Darwin’s insight that species are mutable, and descent, and origin by means of natural selection is one of the most widely acknowledged strategies for the origin of species and their survival in nature. In his famous contribution, however, Darwin also writes that he is convinced that “... Natural Selection has been the main but not exclusive means of modification ” (Darwin in The origin of species. Oxford Univeristy Press, Oxford, p. 7, 1996 ). This research suggests robustness as another fundamental (...) strategy for survival in nature. The paper does not contradict the popular view, which usually sees robustness as a feature making systems fault-tolerant, thereby focusing on the identification of strategies and techniques for making systems robust (i.e., how to achieve robustness). The paper rather extends this view with an interpretation resting on the question—WHY is robustness omnipresent in the world around us? From this point of view, robustness is interpreted as a fundamental mechanism that is in place because of another fundamental feature in nature—the design and use of sub-optimal systems. The paper argues that, in a sense, nature under-specifies systems but compensates for this by providing systems with various degrees of robustness. We believe that this interpretation may lead to fundamentally new design approaches and insights in several fields. (shrink)
Le beau livre de Caroline Schuster-Cordone a fait le pari réussi d’aborder un sujet tout à la fois difficile et novateur, celui des représentations de la vieillesse féminine. L’auteure souligne qu’aucune étude d’ensemble ne lui a été consacrée jusqu’ici et bien peu de travaux ont abordé ce thème, pourtant au cœur des préoccupations de nos sociétés contemporaines. Sa démarche s’inscrit dans une perspective d’histoire du genre appliquée à un vaste corpus d’images, souvent inédites, analysées a...
Pinder, Wilhelm, Kunstgeschichte nach generationen.--Neumann, Friedrich. Die gliederung der deutschen literaturgeschichte.--Wirth, Wilhelm. Die zeitwahrnehmung.--Petsch, Robert. Gedanken über den aufbau des dramas.--Litt, Theodor. Person und sache im philosophischen denken.--Bülow, Friedrich. Johannes Volkelt und die Hegelsche philosophie.--Everth, Erich. Volkelts ästhetische grundgedanken.--Driesch, Hans. Johannes Volkelts erkenntnislehre und metaphysik.--Schingnitz, Werner. Kontemplation als wurzel von philosophie und kunst.--Körte, Alfred. Das schlusskapitel von Xenophons Symposion.--Studniczka, Franz. Ein neues bildnis des Sokrates.
It is necessary to consider medieval Western Neoplatonism as a current of thought inserted in a wide cultural atmosphere where liturgical, theological, aesthetic, and artistic patterns play an important role as elements of a common historical past. In this article the author argues to what extent Neoplatonic concepts (Epiphany, Negative Theology, Theology of Light and Metaphor of Light) derived from Johannes Scotus Eriugena, translator of the Corpus Areopagiticum into latin, relate to the Iconography of Crist-Light or Maiestas domini in a (...) mandorle of light. Writings of various thinkers, paintings from the 12th century and medieval epigraphy are taken as primary sources in order to understand the relationship between Neoplatonism and Iconography in the European Middle Ages. (shrink)
The objective of this article is to contribute to an understanding of Hannah Arendt’s special place in present-day political theory by means of a contrast between her Origins of Totalitarianism and four important political science studies of National Socialism and totalitarianism, three written by authors who shared the status of involuntary emigrant with Arendt, that are offered as constituting the original context of her work. A critical appreciation of the seminal works by Ernst Fraenkel, Franz L. Neumann, Sigmund Neumann, and (...) Carl Joachim Friedrich and Zbigniew Brezinski, with special emphasis on questions of method, opens the way to a reconsideration of the distinctly philosophical character of Arendt’s work, and its shocking challenges to the scientific orientations of political science. (shrink)