Results for 'Ambiguity'

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  1.  26
    Stacy Keltner.Beauvoir'S. Idea Of Ambiguity - 2006 - In Margaret A. Simons (ed.), The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Critical Essays. Indiana University Press.
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  2. Kenneth Maddock.An Ambiguity Analyzed - 1982 - In Ino Rossi (ed.), The Logic of Culture: Advances in Structural Theory and Methods. J.F. Bergin Publishers.
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  3. Introduction: The Hyperreal Theme in 1990s American Cinema Chapter 1. Back to the Future as Baudrillardian Parable Chapter 2. The Alien films and Baudrillard's Phases of Simulation Chapter 3. The Hyperrealization of Arnold Schwarzenegger Chapter 4. Oliver Stone's Hyperreal Period Chapter 5. Bill Clinton Goes to the Movies Chapter 6. Tarantino's Pulp Fiction and Baudrillard's Perfect Crime Chapter 7. Recursive Self-Reflection in The Player Chapter 8. Baudrillard, The Matrix, and the "Real 1999" Chapter 9. Reality. [REVIEW]Television: The Truman Show Chapter 10Recombinant Reality in Jurassic Park Chapter 11. The Brad Versus Tyler in Fight Club Chapter 12. Shakespeare in the Longs Chapter 13. Ambiguous Origins in Star Wars Episode I.: The Phantom Menace Chapter 14. Looking for the Real: Schindler'S. List, Saving Private Ryan & Titanic Chapter 15. That'S. Cryotainment! Postmortem Cinema in the Long S. - 2015 - In Randy Laist (ed.), Cinema of simulation: hyperreal Hollywood in the long 1990s. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing.
     
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  4.  11
    Ultimate ambiguities: investigating death and liminality.Peter Berger & Justin E. A. Kroesen (eds.) - 2016 - New York: Berghahn Books.
    Periods of transition are often symbolically associated with death, making the latter the paradigm of liminality. Yet, many volumes on death in the social sciences and humanities do not specifically address liminality. This book investigates these "ultimate ambiguities," assuming they can pose a threat to social relationships because of the disintegrating forces of death, but they are also crucial periods of creativity, change, and emergent aspects of social and religious life. Contributors explore death and liminality from an interdisciplinary perspective and (...)
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  5. Ambiguous figures and representationalism.Athanasios Raftopoulos - 2011 - Synthese 181 (3):489-514.
    Macpherson (Nous 40(1):82–117, 2006) argues that the square/regular diamond figure threatens representationalism, construed as the theory which holds that the phenomenal character is explained by the nonconceptual content of experience. Her argument is the claim that representationalism is committed to the thesis that differences in the experience of ambiguous figures, the gestalt switch, should be explained by differences in the NCC of perception of these figures. However, with respect to the square/regular diamond and some other ambiguous figure representationalism fails to (...)
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  6.  40
    Ambiguity and Zeugma.Emanuel Viebahn - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (4):749-762.
    In arguing against a supposed ambiguity, philosophers often rely on the zeugma test. In an application of the zeugma test, a supposedly ambiguous expression is placed in a sentence in which several of its supposed meanings are forced together. If the resulting sentence sounds zeugmatic, that is taken as evidence for ambiguity; if it does not sound zeugmatic, that is taken as evidence against ambiguity. The aim of this article is to show that arguments based on the (...)
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  7.  3
    Ambiguity, Ambivalence, and Activism: Data Organizing Inside the Institution.Leah Horgan & Paul Dourish - 2018 - Krisis | Journal for Contemporary Philosophy 38 (1):72-84.
    Investigations of data-centered efforts in advocacy and activism are often cast in terms of a narrative of opposition between grassroots activists working through and with data, and corporations or institutions whose actions data might expose. The boundaries are, however, not so distinct in practice. Indeed, one outcome of successful advocacy efforts for opening big data to the public is that the activists may find themselves drawn into the institutions they critique or view as impediments in order to actualize those efforts (...)
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  8. Is 'Cause' Ambiguous?Phil Corkum - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179:2945-71.
    Causal pluralists hold that that there is not just one determinate kind of causation. Some causal pluralists hold that ‘cause’ is ambiguous among these different kinds. For example, Hall (2004) argues that ‘cause’ is ambiguous between two causal relations, which he labels dependence and production. The view that ‘cause’ is ambiguous, however, wrongly predicts zeugmatic conjunction reduction, and wrongly predicts the behaviour of ellipsis in causal discourse. So ‘cause’ is not ambiguous. If we are to disentangle causal pluralism from the (...)
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  9. Ambiguous Figures and the Content of Experience.Fiona Macpherson - 2006 - Noûs 40 (1):82-117.
    Representationalism is the position that the phenomenal character of an experience is either identical with, or supervenes on, the content of that experience. Many representationalists hold that the relevant content of experience is nonconceptual. I propose a counterexample to this form of representationalism that arises from the phenomenon of Gestalt switching, which occurs when viewing ambiguous figures. First, I argue that one does not need to appeal to the conceptual content of experience or to judgements to account for Gestalt switching. (...)
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  10.  6
    Religious Ambiguity and Religious Diversity.Robert McKim - 2000 - New York: Oxford University Press USA.
    The religious ambiguity of the world has many aspects, one of which is the hiddenness of God. Theists have proposed a number of explanations of God's hiddenness. Some putative explanations contend that the advantages of God's hiddenness outweigh whatever benefits would result if God's existence and nature were clear to us. Goods of mystery that have received a lot of discussion include human moral autonomy and the ability on our part to exercise control over whether we believe in the (...)
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  11.  3
    A history of ambiguity.Anthony Ossa-Richardson - 2019 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Ever since it was first published 1930, William Empson's "Seven Types of Ambiguity" has been perceived as a milestone in literary criticism - far from being an impediment to communication, ambiguity now seemed an index of poetic richness and expressive power. Little, however, has been written on the broader trajectory of Western thought about ambiguity before Empson; as a result, the nature of his innovation has been poorly understood. This book remedies this omission. Starting with classical grammar (...)
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  12.  88
    Religious ambiguity and religious diversity.Robert McKim - 2001 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This study looks at two central religious issues--the religious ambiguity of the world and the diversity of faiths--and probes their implications for religious beliefs. Author Robert McKim offers a self-critical, open, and tentative approach to beliefs about religious matters.
  13.  7
    Navigating the ambiguity of invasiveness: is it warranted? A response to De Marco et al.Nicholas Shane Tito - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (4):236-237.
    Navigating the ambiguity of invasiveness: is it warranted? Authors De Marco and colleagues have presented a new model on the concept of invasiveness, redefining both its technical definition and practical implementation. 1 While the authors raise valid critiques regarding the discrepancy in definitions, I cannot help but wonder about the purpose of redefining terms for which little confusion, if any, exists? This commentary seeks to scrutinise the rationale supporting the new model in the absence of significant clinical confusion and (...)
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  14.  93
    Ambiguity and The Absolute : Nietzsche and Merleau-Ponty on the question of truth.Frank Chouraqui - 2014 - New York: Fordham University Press.
  15. The Ambiguity of 'True' in English, German, and Chinese.Kevin Reuter - forthcoming - Asian Journal of Philosophy.
    Through a series of empirical studies involving native speakers of English, German, and Chinese, this paper reveals that the predicate 'true' is inherently ambiguous in the empirical domain. Truth statements such as "It is true that Tom is at the party" seem to be ambivalent between two readings. On the first reading, the statement means "Reality is such that Tom is at the party". On the second reading, the statement means "According to what X believes, Tom is at the party". (...)
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  16. Ambiguity Attitudes, Framing and Consistency.Alex Voorhoeve, Ken G. Binmore, Arnaldur Stefansson & Lisa Stewart - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (3):313-337.
    We use probability-matching variations on Ellsberg’s single-urn experiment to assess three questions: (1) How sensitive are ambiguity attitudes to changes from a gain to a loss frame? (2) How sensitive are ambiguity attitudes to making ambiguity easier to recognize? (3) What is the relation between subjects’ consistency of choice and the ambiguity attitudes their choices display? Contrary to most other studies, we find that a switch from a gain to a loss frame does not lead to (...)
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  17. Type-Ambiguous Names.Anders J. Schoubye - 2017 - Mind 126 (503):715-767.
    The orthodox view of proper names, Millianism, provides a very simple and elegant explanation of the semantic contribution of referential uses of names–names that occur as bare singulars and as the argument of a predicate. However, one problem for Millianism is that it cannot explain the semantic contribution of predicative uses of names. In recent years, an alternative view, so-called the-predicativism, has become increasingly popular. According to the-predicativists, names are uniformly count nouns. This straightforwardly explains why names can be used (...)
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  18.  4
    Ambiguity and experience: ethics of action in early twentieth-century France.Pietro Terzi - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review.
    This article examines the ethics of ambiguity formulated by existentialist authors in the 1940s, linking it to turn-of-the-century debates on ethics between philosophy and the social sciences. The underlying thesis is that, rather than representing a radical conceptual novelty, the ethical thought of Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, strained between freedom and situation, constitutes a revisiting and updating of philosophical positions from the landscape of the Third Republic. To demonstrate this, the thought of Frédéric Rauh is examined. Indeed, (...)
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  19.  28
    The Ambiguity Dilemma for Imprecise Bayesians.Mantas Radzvilas, William Peden & Francesco De Pretis - forthcoming - The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    How should we make decisions when we do not know the relevant physical probabilities? In these ambiguous situations, we cannot use our knowledge to determine expected utilities or payoffs. The traditional Bayesian answer is that we should create a probability distribution using some mix of subjective intuition and objective constraints. Imprecise Bayesians argue that this approach is inadequate for modelling ambiguity. Instead, they represent doxastic states using credal sets. Generally, insofar as we are more uncertain about the physical probability (...)
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  20. Ambiguity Aversion behind the Veil of Ignorance.H. Orri Stefánsson - 2021 - Synthese 198 (7):6159-6182.
    The veil of ignorance argument was used by John C. Harsanyi to defend Utilitarianism and by John Rawls to defend the absolute priority of the worst off. In a recent paper, Lara Buchak revives the veil of ignorance argument, and uses it to defend an intermediate position between Harsanyi's and Rawls' that she calls Relative Prioritarianism. None of these authors explore the implications of allowing that agent's behind the veil are averse to ambiguity. Allowing for aversion to ambiguity---which (...)
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  21. Ambiguity Tests, Polysemy, and Copredication.David Liebesman & Ofra Magidor - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    A family of familiar linguistic tests purport to help identify when a term is ambiguous. These tests are philosophically important: a familiar philosophical strategy is to claim that some phenomenon is disunified and its accompanying term is ambiguous. The tests have been used to evaluate disunification proposals about causation, pain, and knowledge, among others. -/- These ambiguity tests, however, have come under fire. It has been alleged that the tests fail for polysemy, a common type of ambiguity, and (...)
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  22.  6
    Ambiguity and Precarious Life.Ann V. Murphy - 2012 - In Shannon M. Mussett & William S. Wilkerson (eds.), Beauvoir and Western Thought From Plato to Butler. State University of New York Press. pp. 211.
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  23. The ambiguity aversion literature: A critical assessment.Nabil I. Al-Najjar - 2009 - Economics and Philosophy 25 (3):249-284.
    We provide a critical assessment of the ambiguity aversion literature, which we characterize in terms of the view that Ellsberg choices are rational responses to ambiguity, to be explained by relaxing Savage's Sure-Thing principle and adding an ambiguity-aversion postulate. First, admitting Ellsberg choices as rational leads to behaviour, such as sensitivity to irrelevant sunk cost, or aversion to information, which most economists would consider absurd or irrational. Second, we argue that the mathematical objects referred to as “beliefs” (...)
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  24.  6
    The Ambiguity of Justice: New Perspectives on Paul Ricoeur's Approach to Justice.Geoffrey Dierckxsens (ed.) - 2020 - Boston: Brill.
    _The Ambiguity of Justice_ consists of a collection of essays that address difficulties and potential contradictions in thinking justice by focussing on Ricoeur's theory of justice and on the major thinkers that were influential for it.
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  25.  29
    Inherently Ambiguous: Facial Expressions of Emotions, in Context.Ran R. Hassin, Hillel Aviezer & Shlomo Bentin - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):60-65.
    With a few yet increasing number of exceptions, the cognitive sciences enthusiastically endorsed the idea that there are basic facial expressions of emotions that are created by specific configurations of facial muscles. We review evidence that suggests an inherent role for context in emotion perception. Context does not merely change emotion perception at the edges; it leads to radical categorical changes. The reviewed findings suggest that configurations of facial muscles are inherently ambiguous, and they call for a different approach towards (...)
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  26. The Ambiguity Theory of “Knows”.Mark Satta - 2018 - Acta Analytica 33 (1):69-83.
    The ambiguity theory of “knows” is the view that knows and its cognates have more than one propositional sense—i.e., more than one sense that can properly be used in “knows that” etc. constructions. The ambiguity theory of “know” has received relatively little attention as an account of the truth-conditions for knowledge ascriptions and denials—especially compared to views like classical, moderate invariantism and epistemic contextualism. In this paper, it is argued that the ambiguity theory of knows has an (...)
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  27.  71
    Ambiguous signals, partial beliefs, and propositional content.Rafael Ventura - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2803-2820.
    As the content of propositional attitudes, propositions are usually taken to help explain the behavior of rational agents. However, a closer look at signaling games suggests otherwise: rational agents often acquire partial beliefs, and many of their signals are ambiguous. Signaling games also suggest that it is rational for agents to mix their behavior in response to partial beliefs and ambiguous signals. But as I show in this paper, propositions cannot help explain the mixing behavior of rational agents: to explain (...)
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  28. Ambiguity and vagueness: an overview.Markus Egg - 2019 - In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics - lexical structures and adjectives. Boston: De Gruyter.
     
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  29. Las ambigüedades de la educación.Marco Antonio del Río Rivera - 2018 - In Enrique Fernández García & Daniel A. Pasquier (eds.), Ensayos sobre educación. Santa Cruz de la Sierra: Instituto de Ciencia, Economía, Educación y Salud.
     
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  30. Distinguishing ambiguity from underspecificity.Una Stojnic, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2018 - In Ken Turner & Laurence R. Horn (eds.), Pragmatics, truth and underspecification: towards an atlas of meaning. Boston: Brill.
     
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  31. Ambiguity and Transport: Reflections on the Proem to Parmenides' Poem.Mitchell Miller - 2006 - In David Sedley (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy Xxx: Summer 2006. Oxford University Press.
    A close reading of the poem of Parmenides, with focal attention to the way the proem situates Parmenides' insight in relation to Hesiod and Anaximander and provides the context for the thought of "... is". I identify three pointed ambiguities, in the direction of the journey to the gates of the ways of Night and Day, in the way the gates swing open before the waiting traveler, and in the character of the "chasm" that their opening makes, and I suggest (...)
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  32. Ambiguous figures and representationalism.Nicoletta Orlandi - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):307-323.
    Ambiguous figures pose a problem for representationalists, particularly for representationalists who believe that the content of perceptual experience is non-conceptual (MacPherson in Nous 40(1):82–117, 2006). This is because, in viewing ambiguous figures, subjects have perceptual experiences that differ in phenomenal properties without differing in non-conceptual content. In this paper, I argue that ambiguous figures pose no problem for non-conceptual representationalists. I argue that aspect shifts do not presuppose or require the possession of sophisticated conceptual resources and that, although viewing ambiguous (...)
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  33. Ambiguous Articles: An Essay On The Theory Of Descriptions.Francesco Pupa - 2008 - Dissertation, The Graduate Center, Cuny
    What, from a semantic perspective, is the difference between singular indefinite and definite descriptions? Just over a century ago, Russell provided what has become the standard philosophical response. Descriptions are quantifier phrases, not referring expressions. As such, they differ with respect to the quantities they denote. Indefinite descriptions denote existential quantities; definite descriptions denote uniquely existential quantities. Now around the 1930s and 1940s, some linguists, working independently of philosophers, developed a radically different response. Descriptions, linguists such as Jespersen held, were (...)
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  34.  50
    Ambiguity and Logic.Frederic Schick - 2003 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book Frederic Schick develops his challenge to standard decision theory. He argues that talk of the beliefs and desires of an agent is not sufficient to explain choices. To account for a given choice we need to take into consideration how the agent understands the problem, how he sees in a selective way the options open to him. The author applies his new logic to a host of common human predicaments. Why do people in choice experiments act so (...)
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  35.  19
    Ambiguity vs. Generality: Removal of a Logical Confusion.Lawrence Roberts - 1984 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):295 - 313.
    Ambiguous terms are applicable to different kinds of things, but so are general terms, since a general kind may include various species. Thus a bank may be the side of a river or a certain kind of financial institution, and an animal may be a dog or a cat. Similarly, an ambiguous sentence is true in different kinds of situations, and so is a general sentence in that different specific situations may make the same general sentence true. Thus the sentence, (...)
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  36.  68
    The ambiguity and the exigency: Clarifying 'standard of care' arguments in international research.Alex John London - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (4):379 – 397.
    This paper examines the concept of a 'standard of care' as it has been used in recent arguments over the ethics of international human-subjects research. It argues that this concept is ambiguous along two different axes, with the result that there are at least four possible standard of care arguments that have not always been clearly distinguished. As a result, it has been difficult to assess the implications of opposing standard of care arguments, to recognize important differences in their supporting (...)
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  37. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel McKinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, (...)
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  38.  55
    Ambiguity in Cooperative Signaling.Carlos Santana - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (3):398-422.
    In game-theoretic signaling models, evolution tends to favor perfectly precise signaling systems, but in the natural world communication is almost always imprecise. I argue that standard explanations for this discrepancy are only partially sufficient, and I show that communication is often ambiguous because signal senders take advantage of context sensitivity. As evidence, I make two additions to the signaling model: a cost for more complex signaling strategies and the ability to combine information in signals with independent information. Analysis and simulation (...)
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  39.  36
    The Ambiguity of Being.Andrew Haas - 2015 - In Paul J. Ennis & Tziovanis Georgakis (eds.), Heidegger in the Twenty-First Century. Dordrecht: Springer.
    Each thinker, according to Heidegger, essentially thinks one thought. Plato thinks the idea. Descartes thinks the cogito . Spinoza thinks substance. Nietzsche thinks the will to power. If a thinker does not think a thought, then he or she is not a thinker. He or she may be a scholar or a professor, a producer or a consumer, a fan or a fake, but he or she would not be a thinker. Thus, if Heidegger is a thinker, he essentially thinks (...)
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  40. Descriptions, ambiguity, and representationalist theories of interpretation.Philipp Koralus - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (2):275-290.
    Abstract Theories of descriptions tend to involve commitments about the ambiguity of descriptions. For example, sentences containing descriptions are widely taken to be ambiguous between de re , de dicto , and intermediate interpretations and are sometimes thought to be ambiguous between the former and directly referential interpretations. I provide arguments to suggest that none of these interpretations are due to ambiguities (or indexicality). On the other hand, I argue that descriptions are ambiguous between the above family of interpretations (...)
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  41.  22
    Ambiguity vs. Generality.Lawrence Roberts - 1984 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):295-313.
    Ambiguous terms are applicable to different kinds of things, but so are general terms, since a general kind may include various species. Thus a bank may be the side of a river or a certain kind of financial institution, and an animal may be a dog or a cat. Similarly, an ambiguous sentence is true in different kinds of situations, and so is a general sentence in that different specific situations may make the same general sentence true. Thus the sentence, (...)
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  42. Phonological Ambiguity Detection Outside of Consciousness and Its Defensive Avoidance.Ariane Bazan, Ramesh Kushwaha, E. Samuel Winer, J. Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel & Howard Shevrin - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
    Freud proposes that in unconscious processing, logical connections are also (heavily) based upon phonological similarities. Repressed concerns, for example, would also be expressed by way of phonologic ambiguity. In order to investigate a possible unconscious influence of phonological similarity, 31 participants were submitted to a tachistoscopic subliminal priming experiment, with prime and target presented at 1ms. In the experimental condition, the prime and one of the 2 targets were phonological reversed forms of each other, though graphemically dissimilar (e.g., “nice” (...)
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  43.  91
    Ambiguity and quantification.Ruth M. Kempson & Annabel Cormack - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (2):259 - 309.
    In the opening sections of this paper, we defined ambiguity in terms of distinct sentences (for a single sentence-string) with, in particular, distinct sets of truth conditions for the corresponding negative sentence-string. Lexical vagueness was defined as equivalent to disjunction, for under conditions of the negation of a sentence-string containing such an expression, all the relevant more specific interpretations of the string had also to be negated. Yet in the case of mixed quantification sentences, the strengthened, more specific, interpretations (...)
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  44.  92
    Ambiguity Is Kinda Good Sometimes.Cailin O’Connor - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):110-121.
    In a recent article, Carlos Santana shows that in common interest signaling games when signals are costly and when receivers can observe contextual environmental cues, ambiguous signaling strategies outperform precise ones and can, as a result, evolve. I show that if one assumes a realistic structure on the state space of a common interest signaling game, ambiguous strategies can be explained without appeal to contextual cues. I conclude by arguing that there are multiple types of cases of payoff-beneficial ambiguity, (...)
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  45.  25
    Ambiguity Is Kinda Good Sometimes.Cailin O’Connor - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):110-121.
    In a recent article, Carlos Santana shows that in common interest signaling games when signals are costly and when receivers can observe contextual environmental cues, ambiguous signaling strategies outperform precise ones and can, as a result, evolve. I show that if one assumes a realistic structure on the state space of a common interest signaling game, ambiguous strategies can be explained without appeal to contextual cues. I conclude by arguing that there are multiple types of cases of payoff-beneficial ambiguity, (...)
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  46. Ambiguity and explanation.Jonathan L. Shaheen - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (8):839-866.
    This paper presents evidence that ‘because’ is importantly ambiguous between two closely related senses covering what are usually called causal explanations, on the one hand, and grounding or metaphysical explanations, on the other hand. To this end, it introduces the lexical categories of monosemy, polysemy and homonymy; describes a test for polysemy; and discusses the results of the test when applied to ‘because’. It also shows how to understand so-called hybrid explanations in light of the semantic facts established by the (...)
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  47. The ambiguity of the embryo: Ethical inconsistency in the human embryonic stem cell debate.Katrien Devolder & John Harris - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):153–169.
    We argue in this essay that (1) the embryo is an irredeemably ambiguous entity and its ambiguity casts serious doubt on the arguments claiming its full protection or, at least, its protection against its use as a means fo research, (2) those who claim the embryo should be protected as "one of us" are committed to a position even they do not uphold in their practices, (3) views that defend the protection of the embryo in virtue of its potentiality (...)
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  48.  41
    Eliciting ambiguity aversion in unknown and in compound lotteries: a smooth ambiguity model experimental study.Giuseppe Attanasi, Christian Gollier, Aldo Montesano & Noemi Pace - 2014 - Theory and Decision 77 (4):485-530.
    Coherent-ambiguity aversion is defined within the smooth-ambiguity model as the combination of choice-ambiguity and value-ambiguity aversion. Five ambiguous decision tasks are analyzed theoretically, where an individual faces two-stage lotteries with binomial, uniform, or unknown second-order probabilities. Theoretical predictions are then tested through a 10-task experiment. In tasks 1–5, risk aversion is elicited through both a portfolio choice method and a BDM mechanism. In tasks 6–10, choice-ambiguity aversion is elicited through the portfolio choice method, while value- (...) aversion comes about through the BDM mechanism. The behavior of over 75 % of classified subjects is in line with the KMM model in all tasks 6–10, independent of their degree of risk aversion. Furthermore, the percentage of coherent-ambiguity-averse subjects is lower in the binomial than in the uniform and in the unknown treatments, with only the latter difference being significant. The most part of coherent-ambiguity-loving subjects show a high risk aversion. (shrink)
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  49.  88
    Typical ambiguity: Trying to have your cake and eat it too.Solomon Feferman - manuscript
    Ambiguity is a property of syntactic expressions which is ubiquitous in all informal languages–natural, scientific and mathematical; the efficient use of language depends to an exceptional extent on this feature. Disambiguation is the process of separating out the possible meanings of ambiguous expressions. Ambiguity is typical if the process of disambiguation can be carried out in some systematic way. Russell made use of typical ambiguity in the theory of types in order to combine the assurance of its (...)
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  50. Explaining ambiguity in scientific language.Beckett Sterner - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-27.
    The idea that ambiguity can be productive in data science remains controversial. Efforts to make scientific publications and data intelligible to computers generally assume that accommodating multiple meanings for words, known as polysemy, undermines reasoning and communication. This assumption has nonetheless been contested by historians, philosophers, and social scientists, who have applied qualitative research methods to demonstrate the generative and strategic value of polysemy. Recent quantitative results from linguistics have also shown how polysemy can actually improve the efficiency of (...)
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