The monograph is focused on the subjectivity of aesthetic experience and the problem of rational interpretation of emotionality. The text studies why does an aesthetic experience exist, what is its content and what is its informational role and structure? Has beauty any cognitive value? Can we analyse beauty? In what sense we can think about the information content of aesthetic experience? The second topic of the book is a cognitive role of emotionality and its research. Why we have emotions? What (...) can they tell us about yourself and about the world? The methodology of the study is designed as a phenomenological research of subjective experience that is combined with the newest results in Cognitive science research. --Page 4 of cover. (shrink)
The book is a second volume of the project, which is focused on a systematic examination of aesthetic experience by the unification of philosophical and cognitive-scientific approaches to beauty and aesthetic experience. This volume is focused on the analysis of selected aspects of aesthetic experience, especially on methodological problems and aspects of philosophical and scientific research, the question of the complementarity and compatibility of methods, and needs to interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research. Authors of the chapters are considering about diverse areas (...) of perception of beauty, e.g.: pleasure by face perception; the synchronicity by music; the problems of musical chills; the psychosomatic unity of dance; or the problem of development of aesthetic appreciation. (shrink)
Техника представления информации о внешнем и внутреннем мире постоянно развивается, и сейчас она достигла уровня отображения реальности в многообразных её проявлениях и измерениях, прежде недоступных человеческому восприятию. Язык, текст, фотография, звукозапись, а теперь ещё и техника искусственного интеллекта для моделирования человеческой субъектности и её описания в доступной для человеческого понимания форме, стали эпохальными событиями в теории информации. Однако несмотря на то, что на данном этапе её развития она позволяет оперировать с непрерывно возрастающими объёмами информации, это не приближает её теоретиков к (...) постижению сути того, что определяется как реальность, бытие, и сознание. Но поскольку никакого другого способа достичь этой цели нет, кроме изучения того, как это происходит в процессе восприятия и преобразования информации у живых существ, и в частности, у человека, необходимо разобраться в принципах этого процесса. (shrink)
The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with specific and knowable outcomes, towards actions by many unaware that they may have taken actions with unintended consequences for anyone. Responses will require a rethinking of ethical choices, the lack thereof and (...) how this will guide scientists, governments, and corporate agencies in handling Big Data. This essay elaborates on the ways Big Data impacts on ethical conceptions. (shrink)
The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological challenges of developing measures of stereotypes and prejudice for use in Slovakia. Developing these measures was the first step in a research project aimed at testing the effectiveness of direct and indirect contact interventions to reduce prejudice against stigmatized minorities, particularly the Roma. The first major problem in this kind of research relates to measuring the impact of interventions, as standardized instruments for measuring prejudice have yet to be developed in Slovak. The second (...) problem concerns the risk that the interventions will fail to reduce anti-Roma prejudice, because of the strong stigmatization of the Roma minority in Slovakia. The paper also reviews existing measures of stereotypes and prejudice in social psychology and discusses their applicability for measuring anti-Roma prejudice in Slovakia. It is argued that measures of stereotypes and prejudice should be designed and used in a sensitive manner and that in the process of measuring various forms of social bias we should avoid reproducing its cognitive, emotional and behavioural manifestations. (shrink)
The paper suggests that there is a gap between the research on prejudice in Slovak schools and the pedagogical interventions used to reduce them, particularly in relation to the Roma minority. It highlights the existing curricular requirements for dealing with intergroup relations, stereotypes and prejudice, contrasting them with the organizational, methodological and practical constraints teachers face when trying to meet them. Drawing from experience of piloting alternative tools for measuring attitudes, designing interventions and assessing impact, the article describes one possible (...) way of bridging the gap. (shrink)
Diese spannende sinologisch-philosophische Arbeit liefert ein möglichst umfassendes Bild der Philosophie des Bambus-Wenzi (das in der Hanshu-Bibliographie auf einen Schüler des Laozi zurückgeführt wird), sowie Antworten auf interessante Fragen nach der Identität seiner Protagonisten, seinem argumentativen Aufbau sowie Zeit und Ort seiner Entstehung.
Interdisciplinary in approach, this book combines philosophy, hybrid theory, and architectural theory with case studies, explicitly linking the traditions together to investigate the eco-aesthetics of the urban environment.
The concept of Rule of Law is the cornerstone of the proper functioning of the judicial system in any modern democratic society. It is a basic concept of defined rights and liberties to all persons, which offers protection from arbitrary prosecution and incarceration. This principle was firstly stipulated by the instrument of Magna Carta and it is considered as a key principle for good governance in any modern democratic society. The development of the rule of law principle is personified through (...) the independence of the Judiciary as a third branch of government. The contemporary democratic societies are faced with many challenges upon which in order to protect their values of the democratic system, often limit the rights and liberties of persons. It is the role of the courts and the judicial system to stop these injustices and protect the individual from any form of liberty deprivation and rights limitations. Before the promulgation of the Magna Carta in 1215, the rule of law was perceived as a divine justice, distributed solely by the monarch or the king or in this case - King John of England. Magna Carta doesn't have iconic status only in the British Society, which is perceived as an instrument with special constitutional status and cited by many judges, lawyers and politicians, but in any modern democratic states as well. The author in this article examines the development of the concept of Rule of Law in the modern democratic societies under the influence of the Magna Carta, and how it is perceived as a guarantee of fair trial and trial by jury of any persecuted persons whether the severity of their crimes. (shrink)
The concept of memory rests at the heart of Bersgon’s theory of consciousness. His theory of memory is the novelty in the history of philosophy. It is not an affirmation either of the metaphysical conceptions (versions à la Platonism) where “all knowledge is recollection”, nor of empiricist psychology possibly traceble back to Aristotle, where, briefly speaking, the faculty of memory depends on the general perceptual capacity. Contrary to the majority of the philosophical and psychological theories of his epoch, Bergson assigns (...) memory the most important role in the intellectual process, denying the characteristic of passivity (from greek word pathos meaning kind of affection) attached to it, instead concerning with the creative, productive and vital power of memory rather than merely its retentive and recalling capacity. (shrink)
The paper gives an analysis of the conception of rationality of two influential representatives of the 20th century theory of urbanism, and their philosophical grounds. It also outlines the problem of modern rationality, questions its character and points out, that for the time being the transition to a new way of thinking is problematic.
The paper offers a brief outline of the presuppositions and consequences of modern urbanism, as well as of its ontology. The stress is put on the historical transformations of modern rationality and on depicting its efforts in carrying out its project.
In this paper I compare two well studied approaches to topological semantics – the domain-theoretic approach, exemplified by the category of countably based equilogical spaces, Equ and Typ Two Effectivity, exemplified by the category of Baire space representations, Rep . These two categories are both locally cartesian closed extensions of countably based T0-spaces. A natural question to ask is how they are related.First, we show that Rep is equivalent to a full coreflective subcategory of Equ, consisting of the so-called 0-equilogical (...) spaces. This establishes a pair of adjoint functors between Rep and Equ. The inclusion Rep → Equ and its coreflection have many desirable properties, but they do not preserve exponentials in general. This means that the cartesian closed structures of Rep and Equ are essentially different. How ever, in a second comparison we show that Rep and Equ do share a common cartesian closed subcategory that contains all countably based-T0 spaces. Therefore, the domain-theoretic approach and TTE yield equivalent topological semantics of computation for all higher-order types over countably based T0-spaces. We consider several examples involving the natural numbers and the real numbers to demonstrate how these comparisons make it possible to transfer results from one setting to another. (shrink)
Lying for a strategic advantage is to be expected in commercial interactions. But would this be more or less obvious when lying could come from either party and question mutually profitable exchange? To explore this, we modify the acquiring-a-company game by letting both, buyer and seller, be privately informed. Specifically, the value of the company for the buyer is known only by the seller; whereas, only the buyer is aware by which proportion the sellers evaluation is lower than that of (...) the buyer. Before bargaining, both parties can reveal what they know via cheap-talk numerical messages. Game theoretically, the pooling equilibrium may or may not allow for trade depending on the commonly known expected evaluation discrepancy. By mutually revealing what one knows, one could boost trade and efficiency. Although strategic misreporting prevails quite generally, it is higher for sellers throughout the experiment. Regarding gender, women misreport less, especially as sellers, and offer higher prices. (shrink)
Stephen Yablo has argued for metaontological antirealism: he believes that the sentences claiming or denying the existence of numbers (or other abstract entities or mereological sums) are inapt for truth valuation, because the reference failure of a numerical singular term (or a singular term for an abstract entity or a mereological sum) would not produce a truth value gap in any sentence containing that term. At the same time, Yablo believes that nothing similar applies to singular terms that aim to (...) refer to an entity whose existence or non-existence is a factual matter, e.g. ‘the king of France’: the failure of the presupposition that there is a unique French king makes some sentences with the term ‘the king of France’, in particular “The king of France is bald”, gappy. In this paper I will show that the sentence “The king of France is bald” must be false, and not gappy, according to Yablo’s own criteria and that, furthermore, the presupposition that the term ‘the king of France’ refers presents a fail-safe mechanism in the same way Yablo thinks abstract presuppositions do—this undermines his argument for metaontological antirealism. (shrink)
We prove the following theorems: (1) If X has strong measure zero and if Y has strong first category, then their algebraic sum has property s 0 . (2) If X has Hurewicz's covering property, then it has strong measure zero if, and only if, its algebraic sum with any first category set is a first category set. (3) If X has strong measure zero and Hurewicz's covering property then its algebraic sum with any set in APC ' is a (...) set in APC '. (APC ' is included in the class of sets always of first category, and includes the class of strong first category sets.) These results extend: Fremlin and Miller's theorem that strong measure zero sets having Hurewicz's property have Rothberger's property, Galvin and Miller's theorem that the algebraic sum of a set with the γ-property and of a first category set is a first category set, and Bartoszynski and Judah's characterization of SR M -sets. They also characterize the property (*) introduced by Gerlits and Nagy in terms of older concepts. (shrink)
It is commonly believed that our episodic memory teaches us about the reality of personal identity over time. Derek Parfitt’s notion of quasi-memory challenges this belief. According to Parfit, q-memories provide us with knowledge of past experiences in the same way that memory does, without presupposing that the rememberer and the experiencer are the same person. Various aspects of Parfit’s theory have met with criticism from scholars such as D. Wiggins, J. McDowell, M. Schechtman, and others. In this paper, I (...) will focus primarily on the holistic argument that q-memories cannot be squared with the complex nature of mental life. This is a well-known argument and, when understood as criticism of memory-trace copying, is accepted by some q-memory proponents. In this paper, I will try to show why it is impossible to defend quasi-memory, even when wholesale psychological continuity applies, and why post-fission persons are not genuine cases of q-memories. (shrink)
As testing of ChatGPT has shown, this form of artificial intelligence has the potential to develop, which requires improving its software and other hardware that allows it to learn, i.e., to acquire and use new knowledge, to contact its developers with suggestions for improvement, or to reprogram itself without their participation. Как показало тестирование ChatGPT, эта форма искусственного интеллекта имеет потенциал развития, для чего необходимо усовершенствовать её программное и прочее техническое обеспечение, позволяющее ей учиться, т.е. приобретать и использовать новые знания, (...) обращаться к её разработчикам с предложениями по усовершенствованию, или производить самопрограммирование без их участия. (shrink)
Let μ be a universal lower enumerable semi-measure . Any computable upper bound for μ can be effectively separated from zero with a constant . Computable positive lower bounds for μ can be nontrivial and allow one to construct natural examples of hypersimple sets.
This article aims to contribute to the theoretical discussion about the rule of law and about its definition by looking at situations where the rule of law is put to the test - states of emergency. States of emergency and laws of exception have specific characteristics, one fundamental characteristic being that legislative power is shifted to the executive - in other words, democracies become less democratic. By analysing the principle of the rule of law in conjunction with the nature of (...) emergencies and the structure of states of emergency, their interconnection will become more transparent. It will logically demonstrate that rules regarding states of exception concern only liberal democracies and that the rule of law has to continue its rule also within times of crisis. I will argue that there is no democracy without a conception of the rule of law. The rule of law only works in democracies and is therefore inapplicable to authoritarian regimes. Having established that, this article adds to the legal-theoretical understanding of the rules of emergency powers by elaborating them on the basis of the concepts democracy, rule of law and separation of powers. (shrink)