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Anouk Barberousse
Sorbonne Université
Anouk Barberousse
Université Paris-Sorbonne
  1. Computer Simulations as Experiments.Anouk Barberousse, Sara Franceschelli & Cyrille Imbert - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):557 - 574.
    Whereas computer simulations involve no direct physical interaction between the machine they are run on and the physical systems they are used to investigate, they are often used as experiments and yield data about these systems. It is commonly argued that they do so because they are implemented on physical machines. We claim that physicality is not necessary for their representational and predictive capacities and that the explanation of why computer simulations generate desired information about their target system is only (...)
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  2.  75
    About the warrants of computer-based empirical knowledge.Anouk Barberousse & Marion Vorms - 2014 - Synthese 191 (15):3595-3620.
    Computer simulations are widely used in current scientific practice, as a tool to obtain information about various phenomena. Scientists accordingly rely on the outputs of computer simulations to make statements about the empirical world. In that sense, simulations seem to enable scientists to acquire empirical knowledge. The aim of this paper is to assess whether computer simulations actually allow for the production of empirical knowledge, and how. It provides an epistemological analysis of present-day empirical science, to which the traditional epistemological (...)
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  3. Les modèles comme fictions.Pascal Ludwig & Anouk Barberousse - unknown
    We propose a philosophical theory of scientific models. Our main claim is that they should be understood as fictions. We illustrate the relevance of the claim by illustrations drawn from the history of science, and we propose a typology.
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  4.  50
    Borel on the Heap.Paul Égré & Anouk Barberousse - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S5):1043-1079.
    In 1907 Borel published a remarkable essay on the paradox of the Heap (“Un paradoxe économique: le sophisme du tas de blé et les vérités statistiques”), in which Borel proposes what is likely the first statistical account of vagueness ever written, and where he discusses the practical implications of the sorites paradox, including in economics. Borel’s paper was integrated in his book Le Hasard, published 1914, but has gone mostly unnoticed since its publication. One of the originalities of Borel’s essay (...)
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  5.  48
    Empirical agreement in model validation.Julie Jebeile & Anouk Barberousse - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:168-174.
    Empirical agreement is often used as an important criterion when assessing the validity of scientific models. However, it is by no means a sufficient criterion as a model can be so adjusted as to fit available data even though it is based on hypotheses whose plausibility is known to be questionable. Our aim in this paper is to investigate into the uses of empirical agreement within the process of model validation.
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  6.  28
    Expert reports by large multidisciplinary groups: the case of the International Panel on Climate Change.Isabelle Drouet, Daniel Andler, Anouk Barberousse & Julie Jebeile - 2021 - Synthese (5-6):14491-14508.
    Recent years have seen a notable increase in the production of scientific expertise by large multidisciplinary groups. The issue we address is how reports may be written by such groups in spite of their size and of formidable obstacles: complexity of subject matter, uncertainty, and scientific disagreement. Our focus is on the International Panel on Climate Change, unquestionably the best-known case of such collective scientific expertise. What we show is that the organization of work within the IPCC aims to make (...)
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  7.  65
    Models as Fictions.Anouk Barberousse & Pascal Ludwig - 2009 - In Mauricio Suárez (ed.), Fictions in Science: Philosophical Essays on Modeling and Idealization. Routledge. pp. 56-73.
  8.  14
    Mapping the Future of Biology: Evolving Concepts and Theories Vol. 266.Anouk Barberousse, Michel Morange & Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Springer. Edited by Anouk Barberousse, Michel Morange & Thomas Pradeu.
    This volume is the best available tool to compare and appraise the different approaches of today’s biology and their conceptual frameworks, serving as a springboard for new research on a clarified conceptual basis. It is expected to constitute a key reference work for biologists and philosophers of biology, as well as for all scientists interested in understanding what is at stake in the present transformations of biological models and theories. The volume is distinguished by including, for the first time, self-reflections (...)
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  9.  20
    How Do the Validations of Simulations and Experiments Compare?Anouk Barberousse & Julie Jebeile - 2019 - In Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam (eds.), Computer Simulation Validation: Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives. Springer. pp. 925-942.
    Whereas experiments and computer simulations seem very different at first view because the former, but not the latter, involve interactions with material properties, we argue that this difference is not so important with respect to validation, as far as epistemologyEpistemology is concerned. Major differences remain nevertheless from the methodological point of view. We present and defend this distinction between epistemology and methodology. We illustrate this distinction and related claims by comparing how experiments and simulations are validated in evolutionary studies, a (...)
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  10.  29
    Model spread and progress in climate modelling.Julie Jebeile & Anouk Barberousse - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-19.
    Convergence of model projections is often considered by climate scientists to be an important objective in so far as it may indicate the robustness of the models’ core hypotheses. Consequently, the range of climate projections from a multi-model ensemble, called “model spread”, is often expected to reduce as climate research moves forward. However, the successive Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicate no reduction in model spread, whereas it is indisputable that climate science has made improvements in (...)
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  11.  16
    Natural kinds: a new synthesis.Anouk Barberousse, Françoise Longy, Francesca Merlin & Stéphanie Ruphy - 2020 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 35 (3):365-387.
    What is a natural kind? This old yet lasting philosophical question has recently received new competing answers (e.g., Chakravartty, 2007; Magnus, 2014; Khalidi, 2013; Slater, 2015; Ereshefsky & Reydon, 2015). We show that the main ingredients of an encompassing and coherent account of natural kinds are actually on the table, but in need of the right articulation. It is by adopting a non-reductionist, naturalistic and non-conceptualist approach that, in this paper, we elaborate a new synthesis of all these ingredients. Our (...)
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  12.  74
    Introduction: Reassessing Developmental Systems Theory.Anouk Barberousse, Francesca Merlin & Thomas Pradeu - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):199-201.
    The Developmental Systems Theory (DST) presented by its proponents as a challenging approach in biology is aimed at transforming the workings of the life sciences from both a theoretical and experimental point of view (see, in particular, Oyama [1985] 2000; Oyama et al. 2001). Even though some may have the impression that the enthusiasm surrounding DST has faded in very recent years, some of the key concepts, ideas, and visions of DST have in fact pervaded biology and philosophy of biology. (...)
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  13.  41
    New mathematics for old physics: The case of lattice fluids.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):231-241.
    We analyze the effects of the introduction of new mathematical tools on an old branch of physics by focusing on lattice fluids, which are cellular automata -based hydrodynamical models. We examine the nature of these discrete models, the type of novelty they bring about within scientific practice and the role they play in the field of fluid dynamics. We critically analyze Rohrlich's, Fox Keller's and Hughes' claims about CA-based models. We distinguish between different senses of the predicates “phenomenological” and “theoretical” (...)
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  14.  29
    Inferential power, formalisms, and scientific models.Vincent Ardourel, Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    Scientific models need to be investigated if they are to provide valuable information about the systems they represent. Surprisingly, the epistemological question of what enables this investigation has hardly been investigated. Even authors who consider the inferential role of models as central, like Hughes or Bueno and Colyvan, content themselves with claiming that models contain mathematical resources that provide inferential power. We claim that these notions require further analysis and argue that mathematical formalisms contribute to this inferential role. We characterize (...)
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  15. La physique face à la probabilité.Anouk Barberousse - 2004 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 194 (1):125-126.
     
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  16.  21
    Recurring Models and Sensitivity to Computational Constraints.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):259-279.
    Why are some models, like the harmonic oscillator, the Ising model, a few Hamiltonian equations in quantum mechanics, the poisson equation, or the Lokta-Volterra equations, repeatedly used within and across scientific domains, whereas theories allow for many more modeling possibilities? Some historians and philosophers of science have already proposed plausible explanations. For example, Kuhn and Cartwright point to a tendency toward conservatism in science, and Humphreys emphasizes the importance of the intractability of what he calls “templates.” This paper investigates more (...)
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  17.  28
    What Is the Use of Diagrams in Theoretical Modeling?Anouk Barberousse - 2013 - Science in Context 26 (2):345-362.
    ArgumentThe use of diagrams is pervasive in theoretical physics. Together with mathematical formulae and natural language, diagrams play a major role in theoretical modeling. They enrich the expressive power of physicists and help them to explore new theoretical ideas. Diagrams are not only heuristic or pedagogical tools, but they are also tools that enable developing the content of models into novel implications.
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  18.  29
    Interpréter une théorie physique.Thomas Boyer & Anouk Barberousse - 2013 - Methodos 13.
    Les théories physiques sont aujourd'hui très mathématisées, et ce que les scientifiques manipulent pour décrire, prédire et contrôler les phénomènes, ce sont (entre autres) des équations, comportant de nombreux symboles mathématiques. Ces objets mathématiques n'ont pas de signification physique en eux-mêmes : ils ne « parlent » pas d'eux-mêmes des phénomènes. Une interprétation est nécessaire. Ce qui nous intéresse dans cet article est ainsi l'interprétation dont une théorie physique doit faire l'objet pour remplir son rôle. Nous commençons par expliciter une (...)
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  19. Cellular automata, modeling, and computation.Anouk Barberousse, Sara Franceschelli & Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    Cellular Automata (CA) based simulations are widely used in a great variety of domains, fromstatistical physics to social science. They allow for spectacular displays and numerical predictions. Are they forall that a revolutionary modeling tool, allowing for “direct simulation”, or for the simulation of “the phenomenon itself”? Or are they merely models "of a phenomenological nature rather than of a fundamental one”? How do they compareto other modeling techniques? In order to answer these questions, we present a systematic exploration of (...)
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  20.  1
    Précis de philosophie des sciences.Anouk Barberousse, Denis Bonnay & Mikaël Cozic (eds.) - 2011 - Paris: Vuibert.
    Le Précis de philosophie des sciences vise à présenter, de manière pédagogique, l'état actuel des grandes questions et des grands domaines de la philosophie des sciences. C'est un ouvrage de niveau "intermédiaire", entre les ouvrages d'initiation et les ouvrages de recherche. Il peut être utilisé comme manuel pour des cours de philosophie des sciences au niveau Master, ainsi que dans le cadre de la préparation aux nouvelles épreuves d'épistémologie des CAPES scientifiques. Il a notamment pour vocation de servir de support (...)
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  21.  21
    The philosophy of science. A companion.Anouk Barberousse, Denis Bonnay & Mikaël Cozic (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Philosophy of science studies the methods, theories, and concepts used by scientists. It mainly developed as a field in its own right during the twentieth century and is now a diversified and lively research area. This book surveys the current state of the discipline by focusing on central themes like confirmation of scientific hypotheses, scientific explanation, causality, the relationship between science and metaphysics, scientific change, the relationship between philosophy of science and science studies, the role of theories and models, unity (...)
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  22.  87
    Person as Moralist and Scientist.Marcus Vinícius C. Baldo & Anouk Barberousse - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):331.
    Scientific inquiry possibly shares with people's ordinary understanding the same evolutionary determinants, and affect-laden intuitions that shape moral judgments also play a decisive role in decision-making, planning, and scientific reasoning. Therefore, if ordinary understanding does differ from scientific inquiry, the reason does not reside in the fact that the former (but not the latter) is endowed with moral considerations.
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  23.  93
    A case of irrationality?Anouk Barberousse - unknown
    Were Maxwell and Boltzmann irrational to develop statistical mechanics whereas it was empirically refuted by the specific heats problem? My analysis of this historical episode departs from the current proposals about belief change. I first give a detailed description of Maxwell's and Boltzmann's epistemic states in the years they were working on statistical mechanics and then make some methodological proposals in epistemology that would account for the complexity of this case.
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  24.  16
    Are specific heats dispositions?Anouk Barberousse - 2007 - In Gnassounou Bruno & Kistler Max (eds.), Dispositions and Causal Powers. Ashgate. pp. 271--282.
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  25. Biodiversity databanks and scientific exploration.Anouk Barberousse - 2021 - Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 8 (2):32-43.
    For several decades now, biologists have been developing digital databanks, which are remarkable scientific instruments allowing scientists to accelerate the development of biological knowledge. From the beginnings of the Human Genome Project (HGP) onwards, genetic databanks have been a major component of current biological knowledge, and biodiversity databanks have also been developed in the wake of the HGP. The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific features of biodiversity data and databanks, and to point out their contribution to (...)
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  26. Cellular Automata in fluid dynamics: not so different.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
  27.  31
    Collaborative computer simulations in climate science.Anouk Barberousse, Henri Galinon & Marion Vorms - unknown
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  28.  8
    Empirical Bayes as a Tool.Anouk Barberousse - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences. Springer Verlag.
    Bayesian methods are currently underdoing a deep transformation due to the use of computing power. The aim of this chapter is to analyze this transformation by examining a specific example: the use of Baysian methods in climate science.
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  29.  14
    Ideal and actual inventories of biodiversity.Anouk Barberousse & Sophie Bary - 2015 - Rivista di Estetica 59:14-31.
    The detection and identification of the species living on a given area is usually supposed to provide a corpus of basic knowledge enabling biologists to develop further pieces of knowledge. However, it reveals surprisingly difficult to achieve biological inventories satisfying the criteria pertaining to such basic knowledge. Our aim in this paper is to highlight how the current practice of biological inventory is shaped by various constraints and potential biases. This leads us to re-consider the functions of inventories at the (...)
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  30.  5
    Les conditions de possibilité de la mesure.Anouk Barberousse - 2013 - Cahiers Philosophiques 4:7.
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  31.  3
    La physique face à la probabilité.Anouk Barberousse - 2000 - Vrin.
    Comment comprendre les enonces statistiques et probabilistes? Cette question concerne aussi bien le domaine scientifique que notre vie quotidienne. Nous attribuons constamment des degres de possibilite aux evenements que nous envisageons, et nous tirons des inferences a partir de ces attributions. Comment ces inferences sont-elles justifiees? Quelle est la signification de leurs conclusions? Ce livre tente d'apporter une reponse philosophique a ces questions, en explorant divers aspects de la philosophie des probabilites. Les probabilites jouent en outre un role considerable dans (...)
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  32.  1
    Le rôle des hypothèses ininterrogées dans l’étude scientifique de la biodiversité des fonds marins.Sophie Bary & Anouk Barberousse - 2018 - Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 5 (1):44-49.
    À partir d’une analyse épistémologique de l’état actuel de la connaissance de la biodiversité, l’importance d’hypothèses ininterrogées est mise au jour pour ce qui concerne le développement de la connaissance de la biodiversité des fonds marins : hypothèses d’endémisme et hypothèses d’ancienneté des groupes taxinomiques découverts.
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  33.  23
    Les simulations numériques de l'évolution du climat : de nouveaux problèmes philosophiques ?Anouk Barberousse - 2008 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 133 (3):299-308.
    L’étude de l’évolution du climat passe nécessairement par des simulations numériques. Leur utilisation a été remise en cause en raison des incertitudes qui affectent leurs résultats. Cet article présente les différentes composantes des simulations numériques utilisées en climatologie et en propose une analyse épistémologique. La conclusion en est que ces simulations numériques procèdent des exigences scientifiques plus généralement à l’œuvre dans la science contemporaine.In order to study the evolution of global climate, computer simulation is required. The use of computer simulation (...)
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  34. Person as moralist and scientist, comment on Knobe.Anouk Barberousse & Marcus Vinicius Baldo - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4).
     
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  35.  10
    The Diversity of Models in Statistical Mechanics: Views about the Structure of Scientific Theories.Anouk Barberousse - 2003 - In Benedikt Löwe, Thoralf Räsch & Wolfgang Malzkorn (eds.), Foundations of the Formal Sciences Ii. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1--23.
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  36.  43
    The Role of Self-Organization in Developmental Systems Theory and the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution.Anouk Barberousse - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):202-205.
  37.  27
    The Role of Self-Organization in Developmental Systems Theory and the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution.Anouk Barberousse - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):202-205.
  38.  4
    Carnap et la construction logique du monde.Sandra Laugier & Anouk Barberousse (eds.) - 2001 - Paris: J. Vrin.
    Livre fondateur de R. Carnap, "Der logische Aufbau der Welt" (1928) est une oeuvre philosophique allemande centrale du XXe siècle.Cet ouvrage veut montrer l'actualité de l'"Aufbau" tout en présentant la logique de pensée de Carnap et ses conséquences philosophiques.
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  39.  5
    Le GIEC, une communauté d’expertise originale.Pierre Lauret & Anouk Barberousse - 2015 - Cahiers Philosophiques 142 (3):121-131.
    La conscience, largement répandue dans le monde entier, des problèmes liés au réchauffement climatique n’existerait pas sans les travaux du Giec, le Groupe international d’experts de l’ONU sur l’évolution du climat. Sa création et ses méthodes constituent une innovation décisive en matière d’expertise, puisque jamais auparavant on n’avait réuni un groupe international de savants évaluant la production scientifique mondiale et rendant publics leurs résultats. Même le débat complètement biaisé animé par les « climato-sceptiques » présuppose la reconnaissance d’une instance experte (...)
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  40.  1
    Précis de Philosophie de la biologie [Handbook Philosophy of Biology].Eric Bapteste, Thierry Hoquet, Anouk Barberousse, Francesca Merlin, Frédéric Bouchard & Vincent Devictor (eds.) - 2014 - Vuibert Press.
    La philosophie de la biologie est un domaine extrêmement actif de la recherche dans la tradition philosophique anglo-saxonne. Elle réunit philosophes et biologistes autour de la question de la définition des concepts fondamentaux : gène, cellule, organisme, espèce, développement, évolution, adaptation, etc. Ce livre, qui rassemble les contributions d’une trentaine de spécialistes français et étrangers, présente en 24 chapitres l’état de la recherche actuelle dans tous les principaux domaines de la biologie. Il peut être utilisé comme manuel pour les cours (...)
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  41.  17
    How are Scientific Theories to Be Analyzed? Representational and Computational Aspects.Marion Vorms & Anouk Barberousse - unknown
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