Results for 'Andreea S. Calude'

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  1.  18
    Testing the Boundaries of the Middle Voice: Observations From English and Romanian.Andreea S. Calude - 2017 - Cognitive Linguistics 28 (4):599-629.
    Journal Name: Cognitive Linguistics Issue: Ahead of print.
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  2.  52
    Linguistic Evidence Supports Date for Homeric Epics.Eric Lewin Altschuler, Andreea S. Calude, Andrew Meade & Mark Pagel - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (5):417-420.
    The Homeric epics are among the greatest masterpieces of literature, but when they were produced is not known with certainty. Here we apply evolutionary-linguistic phylogenetic statistical methods to differences in Homeric, Modern Greek and ancient Hittite vocabulary items to estimate a date of approximately 710–760 BCE for these great works. Our analysis compared a common set of vocabulary items among the three pairs of languages, recording for each item whether the words in the two languages were cognate – derived from (...)
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  3.  11
    Jeffrey Shallit and Ming-Wei Wang. Automatic Complexity of Strings. Journal of Automata, Languages and Combinatorics, Vol. 6 , Pp. 537–554. - Cristian S. Calude, Kai Salomaa and Tania K. Roblot. Finite-State Complexity and Randomness. Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 412 , No. 41, Pp. 5668–5677. - Cristian S. Calude, Kai Salomaa and Tania K. Roblot. State-Size Hierarchy for Finite-State Complexity. International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, Vol. 23 , No. 1, Pp. 37–50. [REVIEW]Mia Minnes - 2012 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):579-580.
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  4.  2
    Yesterday's Self: Nostalgia and the Immigrant Identity.Andreea Deciu Ritivoi - 2002 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In Yesterday's Self, Andreea Ritivoi explores the philosophical and historical dimensions of nostalgia in the lives of immigrants, forging a connection between current trends in the philosophy of identity and intercultural studies. The book considers such questions as, Does attachment to one's native culture preclude or merely influence adaptation into a new culture? Do we fashion our identity in interdependence with others, or do we shape it in a non-contingent frame? Is it possible to assimilate in an unfamiliar world (...)
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  5.  7
    A Genius's Story: Two Books on Gödel.Cristian S. Calude - 1997 - Complexity 3 (2):11-15.
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  6. WHAT IS. . . A Halting Probability?Cristian S. Calude - 2010 - Notices of the AMS 57:236-237.
    Turing’s famous 1936 paper “On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem” defines a computable real number and uses Cantor’s diagonal argument to exhibit an uncomputable real. Roughly speaking, a computable real is one that one can calculate digit by digit, that there is an algorithm for approximating as closely as one may wish. All the reals one normally encounters in analysis are computable, like π, √2 and e. But they are much scarcer than the uncomputable reals because, as (...)
     
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  7. Randomness Everywhere.C. S. Calude & G. J. Chaitin - 1999 - Nature 400:319-320.
    In a famous lecture in 1900, David Hilbert listed 23 difficult problems he felt deserved the attention of mathematicians in the coming century. His conviction of the solvability of every mathematical problem was a powerful incentive to future generations: ``Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen.'' (We must know. We will know.) Some of these problems were solved quickly, others might never be completed, but all have influenced mathematics. Later, Hilbert highlighted the need to clarify the methods of mathematical reasoning, using (...)
     
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  8.  10
    Calude, C., Calude, E. And Khoussainov, B., Deterministic.S. Fuchino, S. Shelah, L. Soukup, M. Gitik, C. Merimovich, R. Laver, S. Riis, P. Sewell, S. Soloviev & O. Spinas - 1997 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 90 (1-3):277.
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  9. Computing with Cells and Atoms in a Nutshell.Cristian S. Calude & Gheorghe Păun - 2000 - Complexity 6 (1):38-48.
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  10. Real Numbers: From Computable to Random.Cristian S. Calude - 2001 - Studia Philosophica 1.
    A real is computable if it is the limit of a computable, increasing, computably converging sequence of rational...
     
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  11.  17
    Interaction with a Therapy Dog Enhances the Effects of Social Story Method in Autistic Children.Andreea A. Grigore & Alina S. Rusu - 2014 - Society and Animals 22 (3):241-261.
    This study explored the effects of a combination between two methods that have proved to enhance the social abilities of autistic children—Social Story and Animal Assisted Therapy. The main hypothesis of this investigation was that a naturally enriched social environment improves the effectiveness of Social Story method. Two social skills were targeted: the ability to greet a social partner and the ability to introduce oneself to a social partner, by using a standard single-subject research design. Three preschool autistic children were (...)
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  12. Husserl’s Struggle with Mental Images: Imaging and Imagining Reconsidered.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2013 - Continental Philosophy Review 46 (3):371-394.
    Husserl’s extensive analyses of image consciousness (Bildbewusstsein) and of the imagination (Phantasie) offer insightful and detailed structural explications. However, despite this careful work, Husserl’s discussions fail to overcome the need to rely on a most problematic concept: mental images. The epistemological conundrums triggered by the conceptual framework of mental images are well known—we have only to remember the questions regarding knowledge acquisition that plagued British empiricism. Beyond these problems, however, a plethora of important questions arise from claiming that mental images (...)
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  13.  43
    Husserl’s Break From Brentano Reconsidered: Abstraction and the Structure of Consciousness.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (3):395-426.
    The paper contends that abstraction lies at the core of the philosophical and methodological rupture that occurred between Husserl and his mentor Franz Brentano. To accomplish this, it explores the notion of abstraction at work in these two thinkers’ methodological discussions through their respective claims regarding the structure of consciousness, and shows that how Husserl and Brentano analyze the structure of consciousness conditions and strictly delineates the nature and reach of their methods of inquiry. The paper pays close attention to (...)
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  14.  5
    Descartes’s Ethics: Generosity in the Flesh.Andreea Mihali - 2022 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (1):51-95.
    This paper focuses on the emotional make-up of Descartes’s generous person. Described as having complete control over the passions, the generous person is not passion-free; she feels compassion for those in need but unable to bear their misfortunes with fortitude, hates vice, takes satisfaction in her own virtue, etc. To bring to light the coherence of the generous person’s emotional configuration, a compare and contrast analysis with Descartes’s deficient moral type, the abject person, is provided. Real life as well as (...)
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  15.  1
    Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 4th International Conference, Dmtcs 2003, Dijon, France, July 2003, Proceedings. [REVIEW]Cristian Calude, M. J. Dinneen & Vincent Vajnovszki - 2003 - Springer Verlag.
    The fourthDiscrete Mathematics andTheoreticalComputer Science Conference was jointly organized by the Centre for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science of the University of Auckland and the University of Bourgogne in Dijon, France, and took place in Dijon from 7 to12 July2003.Thepreviousconferenceswereheld inAuckland,NewZealand and Constan ̧ ta, Romania. The?ve invited speakers of the conference were: G.J. Chaitin, C. Ding, S. Istrail, M. Margenstein, and T. Walsh. The Programme Committee, consisting of V. Berthe, S. Boza- lidis,C.S.Calude,V.E.Cazanescu, F. Cucker, M. Deza, J. (...)
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  16.  32
    Auguste Comte and J. S. Mill on Physical Causes: The Case of Joseph Fourier’s Analytical Theory of Heat.Andreea Eșanu - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):275-295.
  17. Incompleteness, Complexity, Randomness and Beyond.Cristian S. Calude - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (4):503-517.
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems have the same scientific status as Einstein's principle of relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and Watson and Crick's double helix model of DNA. Our aim is to discuss some new faces of the incompleteness phenomenon unveiled by an information-theoretic approach to randomness and recent developments in quantum computing.
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  18.  4
    Spinoza's Imagination: Rethinking Passivity.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2015 - Idealistic Studies 45 (1):21-39.
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  19.  24
    Spinoza's Imagination in Advance.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - forthcoming - Idealistic Studies.
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  20.  9
    Descartes’s Ethics: Generosity in the Flesh in Advance.Andreea Mihali - forthcoming - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy.
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  21.  21
    Incompleteness and the Halting Problem.Cristian S. Calude - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (5):1159-1169.
    We present an abstract framework in which we give simple proofs for Gödel’s First and Second Incompleteness Theorems and obtain, as consequences, Davis’, Chaitin’s and Kritchman-Raz’s Theorems.
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  22.  8
    On Partial Randomness.Cristian S. Calude, Ludwig Staiger & Sebastiaan A. Terwijn - 2006 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 138 (1):20-30.
    If is a random sequence, then the sequence is clearly not random; however, seems to be “about half random”. L. Staiger [Kolmogorov complexity and Hausdorff dimension, Inform. and Comput. 103 159–194 and A tight upper bound on Kolmogorov complexity and uniformly optimal prediction, Theory Comput. Syst. 31 215–229] and K. Tadaki [A generalisation of Chaitin’s halting probability Ω and halting self-similar sets, Hokkaido Math. J. 31 219–253] have studied the degree of randomness of sequences or reals by measuring their “degree (...)
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  23. On a Theorem of Günter Asser.Cristian S. Calude & Lila Sântean - 1990 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 36 (2):143-147.
    Recently, G. ASSER has obtained two interesting characterizations of the class of unary primitive recursive string-functions over a fixed alphabet as Robinson algebras. Both characterizations use a somewhat artificial string-function, namely the string-function lexicographically associated with the number-theoretical excess-over-a-square function. Our aim is to offer two new and natural Robinson algebras which are equivalent to ASSER’S algebras.
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  24.  10
    Introduction to Unconventional Models of Computation.C. S. Calude & J. L. Casti - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):13-13.
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  25.  12
    Generalisation of Disjunctive Sequences.Cristian S. Calude - 2005 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (2):120.
    The present paper proposes a generalisation of the notion of disjunctive sequence, that is, of an infinite sequence of letters having each finite sequence as a subword. Our aim is to give a reasonable notion of disjunctiveness relative to a given set of sequences F. We show that a definition like “every subword which occurs at infinitely many different positions in sequences in F has to occur infinitely often in the sequence” fulfils properties similar to the original unrelativised notion of (...)
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  26.  52
    Embedding Quantum Universes in Classical Ones.Cristian S. Calude, Peter H. Hertling & Karl Svozil - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (3):349-379.
    Do the partial order and ortholattice operations of a quantum logic correspond to the logical implication and connectives of classical logic? Rephrased, How far might a classical understanding of quantum mechanics be, in principle, possible? A celebrated result of Kochen and Specker answers the above question in the negative. However, this answer is just one among various possible ones, not all negative. It is our aim to discuss the above question in terms of mappings of quantum worlds into classical ones, (...)
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  27.  7
    Computing with Cells and Atoms in a Nutshell.Cristian S. Calude & Gheorghe P.?un - 2000 - Complexity 6 (1):38-48.
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  28. The Deluge of Spurious Correlations in Big Data.Cristian S. Calude & Giuseppe Longo - 2016 - Foundations of Science 22 (3):595-612.
    Very large databases are a major opportunity for science and data analytics is a remarkable new field of investigation in computer science. The effectiveness of these tools is used to support a “philosophy” against the scientific method as developed throughout history. According to this view, computer-discovered correlations should replace understanding and guide prediction and action. Consequently, there will be no need to give scientific meaning to phenomena, by proposing, say, causal relations, since regularities in very large databases are enough: “with (...)
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  29.  3
    Silicon, Molecules, or Photons.C. S. Calude & J. L. Casti - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):13.
  30.  13
    Spurious, Emergent Laws in Number Worlds.Cristian S. Calude & Karl Svozil - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):17-0.
    We study some aspects of the emergence of _lógos_ from _xáos_ on a basal model of the universe using methods and techniques from algorithmic information and Ramsey theories. Thereby an intrinsic and unusual mixture of meaningful and spurious, emerging laws surfaces. The spurious, emergent laws abound, they can be found almost everywhere. In accord with the ancient Greek theogony one could say that _lógos_, the Gods and the laws of the universe, originate from “the void,„ or from _xáos_, a picture (...)
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  31.  30
    Comments on Johanna Oksala’s Feminist Experiences. [REVIEW]Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2018 - Continental Philosophy Review 52 (1):125-134.
  32.  31
    Making Sense of Husserl’s Notion of Teleology: Normativity, Reason, Progress and Phenomenology as ‘Critique From Within’.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2017 - Hegel Bulletin 38 (1):104-128.
  33. Phenomenology as Critique: Teleological–Historical Reflection and Husserl’s Transcendental Eidetics.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2016 - Husserl Studies 32 (1):21-46.
    Many have deemed ineluctable the tension between Husserl’s transcendental eidetics and his Crisis method of historical reflection. In this paper, I argue that this tension is an apparent one. I contend that dissolving this tension and showing not only the possibility, but also the necessity of the successful collaboration between these two apparently irreconcilable methods guarantees the very freedom of inquiry Husserl so emphatically stressed. To make this case, I draw from Husserl’s synthetic analyses of type and concept constitution as (...)
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  34.  16
    Modality Matters: Imagination as Consciousness of Possibilities and Husserl’s Transcendental-Historical Eidetics.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2020 - Husserl Studies 36 (3):303-318.
    The paper contends that transcendental phenomenology is a form of radical immanent critique able to explicate the necessary structures of meaning-constitution as well as evaluate our present situation through the historically traditionalized layers of concrete, lived experience. In order to make this case, the paper examines the critical dimension of phenomenology through the lens of one of its core conditions for possibility: the imagination. Building on—yet also departing from—Husserl’s own analyses, the paper contends that the imagination is both self- and (...)
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  35.  1
    Philosophy of Communication Ethics: Alterity and the Other.Brenda Allen, Austin S. Babrow, Isaac E. Catt, Andreea Deciu Ritivoi, Gina Ercolini, Janie Harden Fritz, Pat Gehrke, John Hatch, Gerard A. Hauser, Alain Létourneau, Lisbeth Lipari, Annette Holba, Lester C. Olson & Lindsey M. Rose (eds.) - 2014 - Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
    Philosophy of Communication Ethics is a unique and timely volume that creatively examines communication ethics, philosophy of communication, and "the other.".
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  36.  1
    Children with Autism Social Engagement in Interaction with Nao, an Imitative Robot.Adriana Tapus, Andreea Peca, Amir Aly, Cristina A. Pop, Lavinia Jisa, Sebastian Pintea, Alina S. Rusu & Daniel O. David - 2012 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 13 (3):315-347.
    This paper presents a series of 4 single subject experiments aimed to investigate whether children with autism show more social engagement when interacting with the Nao robot, compared to a human partner in a motor imitation task. The Nao robot imitates gross arm movements of the child in real-time. Different behavioral criteria were analyzed based on the video data of the interaction. The results are mixed and suggest a high variability in reactions to the Nao robot. The results are as (...)
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  37.  37
    Children with Autism Social Engagement in Interaction with Nao, an Imitative Robot: A Series of Single Case Experiments.Adriana Tapus, Andreea Peca, Amir Aly, Cristina Pop, Lavinia Jisa, Sebastian Pintea, Alina S. Rusu & Daniel O. David - 2012 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 13 (3):315-347.
    This paper presents a series of 4 single subject experiments aimed to investigate whether children with autism show more social engagement when interacting with the Nao robot, compared to a human partner in a motor imitation task. The Nao robot imitates gross arm movements of the child in real-time. Different behavioral criteria were analyzed based on the video data of the interaction. The results are mixed and suggest a high variability in reactions to the Nao robot. The results are as (...)
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  38. Children with Autism Social Engagement in Interaction with Nao, an Imitative Robot: A Series of Single Case Experiments.Adriana Tapus, Andreea Peca, Amir Aly, Cristina Pop, Lavinia Jisa, Sebastian Pintea, Alina S. Rusu & Daniel O. David - 2012 - Interaction Studies 13 (3):315-347.
    This paper presents a series of 4 single subject experiments aimed to investigate whether children with autism show more social engagement when interacting with the Nao robot, compared to a human partner in a motor imitation task. The Nao robot imitates gross arm movements of the child in real-time. Different behavioral criteria (i.e. eye gaze, gaze shifting, free initiations and prompted initiations of arm movements, and smile/laughter) were analyzed based on the video data of the interaction. The results are mixed (...)
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  39.  19
    Speaking the Despicable: Blasphemy in Literature.Andreea Tereza Nitisor - 2007 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 6 (16):69-79.
    This article examines the controversial issue of blasphemy in literature from the viewpoint of reception inside and outside the academia. The thesis of the article is that blasphemy in literature, though inherently related to religion and language, has a plurality of connotations and interpretations (dissidence, intertextuality, critique of colonialism, discursive strategy, alterity/Otherness, ethnicity, subversive text). Consequently, blasphemy in literature is an incentive for fruitful discussions regarding tolerance, freedom of expression, and the re-situation of the (post)modern self in today’s world, dominated (...)
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  40. Echoes of the Eugenic Movement From Interwar Romania in Communist Pronatalist Practices.Andreea Poenaru - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (4):411-419.
    The present article dwells on the idea of the empowerment of women as it was used by the Communist regime. Eugenics, a field much discussed in inter-war Romania, was the main tool in controlling women. The principles of this science, related to the idea of biology as destiny, were adopted and applied so that the private sphere became public. My thesis is that even if these principles were used in the communist strategy in order to strengthen the nation, in fact, (...)
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  41.  4
    Test Case Prioritization—ANT Algorithm With Faults Severity.Andreea Vescan, Camelia-M. Pintea & Petrică C. Pop - 2022 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 30 (2):277-288.
    Regression testing is applied whenever a code changes, ensuring that the modifications fixed the fault and no other faults are introduced. Due to a large number of test cases to be run, test case prioritization is one of the strategies that allows to run the test cases with the highest fault rate first. The aim of the paper is to present an optimized test case prioritization method inspired by ant colony optimization, test case prioritization–ANT. The criteria used by the optimization (...)
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  42.  44
    Imagination and Its Critical Dimension – Lived Possibilities and An Other Kind of Otherwise.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2019 - New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 2 (XVII):ch. 14.
    Following Husserl’s analyses of perception and imagination, the paper introduces two basic modes of intelligibility – the normalizing and the imagining – and argues that they are deeply intertwined, despite radical qualitative differences between them. What sets these two modes apart are their distinctive teleological orientations. To show this, the paper looks closely at the ways in which we experience difference in these respective modes. This discussion requires, however, that we challenge Husserl’s own framework for analyzing the imagination, which emerges (...)
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  43.  39
    Textual Anastomosis: About the Vanishing Body and the Resurrection of a Character. A Transversal Reading of Black Water (1992) and Mudwoman (2012) by Joyce Carol Oates.Andreea Pop - 2016 - Human and Social Studies 5 (3):77-92.
    In 1992, the much acclaimed prolific American writer Joyce Carol Oates publishes Black Water – a very harsh and condensed literary reenactment of a gruesome event having taken place more than twenty years before and known as the “Chappaquiddick incident”. Another twenty years later, through her 2012 novel Mudwoman, the author seems to revisit the topic that had haunted her for decades. This paper aims at establishing a certain narrative pattern connecting the two novels not only thematically, but also phantasmatically: (...)
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  44. Phantasie and Phenomenological Inquiry - Thinking with Edmund Husserl.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2012 - Dissertation,
    This dissertation explores and argues for the import of the imagination (Phantasie) in Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method of inquiry. It contends that Husserl's extensive analyses of the imagination influenced how he came to conceive the phenomenological method throughout the main stages of his philosophical career. The work clarifies Husserl's complex method of investigation by considering the role of the imagination in his main methodological apparatuses: the phenomenological, eidetic, and transcendental reductions, and eidetic variation - all of which remained ambiguous despite (...)
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  45. Kurt Smith, The Descartes Dictionary. Reviewed By.Andreea Mihali - 2015 - Philosophy in Review 35 (4):225-227.
    Smith’s Descartes Dictionary is geared specifically for undergraduate students and contains an Introduction, a Terms and Names section and a Bibliography. It is a good resource for students coming to Descartes’ writings for the first time and has the potential of being an even better pedagogical and study aid once its wrinkles are smoothened out, maybe in a second edition.
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  46. Noa Naaman-Zauderer , Descartes' Deontological Turn: Reason, Will and Virtue in the Later Writings . Reviewed By.Andreea Mihali - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (5):375-378.
    Noa Naaman-Zauderer’s book aims to bring to light the ethical underpinnings of Descartes’ system: on her view, in both the practical and the theoretical spheres Descartes takes our foremost duty to lie in the good use of the will.The marked ethical import of Cartesian epistemology takes the form of a deontological, non-consequentialist view of error: epistemic agents are praised/blamed when they fulfill/flout the duty to not assent to ideas that are less than clear and distinct.Extra-theoretical realms admitting of no clear (...)
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  47.  14
    Sum Res Volans: The Centrality of Willing for Descartes.Andreea Mihali - 2011 - International Philosophical Quarterly 51 (2):149-179.
    This paper challenges the standard interpretation of Descartes’s view that the essence of the mind is thinking. Most commentators take the essence of the mind to be constituted by thoughts as objects of awareness. By contrast, the position defended here is that willing is as much part of the essence of the Cartesian meditating mind as awareness. Willing is not just a type of thought, but whenever thinking occurs it invariably involves both awareness and willing. To substantiate the claim that (...)
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  48.  2
    Interpretation and its Objects.: Studies in the Philosophy of Michael Krausz.Andreea Deciu Ritivoi (ed.) - 2003 - Brill | Rodopi.
    This volume collects twenty-one original essays that discuss Michael Krausz’s distinctive and provocative contribution to the theory of interpretation. At the beginning of the book Krausz offers a synoptic review of his central claims, and he concludes with a substantive essay that replies to scholars from the United States, England, Germany, India, Japan, and Australia. Krausz’s philosophical work centers around a distinction that divides interpreters of cultural achievements into two groups. Singularists assume that for any object of interpretation only one (...)
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  49. The Cambridge Companion to Descartes’ Meditationsdavid Cunning Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014; XVIII + 320 Pp.; $30.95 Isbn: 978-1-107-63048-2. [REVIEW]Andreea Mihali - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):569-571.
    In early 2014, Descartes’ Meditations joined the short but select list of Western Philosophy texts that have an entire Cambridge Companion dedicated to them. (The list includes Hobbes’ Leviathan, Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, Locke’s Essay, Nozick’s Anarchy, State and Utopia, Darwin’s The Origin of Species, Plato’s Republic, and Spinoza’s Ethics. Hume’s Treatise is also expected to be added to the list before the end of the year.) To set itself apart from the many existing volumes that offer guidance and (...)
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  50. Squaring the Circle in Descartes’ Meditations The Strong Validation of ReasonSTEPHEN I. WAGNER Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014; Xi + 244 Pp.; $99.95 (Hardback) ISBN: 9781107072060. [REVIEW]Andreea Mihali - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (4):799-802.
    In Squaring the Circle in Descartes’ Meditations, Stephen Wagner aims to show that Descartes’ project in the Meditations is best understood as a ‘strong validation of reason’ i.e., as proving in a non-circular way that human reason is a reliable, truth-conducive faculty. For such an enterprise to qualify as a ‘strong’ validation, Wagner contends, skeptical doubt must be given its strongest force. The most stringent doubt available in the Meditations is the deceiving God. To rule out the possibility that an (...)
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