The present article analyzes the world order in the past, present and future as well as the main factors, foundations and ideas underlying the maintaining and change of the international and global order. The first two sections investigate the evolution of the world order starting from the ancient times up to the late twentieth century. The third section analyzes the origin and decline of the world order based on the American hegemony. The authors reveal the contradictions of the current unipolar (...) world and explain in what way globalization has become more profitable for the developing countries but not for the developed ones. In the paper also explains the strengthening belief that the US leading status will inevitably weaken. In this connection we discuss the alternatives of the American strategy and the possibility of the renaissance of the American leadership. The last section presents a factor analysis which allows stating that the world is shifting toward a new balance of power and is likely to become the world without a leader. The new world order will consist of a number of large blocks, coalitions and countries acting within a framework of rules and mutual responsibility. However, the transition to a new world order will take certain time (about two decades). This period, which we denote as the epoch of new coalitions, will involve a reconfiguration of the World System and bring an increasing turbulence and conflict intensity. (shrink)
In the research investigated the present state, conditions and possibilities on introduction the free circulation of agricultural land in Ukraine, highlighted the main problems of its development, analyzed experience of sale and lease of agricultural land in European countries. It is demonstrated the survey results of shareholders and agricultural producers in the two districts - Bila Tserkva, Kyiv region and Uman, Cherkassy region. The model of the agricultural land market should meet not only economic efficiency and expediency, but also contribute (...) to the sustainable development of rural areas, where the circulation of agricultural land should be preceded by the introduction of fuses and restrictions. In order to prevent landlessness of peasants and the formation of latifundists, the free circulation of land can be implemented in two stages. 1 stage: land inventory, cadaster and land management system, which includes four subsystems: 1) land rights ; 3) land use ; 4) infrastructure development. Second stage of the market opening for state and communal property land. The priorities on purchase to be provided for the local communities, restriction on access the market for the legal entities, foreigners, introduction of other restrictions on the sale of agricultural land, the application the taxes differentiations on land sales, fees, etc. (shrink)
The article compares the functions of religious faith and religious experience as structural components of religious consciousness. Traditionally, in scientific studies, the problem of religious belief and religious experience is viewed separately from the perspective of psychology and philosophy of religion. However, the author of this article, while researching the structure of religious consciousness, noticed that at the present stage of the development of religious traditions, religious faith and religious experience perform rather related functions. This work is devoted to the (...) substantive disclosure of the relevance of this hypothesis. (shrink)
Modern civilization processes are due to production processes. In any management system, the enterprise is its key element. The theoretical definitions of the essence of “production” and “enterprise” concepts in certain aspects do not coincide with the corresponding legal definitions. This clearly illustrates the dynamics of domestic legislation at the stages of the adoption of relevant laws of Ukraine from the “Law on Enterprises” to the Economic Code of Ukraine. Prospects for the integration of domestic enterprises into international production networks (...) are significantly dependent on their ability to move to modern management standards, systematically coordinated with sustainable development processes based on innovatization, focused on the requirements of entry into the information society space. In Ukraine, during the period of state independence, the adoption as a national series of key international standards is implemented. But the unevenness of the evolution of the components of both constant and technological development is also determined. This gives rise to corresponding negative consequences and requires a search for mechanisms by which the characteristics of the harmony of the above components will be determined, on the basis of which it will be possible to effectively manage them in order to bring them to the desired state. (shrink)
It seems to me that what is lacking in all the arguments of the participants, all of which I have listened to with great interest, is an understanding of one truth, and that is, that it is only with major qualifications that one can look at our Soviet history as the continuation of Russian history and ourselves as the continuers of the many- centuries-old tradition of Russian culture. We have all been "sculpted" not by Russian but by Soviet history and (...) Soviet life. And, of course, this also applies to the Russian Orthodox church. (shrink)
The article covers the development of the idea of patriarchal status in 1945-1962 within the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the diaspora, focusing mainly on the third wave of Ukrainian emigration. After the Second World War, about 250,000 Ukrainian refugees found themselves in Western Europe, from where in 1947-1955, they moved to the countries of North and South America, Western Europe and Australia. The growing role of the Church, which continued to play a significant role in their lives after their (...) resettlement to the countries mentioned above, marked the experience of their stay in the DP camps. The DP camps became a place of a closer rapprochement between Ukrainian Greek Catholics and Orthodox Christians, one consequence of which was the appeals of a Ukrainian Greek Catholic bishops with a proposal to create a joint patriarchate with Ukrainian Orthodox, which would be in unity with Rome. On the other hand, the expansion of the geography of the presence of the UGCC and the founding of new metropolises in Canada and the United States brought to the fore the question of the unity of all structural units of this Church at the global level, which, as some believed, could have been secured by the patriarchal institution. Finally, the patriarchate was considered by the post-war Ukrainian emigration as a means of preserving the unity of the diaspora in the face of assimilation and disintegration. Furthermore, in the future, as an institution that could effectively help the Church revive at home after independence. The last aspect of the patriarchal idea had a significant impact on the emergence of the Ukrainian patriarchal movement, and its closeness to the goals set by the third wave of Ukrainian emigration provided that movement with a high level of massiveness and passionate vigorousness for the movement. (shrink)
One of the distinctive features of the Twenty-seventh Congress of the CPSU was the extreme attention devoted to the theoretical and practical problems of perfecting socialism. Guided by Marxist-Leninist theory, the Congress underscored particularly that fidelity to this theory consists not in repeating the classical postulates and conclusions of Marxism, but in its creative development on the basis of accumulated experience. The Political Report of the CPSU Central Committee to the Twenty-seventh Congress contained the following statement by Lenin: "'Our theory (...) is not a dogma but a guide to action.' This is what Marx and Engels always said in justly ridiculing the rote memorization and simple repetition of ‘formulas’ capable in the best of cases of only marking out general tasks, which must undergo modifications in accordance with the concrete economic and political circumstances of every particular phase of the historical process.". (shrink)
The purpose of this article is to shed light on the peculiarities of language functioning in the structure of a person's religious consciousness. The article is an attempt to actualize and rethink some of the scientific methods of contemporary religious discipline in the light of new research in psychology and linguistics. Much has been done along the way. The most notable specialized work of recent years on this topic can be considered "Language and religion" by N.B. Mechkovskaya, which was released (...) in 1998. There are enough works relevant to our topic that should be addressed; in the field of psychology these are the works of Luria, Rubinstein, Leontiev, Vygotsky, Fromm, etc., ethnology and linguistics - Saussure, Levi-Strauss, Potebna, and others. (shrink)
It was shown in  (see also ) that there is a duality between the category of bounded distributive lattices endowed with a join-homomorphism and the category of Priestley spaces endowed with a Priestley relation. In this paper, bounded distributive lattices endowed with a join-homomorphism, are considered as algebras and we characterize the congruences of these algebras in terms of the mentioned duality and certain closed subsets of Priestley spaces. This enable us to characterize the simple and subdirectly irreducible algebras. (...) In particular, Priestley relations enable us to characterize the congruence lattice of the Q-distributive lattices considered in . Moreover, these results give us an effective method to characterize the simple and subdirectly irreducible monadic De Morgan algebras .The duality considered in , was obtained in terms of the range of the quantifiers, and such a duality was enough to obtain the simple and subdirectly irreducible algebras, but not to characterize the congruences. (shrink)
We present an axiomatic framework for nonstandard analysis-the Nonstandard Class Theory which extends von Neumann-Godel-Bernays Set Theory by adding a unary predicate symbol St to the language of NBG means that the class X is standard) and axioms-related to it- analogs of Nelson's idealization, standardization and transfer principles. Those principles are formulated as axioms, rather than axiom schemes, so that NCT is finitely axiomatizable. NCT can be considered as a theory of definable classes of Bounded Set Theory by V. Kanovei (...) and M. Reeken. In many aspects NCT resembles the Alternative Set Theory by P. Vopenka. For example there exist semisets in NCT and it can be proved that a set has a standard finite cardinality iff it does not contain any proper subsemiset. Semisets can be considered as external classes in NCT. Thus the saturation principle can be formalized in NCT. (shrink)
We develop an axiomatic set theory — the Theory of Hyperfinite Sets THS— which is based on the idea of the existence of proper subclasses of large finite sets. We demonstrate how theorems of classical continuous mathematics can be transfered to THS, prove consistency of THS, and present some applications.
The paper considers ontology of queer as interpreted in philosophy, social studies and language. The short history of the analysed concept sheds light on transformations of its semantic structure. Queer is viewed inseparably from gender theory where it gets apparent representation as a queer gender identity. The diffusive and trespassing nature makes queer contrary to stable and traditionally immutable sex/gender dichotomy with the normative male/female components. Queer violation of this long-established standard results in revolutionary shifts in the philosophy of human (...) sex/gender freedom of manifestation and recognition, formation and alteration of social stereotypes, introduction and spread of verbal means serving the lingual signs of queer in general and queer gender identity, in particular. Texts of scholarly, publicist and literary functional styles depict “queer” differently depending on the objectives of each register and the appropriate scope of linguistic tools. (shrink)
Arsen RYCHINSKY is a well-known public figure of the first half of the twentieth century. His work, "Problems of Ukrainian Religious Consciousness," printed in 1933, even with notes, caused dissatisfaction with the Polish authorities that dominated the western Ukrainian lands. Three times A. Richinsky was imprisoned. For the same work, in 1939, a talented ethnologist of religion was imprisoned by Bolshevik authorities.
Evangelical Protestant spirituality, under the influence of the Enlightenment, has assumed a somewhat modernist flavor. As a result, traditional forms of religious symbol and piety were demoted in favor of religious affections, true spirituality was now discerned by means of “heart knowledge,” and the assurance of salvation assumed a place of prominence in the emerging market of spiritual autobiography. This essay explores several ways that a non-monastic, non-modern Protestant tradition, which lives according to a community rule, can contribute to the (...) spiritual formation conversation. I begin by introducing the reader to the Amish narrative and discuss how two theological themes shape their approach to spirituality–-the cross of Christ and the relationship between faith and works, justification and sanctification. Next, I question a common view of Jesus’ ministry as being diametrically opposed to that of the Pharisees and suggest that the Sermon on the Mount deserves to be central to the enterprise of spiritual formation. I conclude this essay by revealing how the Amish put spiritual theology into practice, via a locally constructed Ordnung and while seated around the supper table. (shrink)
We prove that Standardization fails in every nontrivial universe definable in the nonstandard set theory BST, and that a natural characterization of the standard universe is both consistent with and independent of BST. As a consequence we obtain a formulation of nonstandard class theory in the ∈-language.
The article is devoted to the problem of the link between the essential and the accidental in the process of scientific discoveries. The author criticises Karl Popper concept who states that each scientific discovery is entirely “accidental”. The author‟ viewpoint is based on the methodology of dialectical materialism as a whole, the concept of dialectical determinism, current works on the theory of truth and the criterion of truth. The article treats randomness as the form of being and the phenomenon of (...) necessity. The randomness is presented in the act of discovery by a variety of phenomena such as the particular time, the author of the discovery and the specific aspect of the scientific problem determining this discovery. The necessity here has to do with a specific measure reflecting the limits of change for the phenomenal side of scientific discovery, and this is true for other objective and subjective processes. The author argues that revealing the link between the essential and the accidental in scientific discovery is a critical foundation for solving all epistemological problems, the problem of the criterion of the truth in the first place. (shrink)
Abstract According to the cognitive?developmental theory, intellectual development is best understood in terms of age?related changes. This has been found to be a valid theory in the case of mentally subnormal subjects as well, although their development proceeds at a speed and up to a level different from their normal age?mates. The same theory has been applied to moral development and describes it, likewise, as a stage?like progress of moral reasoning with age. The present study tries to answer the following (...) question: Does the moral reasoning of the subjects classified as subnormal change with age so that it can be said to develop? According to the results obtained (dealing with subjects nine?, 11?, 13?, 15? and 17?years?old), the cognitive?developmental hypothesis of moral development is only partially confirmed. Namely, there is a development from the less to the more mature forms of moral reasoning, but the course of that development is not entirely such as the theory assumes. Moreover, moral reasoning of the subjects in this study is more advanced than their intelligence level as expressed by the IQ score. (shrink)
Ukraine for the third time in its history is experiencing a process of national revival, which not only intensified the activities of different faiths, but also raised the question of the place of religion in the life of the nation in general. That rehabilitation of religion, which took place in public opinion during the years of Ukraine's independence, changes in social assessments of its role in spiritual and national revival, Ukrainian state building, as we are, is more likely to be (...) a response to propagation of religious spirituality by the mass media, a kind of illusion of the desired, rather than a reflection of the real processes in church and religious life. (shrink)
It would be no exaggeration to say that our art is presently undergoing a revolutionary stage in its development. The revolutionary renewal that has seized all spheres of life is being ever more forcefully represented in artistic culture as well. That culture is beginning to free itself from bureaucratic regimentation, incompetent pressure from above, inflated authorities, lifeless cliches, and opportunism of the moment. Art is actively seeking its place in perestroika, and is in turn in many respects defining the moral (...) climate of perestroika. Recent works such as Fire [Pozhar] by V. Rasputin, the Sad Detective Story [Pechal'nyi detektiv] by V. Astaf'ev, The Execution Block [Plakha] by Ch. Aitmatov, the paintings of G. Korzhev and V. Sidorov, the sculpture of V. Klykov, etc., are actively working for renewal. (shrink)