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  1. Small-Scale Societies Exhibit Fundamental Variation in the Role of Intentions in Moral Judgment.H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Joseph Henrich, Martin Kanovsky, Geoff Kushnick, Anne Pisor, Brooke A. Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden, Wanying Zhao & Stephen Laurence - 2016 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (17):4688–4693.
    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Al- though these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence (...)
     
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  2.  34
    Kinship Intensity and the Use of Mental States in Moral Judgment Across Societies.Cameron M. Curtin, H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Martin Kanovsky, Stephen Laurence, Anne Pisor, Brooke Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden & Joseph Henrich - forthcoming - Evolution and Human Behavior.
    Decades of research conducted in Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, & Democratic (WEIRD) societies have led many scholars to conclude that the use of mental states in moral judgment is a human cognitive universal, perhaps an adaptive strategy for selecting optimal social partners from a large pool of candidates. However, recent work from a more diverse array of societies suggests there may be important variation in how much people rely on mental states, with people in some societies judging accidental harms just (...)
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  3.  20
    Allomaternal Care Among the Hadza of Tanzania.Alyssa N. Crittenden & Frank W. Marlowe - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (3):249-262.
    Cooperative child care among humans, where individuals other than the biological mother (allomothers) provide care, may increase a mother’s fertility and the survivorship of her children. Although the potential benefits to the mother are clear, the motivations for allomothers to provide care are less clear. Here, we evaluate the kin selection allomothering hypothesis using observations on Hadza hunter-gatherers collected in ten camps over 17 months. Our results indicate that related allomothers spend the largest percentage of time holding children. The higher (...)
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  4.  3
    Changes in Juvenile Foraging Behavior Among the Hadza of Tanzania During Early Transition to a Mixed-Subsistence Economy.Trevor R. Pollom, Kristen N. Herlosky, Ibrahim A. Mabulla & Alyssa N. Crittenden - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):123-140.
    The Hadza foragers of Tanzania are currently experiencing a nutritional shift that includes the intensification of domesticated cultigens in the diet. Despite these changes, no study, to date, has examined the possible effects of this transition on the food collection behavior of young foragers. Here we present a cross-sectional study on foraging behavior taken from two time points, 2005 and 2017. We compare the number of days foraged and the type and amount of food collected for young foragers, aged 5–14 (...)
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    Harm Avoidance and Mobility During Middle Childhood and Adolescence Among Hadza Foragers.Alyssa N. Crittenden, Alan Farahani, Kristen N. Herlosky, Trevor R. Pollom, Ibrahim A. Mabulla, Ian T. Ruginski & Elizabeth Cashdan - 2021 - Human Nature 32 (1):150-176.
    Cross-cultural sex differences in mobility and harm avoidance have been widely reported, often emphasizing fitness benefits of long-distance travel for males and high costs for females. Data emerging from adults in small-scale societies, however, are challenging the assumption that female mobility is restricted during reproduction. Such findings warrant further exploration of the ontogeny of mobility. Here, using a combination of machine-learning, mixed-effects linear regression, and GIS mapping, we analyze range size, daily distance traveled, and harm avoidance among Hadza foragers during (...)
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    The Life History of Learning Subsistence Skills among Hadza and BaYaka Foragers from Tanzania and the Republic of Congo.Sheina Lew-Levy, Erik J. Ringen, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Ibrahim A. Mabulla, Tanya Broesch & Michelle A. Kline - 2021 - Human Nature 32 (1):16-47.
    Aspects of human life history and cognition, such as our long childhoods and extensive use of teaching, theoretically evolved to facilitate the acquisition of complex tasks. The present paper empirically examines the relationship between subsistence task difficulty and age of acquisition, rates of teaching, and rates of oblique transmission among Hadza and BaYaka foragers from Tanzania and the Republic of Congo. We further examine cross-cultural variation in how and from whom learning occurred. Learning patterns and community perceptions of task difficulty (...)
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    Ecological and Developmental Perspectives on Social Learning.Helen Elizabeth Davis, Alyssa N. Crittenden & Michelle Scalise Sugiyama - 2021 - Human Nature 32 (1):1-15.
    In this special issue of Human Nature we explore the possible adaptive links between teaching and learning during childhood, and we aim to expand the dialogue on the ways in which the social sciences, and in particular current anthropological research, may better inform our shifting understanding of how these processes vary in different social and ecological environments. Despite the cross-disciplinary trend toward incorporating more behavioral and cognitive data outside of postindustrial state societies, much of the published cross-cultural data is presented (...)
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    In Memoriam.Peter B. Gray, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Coren L. Apicella, Colette Berbesque, Duncan N. E. Stibbard-Hawkes & Brian Wood - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):1-8.
    The ratio of index- and ring-finger lengths is thought to be related to prenatal androgen exposure, and in many, though not all, populations, men have a lower average digit ratio than do women. In many studies an inverse relationship has been observed, among both men and women, between 2D:4D ratio and measures of athletic ability. It has been further suggested that, in hunter-gatherer populations, 2D:4D ratio might also be negatively correlated with hunting ability, itself assumed to be contingent on athleticism. (...)
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    Correction to: Harm Avoidance and Mobility During Middle Childhood and Adolescence among Hadza Foragers.Alyssa N. Crittenden, Alan Farahani, Kristen N. Herlosky, Trevor R. Pollom, Ibrahim A. Mabulla, Ian T. Ruginski & Elizabeth Cashdan - 2021 - Human Nature 32 (1):177-177.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-021-09403-x.
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    An Evolutionary Theory of Music Needs to Care About Developmental Timing.Erin E. Hannon, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Joel S. Snyder & Karli M. Nave - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both target papers cite evidence from infancy and early childhood to support the notion of human musicality as a somewhat static suite of capacities; however, in our view they do not adequately acknowledge the critical role of developmental timing, the acquisition process, or the dynamics of social learning, especially during later periods of development such as middle childhood.
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