant capacities are. Too long we have been told that those capacities are adaptive to, as well as within, a social context; it seemed plausible to argue that we learn to have (propositional) thoughts as we learn and use the language conatively. This essay tries to persuade (...)
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  49.  14
    Rhetorical Exigence.Arthur B. Miller - 1972 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 5 (2):111 - 118.
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  50.  1
    Soul life.Arthur B. Shedd - 1904 - South Braintree, Mass.,:
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