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    Post-traumatic nightmares as a dysfunctional state.Tore A. Nielsen & Anne Germain - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):978-979.
    That PTSD nightmares are highly realistic threat simulations triggered by trauma is difficult to reconcile with the disturbed, sometimes debilitating sleep and waking functioning of PTSD sufferers. A theory that accounts for fundamental forms of imagery other than threat scenarios could explain the selection of many more adaptive human functions – some still pertinent to survival today. For example, interactive characters, a virtually ubiquitous form of dream imagery, could be simulations of attachment relationships that aid species survival in many different (...)
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    Childhood Threat Is Associated With Lower Resting-State Connectivity Within a Central Visceral Network.Layla Banihashemi, Christine W. Peng, Anusha Rangarajan, Helmet T. Karim, Meredith L. Wallace, Brandon M. Sibbach, Jaspreet Singh, Mark M. Stinley, Anne Germain & Howard J. Aizenstein - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:805049.
    Childhood adversity is associated with altered or dysregulated stress reactivity; these altered patterns of physiological functioning persist into adulthood. Evidence from both preclinical animal models and human neuroimaging studies indicates that early life experience differentially influences stressor-evoked activity within central visceral neural circuits proximally involved in the control of stress responses, including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and amygdala. However, the relationship between childhood adversity and the (...)
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    The prevalence of typical dream themes challenges the specificity of the threat simulation theory.Anne Germain, Tore A. Nielsen, Antonio Zadra & Jacques Montplaisir - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):940-941.
    The evolutionary theory of threat simulation during dreaming indicates that themes appropriate to ancestral survival concerns (threats) should be disproportionately represented in dreams. Our studies of typical dream themes in students and sleep-disordered patients indicate that threatening dreams involving chase and pursuit are indeed among the three most prevalent themes, thus supporting Revonsuo's theory. However, many of the most prevalent themes are of positive, not negative, events (e.g., sex, flying) and of current, not ancestral, threat scenarios (e.g., schoolwork). Moreover, many (...)
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