The question of subject's cognitive access to his own mental states contains an assumption, that this cognition is direct and authoritative, what is also a condition of subject's self-knowledge. The directness means, that this kind of cognition is not burdened by the intermediaries as Fregean senses or representations. Now arises the problem, how the self-knowledge, which has a propositional character can be direct, hence nonrepresentational. In this paper I considered the three kinds of representations, which are present in self-knowledge and (...) I have tried to answer the question, whether it is possible to preserve the directness of self-knowledge, despite of its representational constituents. First I have asked about the representation of self, then I assumed that to have self-knowledge a subject has to conceptualise his state as a belief or other experience of a certain kind and he has to think about himself as a subject of this state. Then I considered the representation of the modality of the state. Finally I analysed the representational character of the content of mental states. The conclusion of these investigations was that even if the self-knowledge in its epistemological aspect is representational (for example because of its propositional structure) it preserves its directness in its essential form, i.e. psychological aspect. (shrink)
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie psychologicznego portretu kobiety końca dziewiętnastego wieku, mistrzowsko uchwyconego w opowiadaniach Arthura Schnitzlera: Die Braut, Fräulein Else i Die griechische Tänzerin. Artykuł odwołuje się do interpretacji filozoficznych, w których dominuje dualistyczny opis nawiązujący do problemu umysłu i ciała rozważanego na gruncie Freudowskiej psychoanalizy. Z jednej strony kobieta jest tu charakteryzowana jako indywiduum determinowane napięciem między psyche a somą, z drugiej zaś strony jako jednostka funkcjonująca w społeczeństwie zdominowanym przez mężczyzn.
In this paper I try to consider the question of understanding as a special mental capacity in the light of the neuroscientific approach and the philosophical tradition. I assert that it is not sufficient to explain the process of understanding on the subpersonal level. The understanding has several dimensions that are revealed only in the aspect of interpretation, communication and social interaction. This kind of understanding implies the meta-representational knowledge, which we wanted to present on the example of rational and (...) hermeneutic thinking. It should be clear that in these cases, the reduction of holistic higher mental states gathered in the form of the mind theory to the neuronal level is not possible. (shrink)
Self-knowledge (SK) is a natural ability of the human cognitive system and is defined as a complex re-representation of knowledge subject has about her own internal states. It is composed of two basic representations: the representation of I and the representation of the experienced state. SK has a propositional (i.e. language-like) form and can be expressed in the form of self-reports like “I believe that I believe that p”. It has then the form of a second-order belief which, as a (...) re-representation, generates the following problem concerning false representations: if the first-order representations of the I or of experienced states can be false like in cases of self-illusions or disorders like somatoparaphrenia, then how can error in self-cognition inherited by the re-representation (i.e. by SK) be avoided? I claim that the re-representational model of SK is a useful but artificial tool for the description of the components of SK; however, it is misleading to think of it as capturing the truth about SK. I propose here a representational model of SK which reduces those beliefs constituting SK to first-order beliefs which are sufficient as constituents of SK. (shrink)
Anita Chari revives the concept of reification from Marx and the Frankfurt School to spotlight the resistance to neoliberal capitalism now forming at the level of political economy and at the more sensate, experiential level of subjective transformation. Reading art by Oliver Ressler, Zanny Begg, Claire Fontaine, Jason Lazarus, and Mika Rottenberg, as well as the politics of Occupy Wall Street, Chari identifies practices through which artists and activists have challenged neoliberalism's social and political logics, exposing its inherent tensions (...) and contradictions. (shrink)
Celso de Souza Machado publicou, em 1987, um artigo intitulado “O ensino da Sociologia na escola secundária brasileira: levantamento preliminar”, escrito quando ainda era aluno do curso de graduação em Ciências Sociais da USP. Esse artigo se tornou referência na área e talvez seja a primeira iniciativa de trabalho científico de que se tem conhecimento sobre o ensino de sociologia no Brasil. Nesta entrevista, o autor relembra o processo de elaboração dessa pesquisa que ganhou projeção por remontar a trajetória histórica (...) da sociologia na educação básica. Além disso, ele recupera a discussão sobre o ensino de sociologia na década de 1980, momento em que o retorno gradual dessa disciplina às escolas pedia um debate sobre programas de ensino, conteúdos e materiais didáticos, do qual Celso Machado participou ativamente. A entrevista foi concedida a Anita Handfas e Alexandre Fraga. (shrink)
This study offers an overview of the opposing attitudes towards the image worship in the Early Christianity and the Late Antiquity. It shows that a dichotomy between creation and veneration of images on one side and iconoclastic tendencies on the other side persisted in the Christian tradition throughout the first seven centuries. While the representations of holy figures and holy events increased in number throughout theByzantine Empire, they led to a puritanical reaction by those who saw the practice of image (...) worship as little removed from the anthropomorphic features of polytheistic religious cults. Hence, as the role of images grew so did the resistance against them, and the two contrasting positions in the Christian context initiated the outbreak of the Iconoclastic Controversy, when the theological discourse concerning icons became ever more subtle, culminating in the development of the iconophile and iconoclastic teachings on the holy images. Both the iconophile and the iconoclasts based their apologia on passages from the Synoptic Gospels, evidence of the artistic tradition as well as florilegia or systematic collections of excerpts from the works of the Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers of the early period in support of their claim; much of this evidence is surveyed in this paper, although the Iconoclastic Controversy is not analysed. (shrink)
In traditional linguistic accounts of context, one thinks of the immediate features of a speech situation, that is, a situation in which an expression is uttered. Thus, features such as time, location, speaker, hearer and preceding discourse are all parts of context. But context is a wider and more transcendental notion than what these accounts imply. For one thing, context is a relational concept relating social actions and their surroundings, relating social actions, relating individual actors and their surroundings, and relating (...) the set of individual actors and their social actions to their surroundings. (shrink)
Duchamp’s aspiration to become more philosophical in his art mirrors Heidegger’s aspiration to become more poetical in his philosophy. Their shared mistrust of subjectivity led them to question the continued viability of art on the one hand and of philosophy on the other. This article examines Heidegger’s essay in juxtaposition to Duchamp’s work, highlighting Heidegger’s playful approach to his weighty task, and, in regard to Duchamp, revealing just how serious art can be when it doesn’t appear to take itself too (...) seriously. (shrink)
People freely disclose vast quantities of personal and personally identifiable information. The central question of this Meador Lecture in Morality is whether they have a moral (or ethical) obligation (or duty) to withhold information about themselves or otherwise to protect information about themselves from disclosure. Moreover, could protecting one’s own information privacy be called for by important moral virtues, as well as obligations or duties? Safeguarding others’ privacy is widely understood to be a responsibility of government, business, and individuals. The (...) “virtue” of fairness and the “duty” or “obligation” of respect for persons arguably ground other-regarding responsibilities of confidentiality and data security. But is anyone ethically required—not just prudentially advised—to protect his or her own privacy? If so, how might a requirement to protect one’s own privacy and to display ethical virtues of reserve, modesty and temperance properly influence everyday choices, public policy, or the law? I test the idea of an ethical mandate to protect one’s own privacy, while identifying the practical and philosophical problems that bear adversely on the case. I consider “conceptual” and “libertarian” objections to the view that each individual indeed has a moral obligation to safeguard his or her own privacy. Government and industry are not off the hook if privacy is a duty of self-care and self-respect: they have responsibilities and are freshly viewed as partners in moral agents’ quest for ethical goodness. (shrink)
In 1934, Karl N. Llewellyn published a lively essay trumpeting the dawn of legal realism, "On Philosophy in American Law." The charm of his defective little piece is its style and audacity. A philosopher might be seduced into reading Llewellyn’s essay by its title; but one soon learns that by "philosophy" Llewellyn only meant "atmosphere". His concerns were the "general approaches" taken by practitioners, who may not even be aware of having general approaches. Llewellyn paired an anemic concept of philosophy (...) with a pumped-up conception of law. Llewellyn’s "law" included anything that reflects the "ways of the law guild at large" - judges, legislators, regulators, and enforcers. Llewellyn argued that the legal philosophies implicit in American legal practice had been natural law, positivism and realism, each adopted in response to felt needs of a time. We must reckon with many other implicit "philosophies" to understand the workings of the law guild, not the least of which has been racism. Others, maternalism and paternalism, my foci here, persist in American law, despite women’s progress toward equality. Both maternalism and paternalism were strikingly present in a recent decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, Gonzales v. Carhart, upholding the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. (shrink)
Termination of psychoanalysis or psychotherapy is centrally important both to the process of treatment and to the patient's experience of treatment. It is surprising, then, that there has heretofore been no comprehensive study of the subject. This book begins to bridge the gap in this area. It is the first volume devoted entirely to issues surrounding the ending of treatment in analytic and therapeutic work with children and adolescents. Organized into separate clinical and theoretical sections, framed by a preface and (...) sectional introductions, and covering a wide range of psychopathology, this book explores the different ways in which children and adolescents grapple with the experience of separation at the conclusion of treatment. Of special note is the contributors' recognition that the parents of children ending treatment face their own termination experience in relinquishing the support of their child's therapist. The presentations are enriched, as well, by frank discussions of countertransference as it enters into the termination phase of treatment. (shrink)
The studies presented here in this work have a central point of departure: it is remarkable that we, as biological organisms in a social world, configure our lives in terms of selves. This book succeeds in brining together different but related disciplines concerned with people and the histories and conditions of their lives. The answer worked out to the central question addressed is thus an optimistic one in that it shows the niche for knowledge of human nature and the texts (...) that enfold lives, and of cause-effect links and meaningful things. (shrink)
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate similarities and differences in values between business students and business people already in the workplace. The values we investigated were described by Schwartz (1994) as “basic human values” and specifically, are: power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Results show that both populations viewed universalism, stimulation, self-direction and security similarly, and placed importance of the values of benevolence, achievement, hedonism, power, and tradition differently.