Results for 'Andersen Line Edslev'

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  1.  55
    Acceptable Gaps in Mathematical Proofs.Line Edslev Andersen - 2020 - Synthese 197 (1):233-247.
    Mathematicians often intentionally leave gaps in their proofs. Based on interviews with mathematicians about their refereeing practices, this paper examines the character of intentional gaps in published proofs. We observe that mathematicians’ refereeing practices limit the number of certain intentional gaps in published proofs. The results provide some new perspectives on the traditional philosophical questions of the nature of proof and of what grounds mathematical knowledge.
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  2. On the Nature and Role of Peer Review in Mathematics.Line Edslev Andersen - 2017 - Accountability in Research 24 (3):177-192.
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  3. Detecting Errors That Result in Retractions.Line Edslev Andersen & K. Brad Wray - 2019 - Social Studies of Science 46 (6):942-954.
    We present a taxonomy of errors in the scientific literature and an account of how the errors are distributed over the categories. We have developed the taxonomy by studying substantial errors in the scientific literature as described in retraction notices published in the journal Science over the past 35 years. We then examine how the sorts of errors that lead to retracted papers can be prevented and detected, considering the perspective of collaborating scientists, journal editors and referees, and readers of (...)
     
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  4.  10
    Rethinking the Value of Author Contribution Statements in Light of How Research Teams Respond to Retractions.Line Edslev Andersen & K. Brad Wray - forthcoming - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology.
    The authorship policies of scientific journals often assume that in order to be able to properly place credit and responsibility for the content of a collaborative paper we should be able to distinguish the contributions of the various individuals involved. Hence, many journals have introduced a requirement for author contribution statements aimed at making it easier to place credit and responsibility on individual scientists. We argue that from a purely descriptive point of view the practices of collaborating scientists are at (...)
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  5.  15
    Mathematicians Writing for Mathematicians.Line Edslev Andersen, Mikkel Willum Johansen & Henrik Kragh Sørensen - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 26):6233-6250.
    We present a case study of how mathematicians write for mathematicians. We have conducted interviews with two research mathematicians, the talented PhD student Adam and his experienced supervisor Thomas, about a research paper they wrote together. Over the course of 2 years, Adam and Thomas revised Adam’s very detailed first draft. At the beginning of this collaboration, Adam was very knowledgeable about the subject of the paper and had good presentational skills but, as a new PhD student, did not yet (...)
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  6.  44
    Reporting the discovery of new chemical elements: working in different worlds, only 25 years apart.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):137-146.
    In his account of scientific revolutions, Thomas Kuhn suggests that after a revolutionary change of theory, it is as if scientists are working in a different world. In this paper, we aim to show that the notion of world change is insightful. We contrast the reporting of the discovery of neon in 1898 with the discovery of hafnium in 1923. The one discovery was made when elements were identified by their atomic weight; the other discovery was made after scientists came (...)
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  7.  7
    Retractions in Science.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2018 - Scientometrics 117 (3):2009-2019.
    Retractions are rare in science, but there is growing concern about the impact retracted papers have. We present data on the retractions in the journal Science, between 1983 and 2017. Each year, approximately 2.6 papers are retracted; that is about 0.34% of the papers published in the journal. 30% of the retracted papers are retracted within 1 year of publication. Some papers are retracted almost 12 years after publication. 51% of the retracted papers are retracted due to honest mistakes. Smaller (...)
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  8.  65
    The Impersistence of Joint Commitments.Line Edslev Andersen & Hanne Andersen - manuscript
    The phenomenon of shared intention has received much attention in the philosophy of mind and action. Margaret Gilbert (1989, 2000c, 2014b) argues that a shared intention to do A consists in a joint commitment to intend to do A. But we need to know more about the nature of joint commitments to know what exactly this implies. While the persistence of joint commitments has received much attention in the literature, their impersistence has received very little attention. In this paper, we (...)
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  9.  1
    Outsiders Enabling Scientific Change: Learning From the Sociohistory of a Mathematical Proof.Line Edslev Andersen - 2017 - Social Epistemology 31 (2):184-191.
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  10.  27
    The Role of Testimony in Mathematics.Line Edslev Andersen, Hanne Andersen & Henrik Kragh Sørensen - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):859-870.
    Mathematicians appear to have quite high standards for when they will rely on testimony. Many mathematicians require that a number of experts testify that they have checked the proof of a result p before they will rely on p in their own proofs without checking the proof of p. We examine why this is. We argue that for each expert who testifies that she has checked the proof of p and found no errors, the likelihood that the proof contains no (...)
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  11. Community Beliefs and Scientific Change: Response to Gilbert.Line Edslev Andersen - 2017 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 6 (10):37-46.
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  12.  18
    Outsiders Enabling Scientific Change: Learning From the Sociohistory of a Mathematical Proof.Line Edslev Andersen - 2017 - Social Epistemology 31 (2):184-191.
    It has been a common belief among scientists, including mathematicians, that young scientists are especially good at bringing about scientific change. A number of studies suggest, however, that older scientists are not more resistant to change than young scientists are. It is nonetheless worth examining why a scientist’s or mathematician’s outsider status – due to age, educational background, or something else – can sometimes be effective in enabling scientific change. This paper focuses on the case of the solving of the (...)
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  13.  2
    The Uneven Space of Scientific Collaboration: Agnieszka Olechnicka, Adam Ploszaj and Dorota Celińska-Janowicz: The Geography of Scientific Collaboration. London and New York: Routledge, 2019, Ix + 226 Pp, £95 HB. [REVIEW]Line Edslev Andersen - 2019 - Metascience 28 (3):459-461.
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  14. Teaching Reader Engagement as an Aspect of Proof.Henrik Kragh Sørensen, Kristian Danielsen & Line Edslev Andersen - 2019 - ZDM 51 (5):835-844.
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  15.  17
    Retractions in Science.Wray K. Brad & Andersen Line Edslev - forthcoming - Scientometrics.
    Retractions are rare in science, but there is growing concern about the impact retracted papers have. We present data on the retractions in the journal Science, between 1983 and 2017. Each year, approximately 2.6 papers are retracted; that is about 0.34% of the papers published in the journal. 30% of the retracted papers are retracted within 1 year of publication. Some papers are retracted almost 12 years after publication. 51% of the retracted papers are retracted due to honest mistakes. Smaller (...)
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  16.  10
    Formalization and Mathematical Practices: John T. Baldwin: Model Theory and the Philosophy of Mathematical Practice: Formalization Without Foundationalism. London: Cambridge University Press, 2018, Xi+352pp, £90 HB. [REVIEW]Line Andersen - 2019 - Metascience 28 (1):81-83.
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  17.  11
    Praxis Development in Relation to Gang Conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark.Line Lerche Mørck, Khaled Hussain, Camilla Møller-Andersen, Tülay Özüpek, Anne-Mette Palm & Ida Hedegaard Vorbeck - 2013 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 14 (2):79-105.
    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner problems’, ‘ghetto problems’, ‘gang conflicts’ and ‘gang war’. Since 2009, activists and professionals related to this field have gathered at Grundtvigs Højskole where they initiated and inspired community building activities in relation to the (...)
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  18.  13
    RECkoning with the Stakes in Overcoming Representation-Hungry Problem Domains.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2021 - Acta Analytica 36 (4):517-532.
    The paper reviews the current state of play around anti-representationalist attempts at countering Clark and Toribio’s representation-hunger thesis. It introduces a distinction between different approaches to Chemero’s Radical embodied cognition thesis in the form of, on the one hand, those pushing a hard line and, on the other, those who are more relaxed about their anti-representationalist commitments. In terms of overcoming Clark and Toribio’s thesis, hardliners seek to avoid any mentioning of mental content in the activity they purport to (...)
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  19.  5
    Mapping Conversations About Land Use: How Modern Farmers Practice Individuality.Steen Brock, Andreas Aagaard Christensen, Line Block Hansen, Morten Graversgaard, Henrik Vejre, Tommy Dalgaard, Kristoffer Piil & Peter Stubkjær Andersen - 2021 - Empedocles European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication 12 (1):5-17.
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  20. A Brief History of Time Consciousness: Historical Precursors to James and Husserl.Holly Andersen & Rick Grush - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):277-307.
    William James’ Principles of Psychology, in which he made famous the ‘specious present’ doctrine of temporal experience, and Edmund Husserl’s Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins, were giant strides in the philosophical investigation of the temporality of experience. However, an important set of precursors to these works has not been adequately investigated. In this article, we undertake this investigation. Beginning with Reid’s essay ‘Memory’ in Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, we trace out a line of development of ideas (...)
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  21. The Development of the ‘Specious Present’ and James’ Views on Temporal Experience.Holly Andersen - 2014 - In Dan Lloyd Valtteri Arstila (ed.), Subjective Time: the philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of temporality. MIT Press. pp. 25-42.
    This chapter examines the philosophical discussion concerning the relationship between time, memory, attention, and consciousness, from Locke through the Scottish Common Sense tradition, in terms of its influence on James' development of the specious present doctrine. The specious present doctrine is the view that the present moment in experience is non punctate, but instead comprises some nonzero amount of time; it contrasts with the mathematical view of the present, in which the divide between past and future is merely a point (...)
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  22.  11
    I Have Got a Personal Non-Identity Problem: On What We Owe Our Future Selves.Didde Boisen Andersen - 2020 - Res Publica 27 (1):129-144.
    The idea that people’s numerical identity may sometimes be discontinuous over time initially appears to provide useful material for defending restrictions on putatively self-harming behaviour in a non-paternalistic manner. According to this line of thinking, sometimes a putatively self-harming act is, in fact, a matter of ‘harm to others’. Yet, in this paper I argue that if we, as we ought to do, take into consideration the non-identity problem, this challenges the notion that the agent at T1 is in (...)
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  23. Kate Bush, The Red Shoes, The Line, the Cross and the Curve and the Uses of Symbolic Transformation.Deborah M. Withers - 2010 - Feminist Theology 19 (1):7-19.
    In Kate Bush’s 1993 album, The Red Shoes, and her film, The Line, the Cross and the Curve, she engages with the symbolism of The Red Shoes fairytale as first depicted in Hans Christian Andersen’s 1845 fairy tale and later developed by the Powell and Pressburger film of the same name. In Bush’s versions of the tale she attempts to find a space of agency for the main female protagonist in a plot structure over-determined by patriarchal narrative and (...)
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  24. The Role of Allostasis in Sense-Making: A Better Fit for Interactivity Than Cybernetic-Enactivism?R. Lowe - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):251-254.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition” by Matthew Isaac Harvey, Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Sune Vork Steffensen. Upshot: In contrasting an interactivity account alternative to variants on the enactive approach, the authors discuss the role of sense-making. They claim that their interactivity perspective, unlike enactive approaches, accounts for a dependency on “non-local” resources characteristic of many organisms. I draw attention to the cybernetic-enactivist perspective on homeostatic sense-making, which may fundamentally fail to explain the operationally (...)
     
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  25.  22
    The Ethical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding Integrity.Noel M. Tichy & Andrew McGill (eds.) - 2003 - Jossey-Bass.
    The Enron debacle, the demise of Arthur Andersen, questionable practices at Tyco, Qwest, WorldCom, and a seemingly endless list of others have pushed public regard for business and business leaders to new lows. The need for smart leaders with vision and integrity has never been greater. Things need to change-- and it will not be easy. We can take a first step toward producing better business leaders by changing some of our own ideas about what it means to "win." (...)
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  26.  35
    Shadow Philosophy: Plato’s Cave and Cinema.Nathan Andersen - 2014 - Routledge.
    Shadow Philosophy: Plato’s Cave and Cinema is an accessible and exciting new contribution to film-philosophy, which shows that to take film seriously is also to engage with the fundamental questions of philosophy. Nathan Andersen brings Stanley Kubrick’s film A Clockwork Orange into philosophical conversation with Plato’s Republic , comparing their contributions to themes such as the nature of experience and meaning, the character of justice, the contrast between appearance and reality, the importance of art, and the impact of images. (...)
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  27.  29
    After Andersen: An Experience of Integrating Ethics Into Undergraduate Accountancy Education. [REVIEW]David Molyneaux - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (4):385 - 398.
    Ethical conduct in practice has been increasingly recognised as vital to the accountancy profession following the collapse of Andersen. The foundational principles underpinning accountancy ethics receive relatively uniform recognition worldwide so that this paper concentrates on exploring how to introduce these concepts into established courses at undergraduate level. Historically, the teaching of accounting techniques has been isolated from the personal assimilation of accountancys ethical values by students. Alternative approaches are considered, of a dedicated capstone ethical course or through more (...)
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  28.  5
    Margaret L. Andersen.Margaret L. Andersen - 2011 - Gender and Society 25 (3):360-363.
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  29.  1
    Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies.Gøsta Esping-Andersen - 1998 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe that the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies takes a second, more sociological and more institutional, look at the driving forces of economic transformation. What, as a result, (...)
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  30.  99
    Joint Acceptance and Scientific Change: A Case Study.Hanne Andersen - 2010 - Episteme 7 (3):248-265.
    Recently, several scholars have argued that scientists can accept scientific claims in a collective process, and that the capacity of scientific groups to form joint acceptances is linked to a functional division of labor between the group members. However, these accounts reveal little about how the cognitive content of the jointly accepted claim is formed, and how group members depend on each other in this process. In this paper, I shall therefore argue that we need to link analyses of joint (...)
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  31.  9
    Seeming Autonomy, Technology and the Uncanny Valley.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):595-603.
    This paper extends Mori’s uncanny valley-hypothesis to include technologies that fail its basic criterion that uncanniness arises when the subject experiences a discrepancy in a machine’s human likeness. In so doing, the paper considers Mori’s hypothesis about the uncanny valley as an instance of what Heidegger calls the ‘challenging revealing’ nature of modern technology. It introduces seeming autonomy and heteronomy as phenomenological categories that ground human being-in-the-world including our experience of things and people. It is suggested that this categorical distinction (...)
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  32.  14
    After Andersen: An Experience of Integrating Ethics Into Undergraduate Accountancy Education.David Molyneaux - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (4):385-398.
    Ethical conduct in practice has been increasingly recognised as vital to the accountancy profession following the collapse of Andersen. The foundational principles underpinning accountancy ethics receive relatively uniform recognition worldwide so that this paper concentrates on exploring how to introduce these concepts into established courses at undergraduate level. Historically, the teaching of accounting techniques has been isolated from the personal assimilation of accountancy's ethical values by students. Alternative approaches are considered, of a dedicated 'capstone' ethical course or through more (...)
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  33.  18
    But Language Too is Material!Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):169-183.
    Language is infused with materiality and should therefore not be considered as an abstract system that is isolated from socio-material reality. Expressions materialise language in social practices, thus providing the necessary basis for languaging activities. For this reason, it makes sense to challenge proponents of orthodox linguistics and others who hold that language can be studied in isolation from its concrete manifestations. By exploring the relation between materiality and linguistic activity, the article extends Malafouris’ Material Engagement Theory while clarifying the (...)
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  34.  11
    Kuhn's Account of Family Resemblances: A Solution to the Problem of Wide-Open Textures.Andersen Hanne - 2000 - Erkenntnis 52 (3):313-337.
    It is a commonly raised argument against the family resemblance account of concepts that, on this account, there is no limit to a concept's extension. An account of family resemblance which attempts to provide a solution to this problem by including both similarity among instances and dissimilarity to non-instances has been developed by the philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Similar solutions have been hinted at in the literature on family resemblance concepts, but the solution has never received a detailed investigation. (...)
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  35. Brug af surveys til lingvistiske undersøgelser. Om: Erik Jørgen Hansen/Bjarne Hjorth Andersen: Et sociologisk værktøj. Introduktion til den kvantitative metode. København: Reitzel 2000. I. [REVIEW]Henning Andersen & Henning Bergenholtz - 2001 - Hermes 27:201-209.
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  36. Fulcrum Microsystems 26775 Malibu Hills Road, Calabasas, CA 91301 [email protected] Fulcrummicro. Com.Andrew Lines - 1999 - Nexus 1995 (4):5.
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  37. Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions and Cognitive Psychology.Xiang Chen, Hanne Andersen & Peter Barker - 1998 - Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):5 – 28.
    In a previous article we have shown that Kuhn's theory of concepts is independently supported by recent research in cognitive psychology. In this paper we propose a cognitive re-reading of Kuhn's cyclical model of scientific revolutions: all of the important features of the model may now be seen as consequences of a more fundamental account of the nature of concepts and their dynamics. We begin by examining incommensurability, the central theme of Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions, according to two different (...)
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  38.  48
    Intervening Into Mechanisms: Prospects and Challenges.Lena Kästner & Lise Marie Andersen - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (11):e12546.
    In contemporary philosophy of science, the consensus view seems to be that scientific explanations describe mechanisms responsible for the phenomena to be explained. Two kinds of explanatory relevance figure in mechanistic accounts of explanation: causal and constitutive. Following prominent accounts, it seems natural to analyze both these relations in terms of systematic interventions into some factor X with respect to another factor Y. However, such interventions are tailored to uncover causal relations only. Construing the constitutive relationship between parts and wholes (...)
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  39.  12
    The Communicative Wheel: Symptom, Signal, and Model in Multimodal Communication.Per Durst-Andersen & Paul Cobley - 2018 - Semiotica 2018 (225):77-102.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2018 Heft: 225 Seiten: 77-102.
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  40.  1
    A Right to Die?: Teachers Guide.David Andersen, Robert Cavalier & Preston Covey - 1996 - Routledge.
    A 96 page guide to the background, program, uses for and contact time needed with the CD-ROM A Right to Die? The Dax Cowart Case . This guide is supplied free with every multi-user copy of the CD-ROM, and will prove invaluable for all those planning to use the program in a classroom setting. This guide is not available to purchase separately.
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  41.  6
    Heideggerian Phenomenology, Practical Ontologies and the Link Between Experience and Practices.Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen - 2019 - Human Studies 42 (4):565-580.
    Postphenomenologists and performativists criticize classical approaches to phenomenology for isolating human subjects from their socio-material relations. The purpose of this essay is to repudiate their criticism by presenting a nuanced account of phenomenology thus making it evident that phenomenological theories have the potential for meshing with the performative idiom of contemporary science and technology studies. However, phenomenology retains an apparent shortcoming in that its proponents typically focus on human–nonhuman relations that arise in localized contexts. For this reason, it seems to (...)
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  42.  6
    Trueing.Holly K. Andersen - forthcoming - In The Pragmatist Challenge: Pragmatist Metaphysics for Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press.
    Even in areas of philosophy of science that don’t involve formal treatments of truth, one’s background view of truth still centrally shapes views on other issues. I offer an informal way to think about truth as trueing, like trueing a bicycle wheel. This holist approach to truth provides a way to discuss knowledge products like models in terms of how well-trued they are to their target. Trueing emphasizes: the process by which models are brought into true; how the idealizations in (...)
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  43. Economic Inequality and the Welfare State.Gøsta Esping-Andersen & John Myles - 2009 - In Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan & Timothy M. Smeeding (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on the welfare state, which includes social protection, health, education and training, housing, and social services, but can also be conceived more broadly to include policies that affect earnings capacity and the structure of the labour market. It discusses the difficulties of capturing the impact of the welfare state on income inequality, given that one does not observe what the distribution would be in the absence of the welfare state or specific aspects of it. Theories of welfare (...)
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  44. Scientific Change.Hanne Andersen & Brian Hepburn - 2013 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific Change How do scientific theories, concepts and methods change over time? Answers to this question have historical parts and philosophical parts. There can be descriptive accounts of the recorded differences over time of particular theories, concepts, and methods—what might be called the shape of scientific change. Many stories of scientific change attempt to give […].
     
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  45.  7
    Scientific Progress. A Study Concerning the Nature of the Relation Between Successive Scientific Theories.Hanne Andersen - 1997 - Erkenntnis 47 (2):265-271.
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  46. Concern for the Other: Perspectives on the Ethics of K. E. Logstrup.Svend Andersen & Kees van Kooten Niekerk (eds.) - 2007 - University of Notre Dame Press.
    The Danish philosopher K. E. Løgstrup is best known in the Anglo-American world for his original work in ethics, primarily in _The Ethical Demand _. Løgstrup continued to write extensively on issues in ethics and phenomenology throughout his life, and extracts from some of his later writings are now also available in translation in _Beyond the Ethical Demand_. In _Concern for the Other: The Ethics of K. E. Løgstrup_, eleven scholars examine the structure, intention, and originality of Løgstrup's ethics as (...)
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  47.  88
    Measuring Ethical Ideology in Business Ethics: A Critical Analysis of the Ethics Position Questionnaire. [REVIEW]Mark A. Davis, Mark G. Andersen & Mary B. Curtis - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (1):35 - 53.
    Individual differences in ethical ideology are believed to play a key role in ethical decision making. Forsyths (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) is designed to measure ethical ideology along two dimensions, relativism and idealism. This study extends the work of Forsyth by examining the construct validity of the EPQ. Confirmatory factor analyses conducted with independent samples indicated three factors – idealism, relativism, and veracity – account for the relationships among EPQ items. In order to provide further evidence of the instruments (...)
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  48. Scientific Method.Brian Hepburn & Hanne Andersen - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Overview and organizing themes 2. Historical Review: Aristotle to Mill 3. Logic of method and critical responses 3.1 Logical constructionism and Operationalism 3.2. H-D as a logic of confirmation 3.3. Popper and falsificationism 3.4 Meta-methodology and the end of method 4. Statistical methods for hypothesis testing 5. Method in Practice 5.1 Creative and exploratory practices 5.2 Computer methods and the ‘third way’ of doing science 6. Discourse on scientific method 6.1 “The scientific method” in science education and as seen (...)
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  49.  50
    Conscience, Recognition, and the Irreducibility of Difference In Hegel’s Conception of Spirit.Nathan Andersen - 2005 - Idealistic Studies 35 (2/3):119-136.
    Hegel’s conception of Spirit does not subordinate difference to sameness, in a way that would make it unusable for a genuinely intersubjective idealism directed to a comprehensive account of the contemporary world. A close analysis of the logic of recognition and the dialectic of conscience in the Phenomenology of Spirit demonstrates that the unity of Spirit emerges in and through conflict, and is forged in the process whereby particular encounters between differently situated individuals reveal and establish the emerging character and (...)
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  50.  15
    Andersen, Kierkegaard – and the Deconstructed Bildungsroman.Joakim Garff & K. Brian Söderquist - 2006 - Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2006 (1):83-99.
    This study asks how Sartre’s version of the dialectic of recognition is present in Kierkegaard’s works. For Sartre, the dialectic begins with an awareness that the other sees me and judges me. I experience this as a threat to my autonomy, and I fight back with a variety of strategies designed to mitigate the effects. Inter-subjective relationships are grounded in conflict from which there is no exit. Similarly, Kierkegaard characterizes the natural, self-centered way of seeing the other as inherently self-centered (...)
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