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    Facial Expression of Pain: An Evolutionary Account.Amanda C. De C. Williams - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):439-455.
    This paper proposes that human expression of pain in the presence or absence of caregivers, and the detection of pain by observers, arises from evolved propensities. The function of pain is to demand attention and prioritise escape, recovery, and healing; where others can help achieve these goals, effective communication of pain is required. Evidence is reviewed of a distinct and specific facial expression of pain from infancy to old age, consistent across stimuli, and recognizable as pain by observers. Voluntary control (...)
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  2.  6
    Images as Catalysts for Meaning-Making in Medical Pain Encounters: A Multidisciplinary Analysis.Deborah Padfield, Helen Omand, Elena Semino, Amanda C. De C. Williams & Joanna M. Zakrzewska - 2018 - Medical Humanities 44 (2):74-81.
    The challenge for those treating or witnessing pain is to find a way of crossing the chasm of meaning between them and the person living with pain. This paper proposes that images can strengthen agency in the person with pain, particularly but not only in the clinical setting, and can create a shared space within which to negotiate meaning. It draws on multidisciplinary analyses of unique material resulting from two fine art/medical collaborations in London, UK, in which the invisible experience (...)
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  3.  74
    Facial Expression of Pain, Empathy, Evolution, and Social Learning.Amanda C. De C. Williams - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):475-480.
    The experience of pain appears to be associated, from early infancy and across pain stimuli, with a consistent facial expression in humans. A social function is proposed for this: the communication of pain and the need for help to observers, to whom information about danger is of value, and who may provide help within a kin or cooperative relationship. Some commentators have asserted that the evidence is insufficient to account for the consistency of the face, as judged by technical means (...)
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