Results for 'Andr�� Ariew'

1000+ found
Order:
  1. Two Ways of Thinking About Fitness and Natural Selection.Mohan Matthen & André Ariew - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 99 (2):55-83.
    How do fitness and natural selection relate to other evolutionary factors like architectural constraint, mode of reproduction, and drift? In one way of thinking, drawn from Newtonian dynamics, fitness is one force driving evolutionary change and added to other factors. In another, drawn from statistical thermodynamics, it is a statistical trend that manifests itself in natural selection histories. It is argued that the first model is incoherent, the second appropriate; a hierarchical realization model is proposed as a basis for a (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   177 citations  
  2. The Trials of Life: Natural Selection and Random Drift.Denis M. Walsh, Andre Ariew & Tim Lewens - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (3):452-473.
    We distinguish dynamical and statistical interpretations of evolutionary theory. We argue that only the statistical interpretation preserves the presumed relation between natural selection and drift. On these grounds we claim that the dynamical conception of evolutionary theory as a theory of forces is mistaken. Selection and drift are not forces. Nor do selection and drift explanations appeal to the (sub-population-level) causes of population level change. Instead they explain by appeal to the statistical structure of populations. We briefly discuss the implications (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   168 citations  
  3. Selection and Causation.Mohan Matthen & André Ariew - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (2):201-224.
    We have argued elsewhere that: (A) Natural selection is not a cause of evolution. (B) A resolution-of-forces (or vector addition) model does not provide us with a proper understanding of how natural selection combines with other evolutionary influences. These propositions have come in for criticism recently, and here we clarify and defend them. We do so within the broad framework of our own “hierarchical realization model” of how evolutionary influences combine.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   59 citations  
  4. Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology.André Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.) - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
  5. Four Pillars of Statisticalism.Denis M. Walsh, André Ariew & Mohan Matthen - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (1):1-18.
    Over the past fifteen years there has been a considerable amount of debate concerning what theoretical population dynamic models tell us about the nature of natural selection and drift. On the causal interpretation, these models describe the causes of population change. On the statistical interpretation, the models of population dynamics models specify statistical parameters that explain, predict, and quantify changes in population structure, without identifying the causes of those changes. Selection and drift are part of a statistical description of population (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  6. Innateness is Canalization: In Defense of a Developmental Account of Innateness.Andre Ariew - 1999 - In Philosophy of Science. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. pp. S19-S27.
    Lorenz proposed in his (1935) articulation of a theory of behavioral instincts that the objective of ethology is to distinguish behaviors that are “innate” from behaviors that are “learned” (or “acquired”). Lorenz’s motive was to open the investigation of certain “adaptive” behaviors to evolutionary theorizing. Accordingly, since innate behaviors are “genetic”, they are open to such investigation. By Lorenz’s light an innate/acquired or learned dichotomy rested on a familiar Darwinian distinction between genes and environments. Ever since Lorenz, ascriptions of innateness (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   55 citations  
  7.  86
    Autonomous-Statistical Explanations and Natural Selection: Figure 1.André Ariew, Collin Rice & Yasha Rohwer - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (3):635-658.
    Shapiro and Sober claim that Walsh, Ariew, Lewens, and Matthen give a mistaken, a priori defense of natural selection and drift as epiphenomenal. Contrary to Shapiro and Sober’s claims, we first argue that WALM’s explanatory doctrine does not require a defense of epiphenomenalism. We then defend WALM’s explanatory doctrine by arguing that the explanations provided by the modern genetical theory of natural selection are ‘autonomous-statistical explanations’ analogous to Galton’s explanation of reversion to mediocrity and an explanation of the diffusion (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  8. The Confusions of Fitness.André Ariew & Richard C. Lewontin - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (2):347-363.
    The central point of this essay is to demonstrate the incommensurability of ‘Darwinian fitness’ with the numeric values associated with reproductive rates used in population genetics. While sometimes both are called ‘fitness’, they are distinct concepts coming from distinct explanatory schemes. Further, we try to outline a possible answer to the following question: from the natural properties of organisms and a knowledge of their environment, can we construct an algorithm for a particular kind of organismic life-history pattern that itself will (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   72 citations  
  9. A Taxonomy of Functions.Denis M. Walsh & André Ariew - 1996 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):493 - 514.
    There are two general approaches to characterising biological functions. One originates with Cummins. According to this approach, the function of a part of a system is just its causal contribution to some specified activity of the system. Call this the ‘C-function’ concept. The other approach ties the function of a trait to some aspect of its evolutionary significance. Call this the ‘E-function’ concept. According to the latter view, a trait's function is determined by the forces of natural selection. The C-function (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   52 citations  
  10. What Fitness Can’T Be.André Ariew & Zachary Ernst - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (3):289-301.
    Recently advocates of the propensity interpretation of fitness have turned critics. To accommodate examples from the population genetics literature they conclude that fitness is better defined broadly as a family of propensities rather than the propensity to contribute descendants to some future generation. We argue that the propensity theorists have misunderstood the deeper ramifications of the examples they cite. These examples demonstrate why there are factors outside of propensities that determine fitness. We go on to argue for the more general (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  11. Ernst Mayr's 'Ultimate/Proximate' Distinction Reconsidered and Reconstructed.André Ariew - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (4):553-565.
    It's been 41 years since the publication of Ernst Mayr's Cause and Effect in Biology wherein Mayr most clearly develops his version of the influential distinction between ultimate and proximate causes in biology. In critically assessing Mayr's essay I uncover false statements and red-herrings about biological explanation. Nevertheless, I argue to uphold an analogue of the ultimate/proximate distinction as it refers to two different kinds of explanations, one dynamical the other statistical.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  12.  29
    Galton, Reversion and the Quincunx: The Rise of Statistical Explanation.André Ariew, Yasha Rohwer & Collin Rice - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 66:63-72.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  13.  53
    Explanatory Schema and the Process of Model Building.Collin Rice, Yasha Rohwer & André Ariew - 2019 - Synthese 196 (11):4735-4757.
    In this paper, we argue that rather than exclusively focusing on trying to determine if an idealized model fits a particular account of scientific explanation, philosophers of science should also work on directly analyzing various explanatory schemas that reveal the steps and justification involved in scientists’ use of highly idealized models to formulate explanations. We develop our alternative methodology by analyzing historically important cases of idealized statistical modeling that use a three-step explanatory schema involving idealization, mathematical operation, and explanatory interpretation.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  14.  6
    The Confusions of Fitness.AndrÉ Ariew - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (2):347-363.
  15. Innateness.Andre Ariew - manuscript
    As Paul Griffiths [2002] puts it, “innateness” is associated with different clusters of related ideas where each cluster depends on different historical, cultural and intellectual contexts. In psychology innateness is typically opposed to learning while the biological opposite of innate is ‘acquired’. ‘Acquired’ and ‘learned’ have different extensions. Learning is one way to acquire a character but there are others. Cuts and scratches are unlearned yet acquired; if we could acquire languages by popping a pill, then languages would be unlearned (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  16. Roger Ariew and Eric Watkins, Eds., Readings in Modern Philosophy. [REVIEW]André Gombay - 2001 - Philosophy in Review 21:157-159.
  17.  13
    Statistical Autonomous Explanations and the Patterns of Nature: A Modified Account.Travis Holmes & Andre Ariew - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Roger Ariew and Eric Watkins, Eds., Readings in Modern Philosophy Reviewed By.André Gombay - 2001 - Philosophy in Review 21 (3):157-159.
  19. Teleology.Andre Ariew - 2007 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    Teleology in biology is making headline news in the United States. Conservative Christians are utilizing a teleological argument for the existence of a supremely intelligent designer to justify legislation calling for the teaching of "intelligent design" (ID) in public schools. Teleological arguments of one form or another have been around since Antiquity. The contemporary argument from intelligent design varies little from William Paley's argument written in 1802. Both argue that nature exhibits too much complexity to be explained by 'mindless' natural (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  20.  11
    Natural Selection Beyond Life? A Workshop Report.Sylvain Charlat, André Ariew, Pierrick Bourrat, María Ferreira Ruiz, Thomas Heams, Philippe Huneman, Sandeep Krishna, Michael Lachmann, Nicolas Lartillot, Louis Le Sergeant D'Hendecourt, Christophe Malaterre, Philippe Nghe, Etienne Rajon, Olivier Rivoire, Matteo Smerlak & Zorana Zeravcic - 2021 - Life 11.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  47
    Are Probabilities Necessary for Evolutionary Explanations?André Ariew - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):245-253.
    Several philosophers of science have advanced an instrumentalist thesis about the use of probabilities in evolutionary biology. I investigate the consequences of instrumentalism on evolutionary explanations. I take issue with Barbara Horan's (1994) argument that probabilities are unnecessary to explain evolutionary change given the underlying deterministic character of evolutionary processes. First, I question Horan's deterministic assumption. Then, I attempt to undermine her Laplacian argument by demonstrating that whether probabilities are necessary depends upon the sort of questions one is asking.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  22. Natural Selection Doesn't Work That Way: Jerry Fodor Vs. Evolutionary Psychology on Gradualism and Saltationism.Andre Ariew - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (5):478-483.
    In Chapter Five of The Mind Doesn’t Work That Way, Jerry Fodor argues that since it is likely that human minds evolved quickly as saltations rather than gradually as the product of an accumulation of small mutations, evolutionary psychologists are wrong to think that human minds are adaptations. I argue that Fodor’s requirement that adaptationism entails gradualism is wrongheaded. So, while evolutionary psychologists may be wrong to endorse gradualism—and I argue that they are wrong—it does not follow that they are (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  23.  65
    Under the Influence of Malthus's Law of Population Growth: Darwin Eschews the Statistical Techniques of Aldolphe Quetelet.Andre Ariew - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (1):1-19.
    In the epigraph, Fisher is blaming two generations of theoretical biologists, from Darwin on, for ignoring Quetelet's statistical techniques and hence harboring confusions about evolution and natural selection. He is right to imply that Darwin and his contemporaries were aware of the core of Quetelet's work. Quetelet's seminal monograph, Sur L'homme, was widely discussed in Darwin's academic circles. We know that Darwin owned a copy (Schweber 1977). More importantly, we have in Darwin's notebooks two entries referring to Quetelet's work on (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  24. Platonic and Aristotelian Roots of Teleological Arguments in Cosmology and Biology.Andre Ariew - manuscript
    AristotleÕs central argument for teleologyÑthough not necessarily his conclusionÑis repeated in the teleological arguments of Isaac Newton, Immanuel Kant, William Paley, and Charles Darwin. To appreciate AristotleÕs argument and its influence I assert, first, that AristotleÕs naturalistic teleology must be distinguished from PlatoÕs anthropomorphic one; second, the form of AristotleÕs arguments for teleology should be read as instances of inferences to the best explanation. On my reading, then, both NewtonÕs and PaleyÕs teleological arguments are Aristotelian while their conclusions are Platonic. (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25. How to Understand Casual Relations in Natural Selection: Reply to Rosenberg and Bouchard. [REVIEW]Mohan Matthen & André Ariew - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):355-364.
    In “Two Ways of Thinking About Fitness and Natural Selection” (Matthen and Ariew [2002]; henceforth “Two Ways”), we asked how one should think of the relationship between the various factors invoked to explain evolutionary change – selection, drift, genetic constraints, and so on. We suggested that these factors are not related to one another as “forces” are in classical mechanics. We think it incoherent, for instance, to think of natural selection and drift as separate and opposed “forces” in evolutionary (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  26. Innateness: A Developmental Account.Andre Ariew - 1997 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    Ascriptions of innateness are ubiquitous in the cognitive, behavioral and biological sciences. For example, some linguists think that humans possess an "innate" language aquisition device. Some ethologists think that a great number of animal behaviors are "innate". Implicit in these ascriptions is the belief that innateness is a well-understood biological phenomenon. The question I would like to address in this dissertation is, what makes a morphological, physiological or behavioral feature "innate"? ;According to some nay-sayers, innateness is not well-defined in biology (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. As a Metaphysical Thesis: Mayr and Sober.Andre Ariew - 2008 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 64.
  28.  4
    The Probabilistic Character of Evolutionary Explanations.André Ariew - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):245-253.
    Several philosophers of science have advanced an instrumentalist thesis about the use of probabilities in evolutionary biology. I investigate the consequences of instrumentalism on evolutionary explanations. I take issue with Barbara Horan's argument that probabilities are unnecessary to explain evolutionary change given the underlying deterministic character of evolutionary processes. First, I question Horan's deterministic assumption. Then, I attempt to undermine her Laplacian argument by demonstrating that whether probabilities are necessary depends upon the sort of questions one is asking.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  29.  20
    Richard Lewontin as Elvis Costello?Andre Ariew - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (4):707-712.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30. Matthen and Ariew’s Obituary for Fitness: Reports of its Death Have Been Greatly Exaggerated. [REVIEW]Alexander Rosenberg & Frederic Bouchard - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):343-353.
    Philosophers of biology have been absorbed by the problem of defining evolutionary fitness since Darwin made it central to biological explanation. The apparent problem is obvious. Define fitness as some biologists implicitly do, in terms of actual survival and reproduction, and the principle of natural selection turns into an empty tautology: those organisms which survive and reproduce in larger numbers, survive and reproduce in larger numbers. Accordingly, many writers have sought to provide a definition for ‘fitness’ which avoid this outcome. (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  31. We Would Like to Thank the Following for Contributing to the Journal as Reviewers This Past Year: Rebecca Abraham Fred Adams.Ken Aizawa, Anna Alexandrova, Sophie Allen, Michael Anderson, Holly Anderson, Kristin Andrews, Andre Ariew, Edward Averill & Andrew R. Bailey - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):859-860.
  32. We Would Like to Thank the Following for Contributing to the Journal as Reviewers This Past Year: Fred Adams Jonathan Adler.Kenneth Aizawa, Liliana Albertazzi, Keith Allen, Sarah Allred, Marc Alspector-Kelly, Kristin Andrews, André Ariew, Valtteri Arstila, Anthony Atkinson & Edward Averill - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (6):817-818.
  33.  39
    Relativizing Innateness: Innateness as the Insensitivity of the Appearance of a Trait with Respect to Specified Environmental Variation.Elizabeth O’Neill - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (2):211-225.
    I object to eliminativism about innateness and André Ariew’s identification of innateness with canalization, and I propose a new treatment of innateness. I first argue that the concept of innateness is serving a valuable function in a diverse set of research contexts, and in these contexts, claims about innateness are best understood as claims about the insensitivity of the appearance of a trait to certain variations in the environment. I then argue that innateness claims, like claims about canalization, should (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  34.  29
    Philosophers on Function. [REVIEW]Arno Wouters - 2003 - Acta Biotheoretica 51 (3):223-235.
    Review of André Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.) *Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology* (2002).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  35. How Do Natural Selection and Random Drift Interact?Marshall Abrams - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):666-679.
    One controversy about the existence of so called evolutionary forces such as natural selection and random genetic drift concerns the sense in which such “forces” can be said to interact. In this paper I explain how natural selection and random drift can interact. In particular, I show how population-level probabilities can be derived from individual-level probabilities, and explain the sense in which natural selection and drift are embodied in these population-level probabilities. I argue that whatever causal character the individual-level probabilities (...)
    Direct download (14 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  36.  12
    Regression Explanation and Statistical Autonomy.Joeri Witteveen - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (5):1-20.
    The phenomenon of regression toward the mean is notoriously liable to be overlooked or misunderstood; regression fallacies are easy to commit. But even when regression phenomena are duly recognized, it remains perplexing how they can feature in explanations. This article develops a philosophical account of regression explanations as “statistically autonomous” explanations that cannot be deepened by adducing details about causal histories, even if the explananda as such are embedded in the causal structure of the world. That regression explanations have statistical (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  37. André Mercier, Physicien Et Métaphysicien.André Mercier, Maja Svilar & A. Held - 1983 - Institut des Sciences Exactes de l'Université de Berne.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. André Lalande Par Lui-Mê,E.André Lalande - 1967 - J. Vrin.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Ideas and Identities: A Festschrift for Andre Liebich.André Liebich, Jaci Eisenberg & Davide Rodogno (eds.) - 2014 - Peter Lang.
    This volume gathers contributions at the intersection of history and politics. The essays, covering such topics as diverse as Italian identity in the Tientsin concession, international refugee policies in the interwar period and after, and the myths and realities of the Ukranian-Russian encounter in independent Ukraine, show that history provides better grounding as well as a more suitable paradigm for the study of politics than economics or other hard sciences. All of the contributors have a common link - doctoral work (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  27
    André Berger, de la Théorie Astronomique au Réchauffement Global Et au Développement Durable.André Berger, Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu & Claude Millier - 2012 - Natures Sciences Sociétés 20 (3):343-352.
    No categories
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  35
    PADOUX, André, Vac, the Concept of the Word in Selected Hindu TantrasPADOUX, André, Vac, the Concept of the Word in Selected Hindu Tantras.André Couture - 1993 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 49 (1):168-169.
  42.  29
    Does Ontology Rest on a Mistake?: Andre Gallois.Andre Gallois - 1998 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 72 (1):263-283.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  43.  18
    Arturo Andrés Roig: Metodología y Filosofía del Pensamiento latinoamericano.Andrés C. G. Pérez Javaloyes - 2014 - Estudios de Filosofía Práctica E Historia de Las Ideas 16 (2):120-123.
    No categories
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. An Interview with Pierre-André Taguieff.Pierre-André Taguieff - 1993 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 98 (winter/spring).
  45. Descartes' Philosophy Interpreted According to the Order of Reasons.Martial Guéroult, Roger Ariew & Alan Donagan - 1984
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  46.  17
    Lettre de M. André cresson.André Cresson - 1945 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 50 (1/2):5 - 7.
    No categories
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  2
    The Immaterial: Knowledge, Value and Capital.André Gorz - 2010 - Seagull Books.
    In _The Immaterial_,_ _French social philosopher André Gorz argues, in his finely-tuned and polemical style, that the economic boom that accelerated in the 1990s and crashed so spectacularly in 2008 was based largely on an immaterial consumption of symbols and ideas, as capitalism tried to overcome the crisis of the formally industrial regime by throwing itself into a new, so-called knowledge economy. In this, the last full-length theoretical work Gorz completed before his death, he argues instead for the creation of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  48.  8
    Mental Conflict: Descartes: André Gombay.André Gombay - 1979 - Philosophy 54 (210):485-500.
    In a famous text Descartes has written this: Whenever the thought of God's supreme power occurs to me, I cannot help feeling that he might easily, if he so wished, make me go wrong even in what I think I see most clearly with my mind's eye. On the other hand, whenever I turn to the matters themselves which I think I perceive very clearly, I am so convinced by them that I burst out: ‘let who will deceive me, he (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  37
    Authors’ Response: The Virtues of Minimalism in Ontology and Epistemology: Michael Esfeld and Dirk-André Deckert: A Minimalist Ontology of the Natural World. New York: Routledge, 2017, 182pp, US$140.00 HB.Michael Esfeld & Dirk-André Deckert - 2018 - Metascience 27 (3):443-451.
    The paper sets out and defends against criticism the claims argued for in the book A minimalist ontology of the natural world.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  95
    Reasonableness, Thy Name is Nature: A Review of John Finnis, Natural Law Natural Rights by Andres Rosler. [REVIEW]Andrés Rosler - 2011 - Jurisprudence 2 (2):529-545.
    Coercion and the State: A review of B Sharon Byrd and Joachim Hruschka, Kant's Doctrine of Right: A Commentary by Helga Varden.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 1000